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I'hilip  IV.  of  Spain  :   50  reales  struck  at  Segovia.     Arg. 


















IT  is  hoped  that  the  following  pages  may  be  found  to  have 
supplied  an  apparent  deficiency  in  English  numismatic 
literature  by  furnishing  an  introduction  to  the  more  exact 
and  complete  knowledge  of  the  continental  series  of  European 
coins,  and  to  an  approximate  estimate  of  what  a  collection 
of  such  a  nature  embraces  and  represents.  That  a  virtually 
first  attempt  of  this  kind  on  a  comprehensive  scale  will  prove 
more  or  less  imperfect  the  writer  foresees  ;  yet  if  it  is  sensibly 
in  advance  of  all  former  essays  in  the  same  .direction,  it 
cannot  fail  to  be  of  some  appreciable  service. 

It  must  be  interesting  alike  to  the  English  and  American 
student  to  note  how  very  frequent  are  the  points  of  affinity 
and  contact  between  the  coins  of  Great  Britain  and  those 
here  described  ;  and  this  is  particularly  the  case  with  the 
early  productions  of  France,  Spain,  and  the  Low  Countries. 

The  illustrations  which  accompany  the  volume  have 
been  exclusively  selected  from  examples  in  the  possession 
of  the  writer.  In  the  choice  made,  the  aim  has  been  to 
exhibit  as  far  as  possible  typical  specimens  and  coins  recom- 
mended by  their  historical  or  personal  associations. 

viii  The  Coins  of  Europe 

The  writer  feels  it  to  be  an  agreeable  duty  to  express 
his  sincere  acknowledgments  for  assistance  and  kindnesses 
received  to  Lord  Grantley,  Messrs.  Lincoln  and  Son  of 
Oxford  Street,  Mr.  J.  Schulman  of  Amersfoort,  Messrs.  Spink 
and  Son  of  Gracechurch  Street  and  Piccadilly,  and  Mr.  F. 
Whelan  (MM.  Rollin  and  Feuardent). 

October  1893. 



PREFACE      .         .            .            .            .            .            .            .            .  vii 

INTRODUCTION    .            .            .           ..            .            .            .            .  2-66 

General  Interest  of  the  Subject          .....  i 

The  Medal,  Jeton,  and  Token           .....  4 

Magnitude  of  the  Subject  '    .              .             .              .              .              .  6 

Condition  of  Medieval  Europe        '  .             .              .              .              .  9 

The  Feudal  System   .             .             .             .             .             .             .  12 

Order  of  Countries    .......  14-29 

Germany             .             .             .             .             .             .             .  15 

Low  Countries    .              .              .             .              .              .             .  19 

Northern  States               ......  20 

Italy        ........  20 

Sicily       ........  21 

France    ........  22 

Spain      .             ./                        .             .             .             .             .  24 

Portugal              ......  27 

Greece    ........  28 

Mints  and  Currencies              ......  29 

Nomenclature  and  Legends  ......  34 

Notation  of  Value  and  Date  ......  42 

Material  employed  for  Coins               ...  44 

Money  and  Weight :  heavy  Swedish  and  Russian  Coins       .              .  47 

Metrology  and  Alloy              ......  50 

Development  of  Types            .....  57 

Formation  of  Cabinets            .                           .  6 1 

Arrangement  of  the  present  Work     .             .  64 




x  The  Loins  of  Europe 


DESCRIPTIVE  OUTLINE  OF  EUROPEAN  COINAGES  .           .            .          295 

GERMANY     .            .            .          /.            .  .            .            .          295 

Westphalia          .....  .           299 

Rhenish  Provinces           .....  300 

Nassau   .             .                        ..             .  .                                    3O1 

Lippe     ....  301 

Waldeck             .             .                         .  •    .            .    '       301 

Lichtenstein        .....  3O1 

Hesse-Cassel       ....  3°2 

Darmstadt             .             .  3°3 

Homburg              .             .  3°3 

Frankfurt-am-Main        .             .  3°3 

Hochberg           .  3°3 

Baden     ...  3°3 

Baden-Baden      .  3°3 

Durlach  .             .  3°3 

Wurtemburg       .             .             .  3°4 

Bavaria  ...  •           3°5 

The  Palatinate    .  3°7 

Saxony  .             .             .  3°9 

Anhalt    ....  3H 

Schwarzburg       .  3'5 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt             .  3*5 

Reuss     ...  315 

Brunswick           .             .  3J6 

Hanover              .                          .  319 

Oldenburgh         .             .  320 

Holstein              ...  321 

Manse  Towns     .  •                                      321 

Mecklemburgh   .  321 

Pomerania           .  •                        323 

Brandenburgh     .  324 

Prussia    .  32° 

Posen      .  329 

Prussian  Saxony  33° 

Silesia     .  33 1 

AUSTRIA       .            .  332 

Goritz     ...  336 

Istria  and  Carinthia        .  .  33^ 

Carniola              ...  •                                    337 

Moravia               .  ...           337 

Table  of  Contents  xi 


Styria      .                                                                                 .  337 

Bohemia              .             .              ...             .              .             .  338 

Dalmatia             .             .          •,»           .              .              .              .  341 

Hungary  341 

Transylvania       .              .              .             .              .             .              .  344 

SWITZERLAND          .......  346 

POLAND        .           .           .           .           .           .           .           .  352 

Lithuania             .......  353 

Knights  of  Livonia          .             .              ...              .              .  355 

Courland              .......  355 

Cracow  ........  355 

RUSSIA         ........  357 

DANUBIAN  PROVINCES        ......  362 

Wallachia            ....                           .              .  362 

Moldavia             .......  362 

Roumania            .......  362 

Bulgaria.             .             .             .             .              .             .              .  364 

Servia     .             .              .              .              .              .              .              .  365 

Bosnia     ........  366 

LATIN  EMPIRE  OF  THE  CRUSADERS          ....  367 

GREECE         ........  369 

TURKEY  IN  EUROPE  .        .            .            .            .            .  371 

NORTHERN  KINGDOMS        ....  .371 

Denmark  .  .  .  .  .  .  .371 

Sweden  ........  377 

Norway ........  382 

THE  Low  COUNTRIES         ......  383 

I.   Belgium          .....  -383 

Brabant  .......  384 

Loos  and  Rummen         .....  387 

Liege      ...  388 

Limburg              ......  389 

Luxemburgh       ......  389 

Reckheim            ......  390 

Flanders             .             .             .             .             .  391 

Hainault              ......  394 

Artois     .......  395 

xii  The  Coins  of  Europe 


Boulogne        .  '           .             .             .             .  .              .           396 

Saint-Pol        .             .             .                         .  .             -396 

Cambrai         .......  397 

Herstal          .  ...'-398 

Towns  and  Minor  Fiefs          .....  39$ 

Kingdom  of  the  Belgians             .  .                        4O1 

2.   Holland.             ....  4°2 

Counts  of  Holland  .             .             .  4°3 

West  Friesland    .             .  4°4 

Gueldres               ...  4°5 

S'  Heerenberg          .             .             .  4°° 

Utrecht        ...  406 

United  Provinces     ....  4°7 

Towns  in  Holland  .             .  411 

Batavian  Republic  ...  412 

Kingdom  of  Holland            .  412 

the  Netherlands  4!4 

ITALY            ....  4i8 

The  Ostrogoths  .  4' 9 

Lombards    .'             .                           .  419 

Franks         .  42O 

Germans      .             .             •  422 

Republics  and  Principalities             .  423 

Popes                       .  424 

Venice    .  42° 

Savoy     .  432 

Monaco               .  43° 

Florence  or  Tuscany       .  43° 

Other  Italian  Cities  :—  .  44 1 

Bologna       .  442 

Ferrara         .  44 2 

Modena        .  443 

Reggio        .  443 

Mirandola    .             .  443 

Monteferrnto            .  444 

Mantua        .             .  445 

Milan           .             .  44° 

Pesaro          .             .  449 

Rimini          .  45° 

Parma                                                  •             •  45° 



Franco- Italian  Coins 
Italian  Kingdoms,  1805  and  1861 

Naples    .... 

The  Two  Sicilies 
Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem 


Feudal  Coinage  of  France 

Normandy  . 

Aquitaine     . 







Avignon       .... 

Saint-Martin  de  Tours 




Burgundy     . 

Lorraine  and  Bar     .... 

Alsace          .... 

Strasburgh  . 

Valois  ...  . 



Coucy  .... 


Moers          .... 


Turenne       .... 

Encre  ..... 

SPAIN  .... 

Castile  and  Leon,  etc.    . 







xiv  The  Coins  of  E^lrope 


PORTUGAL    .........  517 

The  Colonies      .......  527 

Copper  money    .......  530 

Mints      ....                           ...  531 

Types      .  531 

Countermarks     ....                          ...  532 

Legends .                                                                                ,  533 

Current  series     .......  533 

Rarities  .             .                           .....  534 


Philip  IV.  of  Spain  :  50  reales  struck  at  Segovia.     Arg.     .  .      Frontispiece 

Brunswick :  £  thaler,  palm-tree  type  .  .  .  .  .85 

Cuilemborg :  5  penningen,  1591       ......         95 

Groot  of  Jan  van  Arkel,  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  1341-64  .  .  .96 

Thaler  of  Joseph  von  Steebenburg,  Bishop  of  Eichstadt,  1796         .  .        100 

Groningen :  braspenning,  1593         ......        109 

Schilling  of  Hamburgh,  1763  .  .  .  .  .  .        in 

4-ducat  piece  of  Charles  V. ,  1528    .  .  .  .  .  .113 

Grand-duchy  of  Kief :  denarius,  loth  c.       .  .  .  .  .116 

Double  thaler  of  Brunswick-Llineburg,  1655  .  .  .  .122 

Denier  of  Maguelonne,  13th  c.          .  .  .  .  .  .124 

Mannheimergulden  of  1608  .  .  .  .  .  .  .125 

Mantua:  obolo,  Virgilius  type,  I3th  c.         .....        125 

Mayence :   I  kreutzer,  i8th  c.  ......        127 

3  pfenningen,  1760          .  .  .  .  .127 

Modena  :  80  sesini  in  silver,  1728    .  .  .  .  .  .132 

Munster :  3  pfenningen,  1602  ......        135 

Lorraine  :  silver  teston  of  Antoine,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  1517  .  .        1 36 

pattern  decime  struck  at  Nancy,  1796     .  .  .  .136 

grande  plaque  of  Marie  de  Blois,  1346-48  .  .  .136 

Padua:  copper  piece  of  the  1 4th  c.  .  .  .  .  .141 

Ragusa  (Sicily) :  copper  piece  of  the  nth- 1 2th  c.     ....       147 

Salzburg:  thaler  of  1522       .  .  .  .  .  .  .156 

Schlitz,  Hesse-Darmstadt :  thaler  of  1660    .  .  .  .  .158 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt  :  \  sterbdenkthaler,  1670  .  .  .  159 

Sienna  :  scudo  di  oro,  wolf  and  twins  type,  I5th  c.  .  .  .161 

Stockholm  or  of  1573  .......        164 

Zwolle  :  siege-piece  of  1 596  .  .  .  .  .  1 79 

Augustale  of  Frederic  II.,  I3th  c.     .  ,  .  .  .  .       183 

Centime  of  the  First  French  Republic          .  .  .  .  .189 

xvi  The  Coins  of  Eiirope 


10  centimes  of  the  Republic  of  Andorra,  1873          ....        189 

Denier  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire :  Christiana  Religio  type     .  .  .190 

of  Eudes,  King  of  France  :   Grati&  Domini  type      .  .  193 

of  Charlemagne         .  .  .  .  ."-. '          .  .194 

Schaffhausen :  dicken,  1633  .  .  .  .  .  195 

Ferdinand  II.  of  Germany:  gold  ducat,  1636          .         '     ;  .  .        197 

Sicilian  follaro,  I2th  c.          .  .  .  .  .  .  .201 

Genoa  :  genovino  di  oro  of  Conrad  type  and  period  .  .       202 

Catherine  II.  of  Russia  :  gold  imperial,  1767  ....       207 

Philip  II.  of  Spain  :  copper  jeton,  1582        .....       208 

Lepta  of  Greece  and  Ionian  Isles,  1828-49   .....       210 

Louis  XV.  of  France :  louis  d'or,  1717         ...  .  .  .       212 

Charles  XII.  of  Sweden  :   i  mark,  1716       .....       214 

Merovingian  trientes  .  .  .  .  .  .  .215 

6  miten  of  Ghent,  1583-84    .  .....       216 

Denier  of  inoneta  palatina  type         .  .  .  .  .217 

Obole  of  Charlemagne,  struck  at  Melle         .  .  .  .  .219 

Switzerland:  school  prize-money  of  1776     .....       225 

Bohemia:  raitgroschen  of  1583         ......       227 

Danari  of  Sanctus  Vulttts  type,  1 3th  and  1 8th  centuries       .  .  .       230 

Mantua:  Di  Quattro  or  4  scudi  di  oro,  I7th  c.        .  .  .231 

Siege-piece  of  Vienna,  1529,  in  gold  .....       233 

Lombard  silica  or  half  silica  of  the  7th  c.     .  .  .  .  .       233 

Bavaria:  thaler,  1825  .  .  .  .  .  .  .       238 

Coins  of  the  Wild  Man  type,  1741  and  1791  .  .  .       242 

Mantua  :  silver  coin  of  1 564  ......       269 

Bavaria:  gold  piece  (?  10  ducats)  of  1598     .....       306 

Palatinate :  gold  florin  of  1437          .  .  .  .  .  %          .       307 

Niirnberg :  gold  florin  of  1618          .  .  .  .  .  .       309 

Saxony:  denarius,  loth  c.  ...  .  .       310 

gulden  groschen,  I5th  c.    .  .  .  .       311 

thaler,  1623  .  .....       311 

Brunswick  -  Liineburg  :  triple  thaler,  1657    .....       317 

thalers  of  1668  and  1678      ....       318 

Gold  gulden,  1752   .  ...       319 

Osnabriick :  9  pfennigen,  1625         ...  .  .       320 

Mecklemburgh  :  £  thaler  of  1542     .  .  >-      322 

thaler  of  Wallenstein,  1632  ....       323 

Brandenburgh :  thaler  of  1549          .  .       325 

Prussian  coins,  I4th-i8th  c.  ,       327 

3  thaler  of  Frederic  III.  of  Brandenburgh,  1693      ....       328 

Mansfeld:  thaler,  1532        ..  .  330 

List  of  Illustrations  xvii' 


Stolberg :  bracteate,  I3th  c.  ......  331 

Gold  florin,  1743  .  .  .  .  .  331 

Coins  of  Austria  and  the  Tyrol         .  .  .  .  .  .  335 

Bohemia:  esterling  of  John  of  Luxemburgh  (1309-46)         .  .  .  339 

Joachimsthaler,  1525       .  .  ^,  .  .  339 

Frederic  V.  Count  Palatine,  24  kreutzer,  1620  .  .  .  340 

Hungary:  esterling  of  Andrew  (1047-61)     .  ...  .  .  341 

copper  coin,  I3th  c.         .  .  .  .  .-  341 

gold  florin  of  Matthias  Corvinus  .  .  .  .  342 

Transylvania :  copper  solidus,  1591  .  .  .  .  .  344 

thaler,  1657  .  345 

Switzerland  :  32  franken,  1800         .  .  .  .  .  .  348 

thaler  of  Zurich,  1727  ...  .  350 

Polish  coins,  i6th-i8th  c.      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  354 

Russia:  coins  of  Peter  the  Great,  1707-24  .....  360 

coins  (chiefly  patterns),  1726-40      .....  363 

Servia  :  denarius  of  Stephen  VII.,  1336-56  ....  365 

Denmark:  esterling  of  nth  c.          ......  373 

double  gold  ducat,  1658  ....  374 

silver  klippe,  1648          .  .  .  .  375 

Sweden  :  Charles  XII.  daler,  1707  ......  379 

Swedish  coins,  i6th-i9th  c.  ......  380 

Coins  of  the  Southern  Netherlands  ......  393 

Dutch  East  Indies         ......  409 

Northern  Netherlands  .  .  .  .  .  .413 

Rulers  of  the  Netherlands         .  .  .  .  .415 

Papal  coins  .........  425 

Venetian  coins  .......  429,  431 

Savoyard  coins          ........  435 

Coins  of  the  Medici  Family  .....  439-4° 

Bologna:  doppio  scudo  di  oro  of  Giovanni  I.  Bentivoglio  (1401-2)  .  442 

Ferrara  :  testone  of  Ercole  I.  D'Este  (1475-1506)    ....  442 

Monteferrato  :  testone  of  Guglielmo,  M.  di  M.,  1494-1518  .  .  444 

Mantua  :  scudo  di  argento,  1622,  George  and  Dragon  type  .  .  446 

Milanese  coins  ........  448 

Testone  of  Trivulzio  family,  1 6th  c.,  George  and  Dragon  type        .  .  449 

Pesaro  :  copper  sesino  of  Gio.  Sforza  (1510)  ....  449 

Coins  of  Parma         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .451 

Lucca  and  Piombino  .  .  .  .  .  -453 

Saluzzo :  testone  of  Lodovico  II.,  1475-1502  ....  454 

tallero  or  medaglia  of  Marguerite  de  Foix,  his  consort.  1516,  by 

Johann  Clot    .  .  .  .  .  .  •  454 

xviii  The  Coins  of  Europe 


-Sicilian  coins             ........  459 

Coins  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem,  I4th-i8th  c.              .             .  463 

France :  coins  of  Henry  III.  and  IV.  and  Louis  XIII.        .             .             .  473 

Louis  XIV.  and  XV.        .             .             .             . .           .  475 

French  Revolutionary  coins,  1791-93          ....  477-8 

Napoleon  I.,  etc.    .            .             .             .             .             .             .  481 

Piece  in  lead  of  1848  (?  10  centimes)          .             .             .            "  483 

French  feudal  coins             .             .             .             .            '.  •           .  501 

Spain:  blanca  and  dinhero  of  151)1  c.            .....  510 

Spanish  coins,  I3th-i8th  c.  .             .             .             .             .             .             .  513 

Spain:  Isabel  II.,  4  reales,  1839     .             .             .             .     '                      .  515 

3  cuartos,  1838  ......  515 

Portugal :  cruzado  di  ouro,  1 5th  c.  .             .             .             .             .             .  521 

Dobra  or  dobrao,  1726    ......  525 

Pecunia  Insulana,  1750    .             .                         ...  529 

Patacon  or  40  reis  of  1813            .             .             .             .             .  530 



THE  unabated  and  general  interest  which  the  numismatic 
systems  and  remains  of  the  ancient  Greeks  and  Romans  have 
commanded  from  time  immemorial  at  the  hands  of  all 
persons  with  pretensions  to  culture  and  with  a  desire  to 
inform  themselves  of  many  features  in  the  history  and  social 
life  of  those  two  great  and  powerful  nationalities,  or  rather 
peoples,  not  to  be  found  in  ordinary  books  of  reference,  has 
been  of  later  years  divided  with  the  study  and  collection  of 
the  coins  belonging  to  the  English  and  Scotish  series  ;  and 
the  enthusiasm  and  curiosity  manifested  toward  these  two 
classes  of  early  money,  if  they  were  not  quite  so  powerfully 
justified  by  the  intrinsic  merit  and  the  antiquity,  were  sup- 
posed to  be  dictated  by  a  sort  of  patriotism  in  the  case  of 
Englishmen  and  Americans.  A  man  who  could  not  under- 
stand the  utility  or  wisdom  of  accumulating  the  currencies 
of  remote  and  extinct  states  was  amenable  to  the  plea  for 
that  of  his  native  land  or  of  the  "  old  country."  Various 
idiosyncrasies  of  course  crept  into  this  movement.  Some 
collectors  of  the  new  English  or  British  school  began  at  the 
beginning,  and  persevered  unflinchingly  to  the  very  end  ; 
some  drew  the  line  at  the  Stuarts,  others  commenced  with 
the  Georges  ;  a  certain  number  preferred  gold,  a  certain 
number  silver,  a  few,  copper  only  ;  many  were  omnivorous. 
The  majority,  however,  were  not  very  fastidious,  so  long  as 
a  coin  was  legible  and  cheap.  Here  and  there  condition 
^  t  B 

2  The  Coins  of  Europe 

was    a   postulate    to   a   moderate    extent  ;    in    one    or    two 
instances  it  was  peremptory. 

But  for  better  and  worse,  under  some  or  other  circum- 
stances, the  taste  and  ardour  for  the  British  coins  from  the 
earliest  period  to  the  present  time — patterns  and  proofs 
included — arose,  and  have  been  hitherto  fairly  maintained  by 
a  succession  of  students  or  amateurs.  The  motive  was 
perhaps  patriotic  ;  and  it  is  not  to  be  gainsaid  that  within 
those  lines  are  to  be  found  many  numismatic  productions 
alike  of  interest  and  merit,  particularly  among  the  Anglo- 
Saxon  pennies,  the  Tudor  money,  the  Scotish  coins  of  Mary 
and  her  father,  and  of  Charles  I.,  and  the  chefs  d'ceuvre  of 
Briot,  Simon,  Rawlins,  Blondeau,  and  Wyon.  Retro- 
spectively, the  English  coinage,  extending  over  about  twenty 
centuries  (if  we  comprise  the  British  money),  will  bear  com- 
parison with  that  of  other  countries,  period  by  period  ;  but 
it  must  be  recollected  that  it  was  in  some  important  aspects 
indebted  to  external  influences.  Offa,  King  of  Mercia,  is 
reputed  to  have  employed  Italian  workmen  ;  the  pennies  of 
Edward  the  Confessor  and  his  Norman  successor,  in  their 
diversity  and  execution,  betray  a  superior  hand  ;  and  the 
names  of  some  of  the  most  prominent  English  moneyers, 
Briot,  Blondeau,  Roettier,  Pistrucci,  Droz,  are  the  names  of 
foreigners.1  Nor  do  we  certainly  know  that  the  florin  and 
noble  of  Edward  III.  were  the  product  of  native  artists.  So 
far  as  probability  will  carry  us  we  should  say  that  they  were  not. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  Northern  Germany  or 
Northern  Holland  was  the  source  from  which  the  moneyer, 
in  common  with  the  printer  and  engraver,  originally  derived 
his  inspiration.  Hence  it  was  that,  as  learning  and  science 
revived,  and  commerce  and  maritime  adventure  extended, 
the  barbarous  and  meagre  productions  of  the  imitators  of 
Roman  and  Byzantine  work  were  replaced  by  numismatic 
efforts  of  an  independent  and  characteristic  type,  and  that 
Europe  was  furnished  with  trading  tokens  (inonetce)  adapted 

1  See  also  Nicholas  Tyery's  Proposals  to  Henry  the  Eighth  for  an  Irish  Coin- 
age, inserted  in  a  MS.  French  Handbook  of  the  year  1526.  8vo,  Cambridge, 
1886.  With  illustrations  of  the  coins. 

Introduction  3 

to  the  wants,  feelings,  and  traditions  of  the  communities  into 
which  it  was  apportioned.  The  waves  of  Dutch  and  German 
influence  spread  in  all  directions  ;  and  the  British  Isles,  from 
their  geographical  position,  and  successive  occupiers  or 
colonists,  were  peculiarly  liable  to  the  reception  of  foreign 
suggestions  from  all  quarters.  Perhaps  the  utmost  that  is 
capable  of  being  urged  in  favour  of  the  English  series  of 
coins  is  that  they  are  English.  Of  the  hands  which  made 
them  we  know,  on  the  whole,  too  little  to  warrant  us  in  going 
much  farther. 

The  titles  which  the  coins  of  the  European  continent 
have  to  our  attention  and  regard  are  indeed  strong  and 
manifold.  That  immense  and  extraordinary  series  contri- 
butes, in  a  degree  only  to  be  appreciated  on  a  more  or  less 
intimate  acquaintance,  to  the  illustration  both  of  the  public 
and  inner  life  of  a  section  of  the  globe  which  has  been 
infinitely  more  fruitful  than  any  other  in  its  achievements 
and  triumphs  for  the  cause  of  human  knowledge,  progress, 
and  happiness.  From  the  thirteenth  century,  when  the 
English  currency  had  sensibly  declined  from  the  earlier 
Norman  standard,  the  mints  of  Central  Europe  and  the  Low 
Countries  were  yielding  an  inexhaustible  store  of  types 
remarkable  for  invention  and  variety  no  less  than  for  their 
harmony  with  the  atmosphere  and  costume  of  the  country 
of  origin.  A  study  of  continental  money  of  the  mediaeval 
and  more  modern  eras  admits  us  to  an  insight  into  innumer- 
able points  connected  with  political  vicissitudes  and  changes, 
religious  aspirations  and  peculiarities,  and  social  episodes,  for 
which  we  might  vainly  look  elsewhere.  The  historian,  the 
artist,  the  philosopher,  and  the  portrayer  of  sentiments  and 
usages,  possess  here  a  field  of  research  even  now  very  imper- 
fectly explored  and  utilised.  We  ought  to  be  thankful  for 
the  light  which  is  shed  on  features  of  bygone  life  throughout 
an  entire  continent  by  thousands  on  thousands  of  these 
monuments,  each  in  its  portrait,  its  legend,  its  motto,  its 
name,  its  very  shape  and  material,  telling  some  story  of 
the  ages. 

The  Coins  of  Europe 


Undoubtedly  interesting  and  valuable  as  the  Medal,  the 
Jeton,  and  the  Token  severally  are  as  exponents  and  memo- 
rials of  past  events  and  persons,  the  COIN  may  justly  claim 
a  higher  rank  in  our  estimation  and  regard  as  less  local,  less 
special,  less  flattering  ;  as  more  national,  more  continuous, 
more  realistic.  It  reflects  in  a  greater  degree  and  in  a  more 
faithful  manner  the  condition,  progress,  and  feeling  of  the 
community  with  which  it  is  identified  ;  it  passed  from  hand 
to  hand,  from  one  district  to  another,  from  one  extremity  of 
the  world,  perhaps,  to  the  other  extremity  ;  and  this  plea  is 
strengthened  by  the  policy,  first  of  the  ancients,  and  subse- 
quently of  the  continental  powers,  of  blending  the  actual 
currency  with  the  medal  and  the  jeton  in  that  extensive 
series  of  European  numismatic  monuments  which  the 
Germans  term  munte-medaUlen,  and  which  served  the  double 
purpose  of  a  coin  and  a  medal  by  commemorating  an 
historical  incident  and  by  being  at  the  same  time  stamped 
with  a  value.  Among  these  relics  of  former  days  are  many 
pieces  of  striking  beauty  and  interest.  They  belong  more 
particularly  to  the  German  series. 

The  number  of  Coins  entitled  to  rank  under  a  variety  of 
categories  as  historical,  biographical,  or  literary  records,  is 
peculiarly  large  in  the  class  with  which  we  deal.  The 
European  continent  was  so  subdivided  in  an  administrative 
and  numismatic  respect  under  the  old  system  that  a  far 
larger  proportion  of  individuals,  who  attained  political 
eminence,  acquired,  ipso  facto,  a  title  to  a  place  among  rulers 
and  strikers  of  money.  It  is  not  that  we  possess  finely- 
executed  portraits  of  great  sovereigns  only,  such  as  Charles  V., 
Gustavus  Adolphus,  Peter  the  Great,  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden, 
Frederic  of  Prussia,  Maria  Theresa,  and  Napoleon  I.  ;  but 
the  privilege  of  coining,  enjoyed  by  a  host  of  petty  feu- 
datories, has  transmitted  to  us  an  extensive  gallery  of 
resemblances,  the  majority  (when  we  have  reached  the  Renais- 
sance) lifelike  in  their  treatment,  which  we  should  not  in  a 

Introduction  5 

more  centralised  constitution  have  had  the  opportunity  of 
seeing.  Nearly  all  the  seigniorial  magnates  of  France, 
Germany,  and  the  Netherlands  have  been  handed  down  to 
us  in  this  way,  as  they  presented  themselves  to  their  con- 
temporaries. It  is  something  to  be  able  in  the  thalers  of 
Mecklenburgh  to  realise  ad  vivum  the  lineaments  of  the  great 
Wallenstein  ;  in  those  of  Transylvania  we  get  the  striking 
effigy  of  Bethlen  Gabor  and  the  other  independent  wai- 
wodes  ;  the  feudal  coinage  of  France  and  the  Low  Countries 
presents  us  with  the  likeness  of  many  a  grand  lady  or 
seigneur,  of  many  a  haughty  and  imperious  prelate,  in  all 
the  pride  of  life  and  all  the  pomp  of  circumstance :  the 
Princes  of  the  house  of  Medici — merchants  and  standard- 
bearers  of  Florence  before  they  sat  upon  the  throne — are 
here,  and  the  Dukes  of  Parma,  Modena,  Milan,  Mantua,  and 
Ferrara,  almost  breathing  and  speaking  on  the  metallic  discs 
which  received  the  impress  of  their  features  centuries  ago  ; 
and  we  may  take  up  a  silver  denier  of  Robert  the  Devil  of 
Normandy,  or  a  ducat  of  Foscari  or  Faliero,  equally  fresh  as 
when  they  were  submitted  for  approval. 

Setting  aside,  however,  the  question  of  the  relative  claims 
of  these  four  classes  of  archaeological  record,  the  varied 
utility  of  each  in  elucidating  the  others  is  not  to  be  forgotten 
or  ignored.  Every  possessor  of  a  cabinet  of  antique  coins 
must  be  better  qualified  to  conduct  researches  on  that  division 
of  the  subject  with  greater  ease  and  success  if  he  has  upon 
his  shelves  the  best  modern  books  on  the  other  three. 
Obscure  points  or  indistinct  inscriptions  on  a  German  or 
Italian  medal  are  often  susceptible  of  being  explained  by 
some  parallel  or  cognate  characters  or  design  on  a  coin  or 
jeton  executed  about  the  same  period,  possibly  by  the  same 
hand  ;  and  the  engraver  of  many  pieces  of  money  is  only 
known  to  us  from  the  fact  that  he  was  also  a  medallist, 
whose  work  is  marked  by  his  style,  if  not  by  his  cypher. 
The  earliest  efforts  of  some  men,  who  subsequently  attained 
celebrity,  were  directed  to  die-sinking.1 

1  Attention  may  be  drawn   to   the   interesting   indications   afforded   by  M. 
Armand  (Les  Medailleurs  Italiens,  1883-87,  3  vols.  8vo)  of  the  intimate  relation- 

6  The  Coins  of  Europe 

It  is  manifestly  a  good  deal  more  than  the  part  of  a 
virtuoso  or  a  dilettante  to  collect  this  rich  assemblage  of 
unimpeachable  memorials  around  one,  and  to  investigate 
them  as  aids  to  the  formation  of  a  true  judgment  of  the 
mighty  and  restless  spirits  which  have  in  turn  swayed  and 
shaped  the  fortunes  of  the  European  continent.  The  great 
men  and  women  who  are  portrayed  or  named  by  us  in  the 
pages  which  succeed,  lie,  as  it  were,  beneath  our  feet,  dust  to 
dust,  but  the  records  of  their  lives  are  in  our  hands.  The 
man  of  letters,  the  poet,  makes  himself  our  contemporary 
and  the  contemporary  of  all  who  are  to  come  after  us  in  a 
different  way  ;  we  study  him,  converse  with  him,  and  measure 
him  in  his  books.  But  the  statesman,  the  legislator,  the 
soldier,  the  orator,  who  lifted  himself  above  his  fellows,  and 
for  whom  mortality  was  too  frail  and  too  brief,  relies  on 
other  witnesses — the  archive  and  the  chronicle,  the  medal 
and  the  canvas  ;  and  how  imperfectly  the  historical  personages 
of  all  countries  would  be  realised  to  us  if  we  were  required 
to  content  ourselves,  as  a  rule,  with  the  testimony  of  the 
manuscript  or  printed  page  ! 

Of  the  material  which  has  reached  our  hands  for  elucidat- 
ing and  verifying  the  transactions  and  occurrences  of  the 
past,  the  coin  and  its  posterior  development,  the  medal,  are 
at  once  the  most  durable,  the  most  trustworthy,  the  most 
consecutive,  and  the  most  universal. 


A  survey  for  the  first  time  of  the  feudal  currencies  of 
mediaeval  Europe  is  apt  to  awaken  a  feeling  of  dismay 
and  bewilderment.  The  distribution  of  authority,  and  the 
relationship  of  the  Crown  to  its  great  vassals,  with  their 
common  obligations  to  the  Church,  constitute  a  political  life 
and  a  social  atmosphere  diametrically  opposed  to  prevail- 

ship  between  the  medal  and  coin.      Almost  all  the  fine  work  in  both  series  in 
the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries  is  traceable  to  distinguished  artists. 

Introduction  7 

ing  ideas  and  possibilities.  Everywhere  we  readily  obtain 
evidence  of  a  dominant  seigniorial  caste,  which  often,  or 
indeed  generally,  survived  broad  territorial  changes,  and 
transferred  its  allegiance  from  one  sovereign  or  suzerain  to 
another.  A  royal  or  imperial  dynasty  disappeared  ;  but  the 
lower  strata  of  the  system  practically  remained  :  a  warlike, 
turbulent,  despotic  nobility  and  gentry  which,  in  requital  of 
services  rendered,  enjoyed  various  lofty  and  enviable  privileges, 
among  which  not  the  least  was  the  right,  sometimes  qualified, 
sometimes  absolute,  of  striking  money  for  local  or  provincial 
use.  The  clergy  looked  with  favour  on  this  concession  ;  for 
the  incidence  of  a  mint  was,  it  is  not  to  be  doubted,  attended 
by  profit  to  the  beneficiary  ;  and  a  proportion  of  the  surplus 
proceeds  became  a  customary  due  receivable  by  the  ecclesi- 
astical incumbent.  When,  in  process  of  time,  the  towns  of 
the  Continent  rose  into  consequence  and  power,  a  new  form 
of  complication  presented  itself ;  for  within  a  restricted  area 
three  monetary  systems  might  be  established,  each  on  its 
own  basis  and  standard, — and  it  seems  to  have  been  the 
exception  when  the  urban  authorities  and  the  bishop  or 
abbot  arrived  at  some  amicable  understanding,  by  which 
a  common  currency  served  for  both. 

Nor  was  the  practice  of  entering  into  conventions  for 
mutual  security  and  accommodation  one  to  which  there  was 
a  large  or  habitual  recourse.  The  decentralising  proposal, 
which  is  at  the  present  moment  before  the  Swiss  Govern- 
ment after  about  forty  years'  trial  of  an  uniform  coinage, 
helps  us  to  comprehend  the  jealousy  and  distrust  which  pre- 
cluded the  numberless  petty  administrative  centres  of  Europe, 
both  during  and  after  the  Middle  Ages,  from  coming  to  any 
accord  with  each  other  on  such  a  topic  as  this. 

The  gradual  and  partial  acceptance  by  communities  of 
approximately  the  same  race  and  language  of  an  interna- 
tional principle  in  regard  to  money  formed  at  once  a  source 
of  convenience  and  disadvantage  ;  the  liability  of  the  currency 
of  one  or  more  members  of  the  circle  to  reduction  in  standard 
or  value  from  financial  exigencies  and  other  causes  necessarily 
involved  loss  and  embarrassment  to  the  rest  ;  the  state  of 

8  The  Coins  of  Europe 

political  decentralisation  under  the  feudal  system,1  conferring 
independent  power  for  many  subordinate  purposes  of  govern- 
ment on  each  petty  state  or  division  of  territory,  rendered 
the  correction  of  abuses  in  the  currency  almost  impracticable  ; 
and  it  was  this  order  of  affairs  which  produced,  on  the  one 
hand,  the  extraordinary  profusion  of  local  mints  with  dis- 
tinctive types  and  symbols,  and  on  the  other,  to  a  very 
limited  extent,  the  introduction  of  convention -money  of 
true  and  definite  assay. 

It  is  certain  that  the  expedient  was  not  extensively  tried, 
although  its  efficacy  was  tested  in  the  Low  Countries,  for 
instance,  in  a  variety  of  ways  :  as  between  a  town  and  the 
bishop  or  seigneur,  or  both  ;  as  between  certain  towns  ;  as 
between  certain  provinces,  the  vierlander  and  driclander  being 
two  special  types  of  the  groat  which  were  long  admitted  as 
legal  tenders  in  four  or  three  of  the  states  of  the  Netherlands 

The  pioneers  in  this  direction  seem  undoubtedly  to  have 
been  the  Brabantines.  John  II.  Count  of  Namur  (1297- 
1331)  entered  into  an  agreement  on  the  one  hand  with 
the  Count  of  Flanders  (1322-1  346) — him  who  fell  at  Crecy  ; 
and  on  the  other,  with  John  II.  Duke  of  Brabant,  as  regarded 
the  common  acceptance  of  two  types  of  the  groat. 

It  is  almost  obviously  the  volume  and  intricacy  of  the 
seigniorial  currency  throughout  the  Continent  which  makes  the 
task  in  our  hands  one  of  any  sort  of  difficulty.  The  royal  or 
imperial  money  is  of  course  not  free  from  features  of  obscurity 
and  doubt  ;  but  the  field  is  relatively  contracted,  and  the  re- 
searches and  discoveries  of  modern  numismatists  have  reduced 
this  branch  of  the  subject  to  a  fairly  clear  method  and  order. 
In  the  course  of  the  last  twenty  or  thirty  years  the  inde- 
fatigable labours  of  several  distinguished  scholars  in  nearly 
every  European  country  have  brought  to  light  extensive  and 
valuable  additions  to  almost  all  series,  and  have  rectified  our 
knowledge  of  the  mints,  moneyers,  types,  and  places  of  origin, 
of  some  pieces  which  were  previously  unassigned.  A  con- 
siderable share  of  this  gratifying  progress,  the  fruit  of  a 
1  See  Cat.  of  Denominations,  v.  "Convention-Money." 

Introduction  9 

healthy  emulation,  is  due  to  a  patient  and  comparative  study 
of  ancient  records,  by  which  the  sites  of  former  mints  and  the 
names  of  the  masters  or  engravers  are  ascertained,  and  coins 
for  the  first  time  referred  to  their  true  sources.  Such  a 
species  of  documentary  testimony  restores  to  notice  the 
names  of  many  individuals  otherwise  forgotten,  and  of 
localities  for  which  we  vainly  search  on  ordinary  maps. 

The  frequent  changes  of  dynasty  on  the  Continent 
operated  on  the  coinages  in  two  distinct  and  opposite  ways  : 
either  in  leading  to  an  immediate  issue  of  the  new  currency 
with  the  name  and  titles  of  the  fresh-comer,  or  to  a  continu- 
ance of  the  former  one  from  considerations  of  expediency. 
The  Romans,  as  the  Greeks  had  done  before  them,  set  the 
example  of  promptly  suppressing  the  evidence  and  support 
afforded  by  the  money  of  a  vanquished  or  deceased  ruler  ; 
but  in  modern  Europe,  on  the  whole,  the  more  sagacious 
practice  seems  to  have  prevailed  of  allowing  the  familiar 
name  and  emblems  to  survive,  and  of  denoting  the  presence 
of  an  altered  constitution  by  some  subsidiary  token.  The 
Ostrogothic  line  in  Italy  adopted  this  policy,  and  during  a 
century  or  so  merely  placed  their  monograms  on  coins  bear- 
ing otherwise  the  old  imperial  types  ;  the  portraits  and  titles 
of  the  Merovingian  house  in  France  long  outlived  its  actual 
power  ;  the  Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia,  in  the  money  struck 
at  Gaeta,  style  themselves  Consuls  and  Dukes  without,  as  a 
rule,  inserting  any  name ;  the  great  German  and  Italian 
families,  whose  government  was  virtually  absolute,  contented 
themselves  with  the  nominal  rank  of  imperial  vicars  ;  and, 
coming  down  to  more  recent  days,  even  . Napoleon  I.  sat 
upon  the  throne  many  years  before  his  coinage  parted  with 
all  its  republican  significance. 


To  realise  the  numismatic  history  of  a  group  of  countries 
we  have  to  begin  by  studying  the  political,  social,  and  topo- 
graphical state  of  the  region  affected  and  described.  The 

io  The  Coins  of  Europe 

far  more  limited  population  of  Europe,  even  down  to  the 
close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  large  area  of  forest  and 
other  waste  lands,  and  the  difficulty  of  intercourse,  favoured 
the  growth  and  consolidation  of  a  feudal  system  under 
which  an  almost  innumerable  body  of  chieftains,  secular 
and  ecclesiastic,  exercised  within  local  precincts  an  authority 
dependent  only  on  the  imperial  or  royal  prerogative. 

Where  communication  was  so  slow  and  precarious,  and 
all  appliances,  military  and  mechanical,  so  defective,  the 
control  of  the  emperor  or  king  was  practically  restricted  to 
services  in  peace  or  war ;  there  was  no  central  or  direct 
power  in  the  modern  sense  ;  and  the  head  of  the  state 
was  virtually  little  more  than  a  suzerain,  who  did  not 
interfere  in  the  relations  between  his  tenants-in-chief  and 
their  vassals  even  in  the  performance  of  some  acts  of 
sovereignty.  Of  these  acts  the  coinage  of  money  for 
circulation  within  a  specified  radius  was  the  most  important, 
most  cherished,  and  most  decisive  ;  and  while  in  certain 
instances  the  legends  acknowledged  the  jurisdiction  of  a 
superior  lord,  in  some  there  was  no  symptom  of  qualified 

It  is  to  be  apprehended  that,  in  the  case  of  the  minor 
townships  on  the  Continent,  the  right  of  coinage  was  not 
only  limited  to  a  definite  area,  but  to  the  base  metal  and 
low  denominations.  The  money  was  in  fact  a  local  token. 
On  the  other  hand,  we  have  to  remember  the  vast  or  stealthy 
changes  which  have  affected  the  prosperity,  if  not  the  very 
existence,  of  a  large  number  of  seats  of  government  and 
centres  of  industry,  insomuch  that  instances  might  be  pro- 
duced of  places  which  were  formerly  prominent  royal  or 
seigniorial  mints,  and  are  at  present  obscure  and  lifeless 
hamlets,  while  there  are  a  few,  proved  to  have  been  licensed 
seats  of  coinage,  of  which  no  examples  have  been  recovered 
or  identified. 

1  The  ancient  system  of  partition  of  authority,  on  a  similar  principle,  among 
a  number  of  petty  princes,  and  the  parallel  assertion  of  suzerainty  by  some  indi- 
vidual potentate,  may  explain  the  grandiloquent  terms  found  on  the  coinage  of 
Parthia  and  Bactria,  and  retained  at  the  present  time  by  more  than  one  Eastern 

Introduction  1 1 

A  scrutiny  of  the  carefully -prepared  charts  which  we 
have  of  the  periodical  development  of  Western  Europe  will 
shew  us  the  difficulty  and  importance  of  keeping  always  in 
mind  the  difference  between  the  mediaeval  and  later  bound- 
aries of  states  and  the  numerous  changes  which  have  taken 
place  in  topographical  nomenclature.  The  series  of  com- 
parative maps  introduced  into  Bouillet's  Atlas  Universel, 
1872,  helps  to  illustrate  the  distribution  of  territory  and  the 
changes  of  frontier  from  the  sixth  to  the  sixteenth  century. 
At  the  latter  point  of  time,  while  the  internal  political  fabric 
and  economy  were  still  largely  preserved,  the  confines  of  the 
principal  countries  had  been  settled  on  modern  lines.  We 
are  apt  to  forget,  till  we  reflect,  that  the  former  divisions  of 
the  Continent  were  often  not  conterminous  with  their  more 
recent  or  present  namesakes  ;  so  extensive  has  been  the 
survival  of  old  geographical  terms. 

The  maps  of  France  exhibit  a  progressive  extension  of 
territory  from  511,  the  date  of  the  death  of  Clovis,  to  1483, 
that  of  the  death  of  Louis  XI.  Germany  did  not  comprise 
Prussia  and  much  of  the  existing  German  Empire.  Prussia 
partly  belonged  to  Poland,  and  partly  to  Brandenburgh. 
The  kings  of  Poland  ruled  over  a  considerable  portion  both 
of  Prussia  and  of  Russia.  The  province  of  Burgundy, 
which  belongs  to  France,  and  was  once  a  feudal  appanage  of 
that  monarchy,  importantly  differs  from  the  great  Duchy  of 
Charles  the  Bold.  The  early  Dukes  of  Muscovy  owned  a  very 
small  proportion  even  of  the  dominions  of  Peter  the  Great. 
The  Counts  of  Flanders  were  virtually  absolute  masters  of  a 
feudal  area,  to  which  the  constitutional  kingdom  of  Belgium 
bears  a  very  imperfect  relationship.  The  Counts  of  Holland 
exercised  a  sovereignty  restricted  to  the  province  so  owned  ; 
and  while  the  actual  kingdom  of  the  Netherlands  embraces 
only  a  portion  of  them,  the  Napoleonic  kingdom  of  Holland 
comprehended  more  than  the  whole. 

The  Europe  at  which  we  are  looking  is  not  only 
superficially  but  chronologically  of  vast  extent.  In  a 
geographical  sense  it  reaches  from  one  end  of  the  Continent 
to  the  other  ;  and  in  a  political  one  its  two  extremities  touch 

1 2  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  Roman  empire  on  the  east  and  the  world  in  which  we 
actually  move.  Centuries  posterior  to  the  commencement 
of  our  story,  Byzantine  emperors  sat  on  the  throne  of 
Valens  ;  at  the  point  of  time  where  we  begin  Italy  and 
Spain  were  slowly  emerging  from  barbarism  under  Greek 
and  Moorish  influence  ;  and  the  republic  of  Venice  was 
founded.  But  Britain  and  Gaul  were  inhabited  by  savage 
tribes,  whose  rulers  styled  themselves  kings;  Germany  had  not 
yet  felt  the  beneficial  influence  of  Prankish  conquest ;  and 
the  Slavonic  and  Scandinavian  peoples  were  as  unknown 
to  the  inhabitants  of  the  West  as  the  natives  of  Australia  or 
the  aboriginal  dwellers  on  the  Hudson.  We  are  witnesses 
to  the  rise,  decline,  and  fall  of  empires,  of  which  the 
magnitude  was  fatal  to  a  weaker  head  and  hand  than  those 
of  the  founder,  if  not  to  himself ;  and  we  conclude  our  view 
in  the  presence  of  the  blessings  and  evils  of  the  most 
advanced  Western  civilisation. 

Of  every  development  and  vicissitude  the  currency 
of  countries  has  been  a  partaker  and  a  memorial  ;  and  of 
many  minor  or  subsidiary  events  it  is  often  the  sole  surviving 

The  feudal  system,  as  we  are  aware,  existed  in  a  most 
flourishing  condition  throughout  the  Continent  during  the 
whole  period  covered  by  the  following  pages  ;  and  whatever 
abuses  may  have  attended  it  in  its  operation  on  the 
community,  the  gain  which  it  has  brought  to  the  numis- 
matist is  positively  immense.  We  have  only  to  contemplate 
the  uniform  and  inarticulate  currencies  of  quite  modern  days, 
on  what  are  conventionally  termed  imperial  lines,  to  perceive 
how  barren  of  import  and  attraction  the  present  undertaking 
would  have  been  if  such  a  condition  of  things  had  always 
been  a  possibility. 

The  French  Revolution  shook  the  system  to  its  base 
throughout  Western  Europe,  and  the  Napoleonic  regime  still 
farther  tended  to  obliterate  ancient  landmarks  and  to  favour 

Introdiiction  \  3 

centralisation.  Although  the  old  seigniorial  principle 
remained  or  revived  after  the  close  of  the  last  century  to  a 
certain  extent,  the  fundamental  changes  in  France  itself, 
and  the  rise  of  new  political  ideas,  combined  to  draw  an 
indelible  line  between  the  past  and  the  present,  and  our 
inquiry  mainly  parts  with  its  interest  where  the  former  order 
of  things  may  be  regarded  as  having  come  to  a  practical 
termination.  The  prosaic  tenor  of  latter-day  numismatic 
history  and  art  is  incapable  of  yielding  much  scope  for 
useful  or  agreeable  reflection.  On  the  contrary,  how 
extremely  interesting  and  instructive  it  becomes  to  study 
and  consider  in  every  part  of  feudal  Europe  the  almost 
numberless  groups  or  clusters  of  minor  sovereignties, 
subordinate  to  the  Crown  in  a  very  limited  sense  and  degree, 
and  exercising  within  their  own  confines  an  authority  more 
untrammelled  than  that  of  existing  constitutional  princes  of 
the  highest  rank.  The  Continent,  parcelled  out  among  the 
tenants-in-chief  of  the  emperor  or  king  of  a  given  zone  or 
circle,  and  governed  for  all  internal  and  municipal  purposes 
by  laws  and  ordinances  which  varied  and  conflicted  at  every 
frontier  and  within  short  distances,  presented  a  spectacle 
which  can  never  return,  and  of  which  we  can  acquire  a 
knowledge  only  through  literary  and  other  monuments.  It 
was  a  political  condition,  slowly  evolving  from  primaeval  forest 
and  village  life,  until  it  developed  by  the  usual  agencies 
into  a  sort  of  network,  and  overspread  the  entire  area  from 
the  Atlantic  to  the  Caspian  Sea  and  the  Ural  Mountains, 
and  from  the  Arctic  Ocean  to  the  Mediterranean,  with  a 
host  of  petty  lordships,  alike  independent  and  jealous  one  of 
the  other.  Those  which  lay  in  proximity  might  speak  the 
same  language,  cultivate  the  same  soil,  and  serve  the  same 
suzerain  in  peace  and  in  war ;  but  the  obstacles  to  central 
control,  as  well  as  to  mutual  intercourse,  were  incredibly 
great,  and  each  little  community  grew  in  course  of  time 
virtually  autonomous.  If  it  had,  as  was  frequently  the  case, 
a  prolonged  duration  and  a  prosperous  career,  it  was 
undoubtedly  very  far  from  fulfilling  our  ideal  of  what  public 
and  private  life  should  be  ;  but  all  the  more  for  that  reason 

14  The  Coins  of  Europe 

it  built  up  an  organisation  in  which,  by  the  light  of  available 
records,  we  at  this  moment  are  enabled  to  realise  a  picture, 
impressive  and  captivating  if  only  by  contrast.  For  it  is 
precisely  in  this  narrow  localisation  that  we  have  to  seek 
peculiar  types  of  thought  and  production ;  and  in  the 
absence  of  such  a  system  of  tenure  and  service  we  should 
have  lost  nearly  all  that  is  most  precious  to  us  in  mediaeval 
costume,  symbolism,  portraiture,  dramatic  incident,  and,  by 
no  means  least  of  all,  monetary  examples. 


The  determination  of  the  order  in  which  the  several 
countries  of  Europe  should  be  treated,  naturally  introduced 
to  the  mind  of  the  writer  the  apposite  and  relevant  question 
as  to  the  centre  and  cradle  of  numismatic  renaissance  in  the 
Western  hemisphere.  In  the  first  place,  the  almost  universal 
circulation  of  the  ancient  Greek  and  Roman  currencies 
offered  to  the  primitive  European  moneyer  a  rich  choice  of 
prototypes,  and  led,  as  we  know,  to  feeble  imitations  of  the 
Macedonian  stater  in  Britain,  and  of  the  small  brass  coinage 
of  Rome  and  the  Phocaean  silver  in  Gaul,  if  indeed,  which  is 
still  a  dubious  point,  the  Briton  was  not  directly  indebted 
for  the  idea  of  the  Greek  model  to  his  immediate 
neighbour  across  the  Channel.  Secondly,  the  vastly 
influential  result  to  civilisation  of  the  successive  settlements 
of  the  Arabs  and  Moors  in  Spain,  and  of  the  Greeks, 
Northmen,  Arabs,  French,  and  Spaniards  in  Southern  Italy 
and  Sicily,  embraced  the  modification  of  the  currency  in 
vogue  in  all  these  regions  ;  and  the  Crusaders  had  their 
share  in  bringing  under  notice,  and  recommending  to 
adoption,  the  characters  and  designs  on  Eastern  money, 
sometimes,  as  in  the  case  of  the  French  gros  tournois, 
following,  without  signal  fitness  or  felicity,  the  lines  of  the 
Arabic  dirliem,  supposed  to  have  been  brought  by  Louis  IX. 
from  the  Holy  Land,  yet  more  probably  introduced  into 

Introduction  1 5 

France  by  the  Arabs  or  Moorish  occupiers  of  Franco-Spanish 
territory  during  a  protracted  lapse  of  time. 

The  tendency  of  copyists  in  all  ages  has  been  to 
degenerate,  as  they  proceeded,  from  their  originals.  Progress 
and  improvement  can  only  be  expected  from  the  exercise  of 
thought  and  taste  and  their  judicious  adaptation  to  existing 
circumstances  ;  and  it  may  be  predicated  of  almost  all  the 
attempts,  even  in  the  best  period  of  Italian  art,  to  reproduce 
classical  subjects,  that  they  are  unfortunate  or  at  least 
imperfect.  The  happiest  efforts  of  the  modern  moneyer  in 
the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries  were  in  portraiture, 
heraldry,  and  costume,  because  he  rendered  what  he  saw 
before  him,  and  rendered  it  admirably,  whereas  in  the 
manipulation  of  fables  or  objects  depicted  on  Greek  work  of 
the  best  and  purest  period  by  mediaeval  artists  even  of 
approved  skill  and  repute,  we  can  discern  at  most  nothing 
more  than  an  inferior  revival  of  what  had  been  given  to  the 
world  a  thousand  years  before. 

Venturing  to  assume  that  the  fountain  of  the  modern 
numismatic  revival  about  the  sixth  century  was  somewhere 
in  Northern  Germany  or  Northern  Holland,  the  writer  has 
made  the  former  country,  including  Switzerland,  Poland, 
Russia,  etc.,  his  starting-point,  and  has  allowed  the  Nether- 
lands to  follow  next  in  order.  The  precedence  accorded 
to  Germany  seemed  to  render  it  convenient  to  trace  the 
Teutonic  influence,  so  far  as  it  went,  and  to  include  in  the  first 
division  or  group  of  districts  those,  such  as  Russia,  Servia, 
Bulgaria,  where  in  the  first  place  the  Byzantine,  and  finally 
the  Western  types,  prevailed.  Although  the  Swiss  subse- 
quently adopted  French  models  and  denominations,  their 
earliest  numismatic  culture  and  sympathy  were  German, 
and  the  source  of  the  civilisation  and  refinement  of  Inde- 
pendent Poland  is  to  be  found  in  the  same  direction  through 
the  political  relationship  of  that  kingdom  at  the  outset  to 
the  margravate  of  Brandenburgh  and  to  Prussia.  The  Mus- 
covite moneyers  received  their  elementary  education  when 
Moscow  became  the  capital,  and  the  old  Greek  patterns  fell 
out  of  favour,  from  the  Poles  and  Hungarians. 

1 6  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Germany  naturally  divides  itself  into  North  and  South  ; 
and  in  the  latter  are  comprised  the  former  kingdoms  of 
Bohemia  and  Hungary,  and  the  principality  of  Transylvania, 
each  of  which  of  course  possessed  during  centuries  an  autono- 
mous coinage  of  a  very  varied  and  interesting  character. 
Austria  itself  is  entitled  to  the  honour  of  having  produced 
the  earliest  dated  thalers,  commencing  with  the  schauthaler, 
which  commemorates  the  marriage  of  Maximilian  I.  and 
Mary  of  Burgundy  in  1477.  The  Transylvanian  series  is 
particularly  curious  from  the  portraits  of  the  waiwodes 
or  princes,  and  the  singular  head-dress  of  some  of  them — an 
invariable  feature  of  it  being  the  aigret  or  heron's  crest. 

In  the  North,  Saxony  yields  an  unique  succession  of 
portrait-thalers,  and  Brunswick  in  its  several  branches,  though 
more  especially  that  of  Luneburg,  is  remarkable  for  its  artistic 
contributions  to  the  numismatic  stores  of  the  Fatherland. 
The  influence  of  the  first-named  region  on  that  of  Branden- 
burgh  was  attended  by  very  important  results  in  consequence 
of  the  intimate  and  permanent  alliance  between  the  mar- 
gravate  and  Prussia,  and  between  Prussia  and  Poland.  The 
issue  of  large  silver  money  appears  to  have  begun  in  Austria 
and  Saxony  almost  concurrently,  if  the  gulden  groschen  with 
the  portrait  of  Frederic  the  Wise  (1486-1500)  is  to  be 
accepted  as  the  first  experiment  in  the  latter  country. 

On  the  other  hand,  Brunswick,  from  its  numerous  grand 
alliances  in  a  variety  of  directions  during  the  Middle  Ages, 
may  be  held  to  have  played  a  very  leading  part  in  determin- 
ing the  types  not  only  of  neighbouring  states,  but  of  those 
at  a  distance  ;  and  the  extension  of  the  rule  of  the  Frankish 
and  German  emperors  of  the  Carlovingian  and  later  dynasties 
over  a  considerable  portion  of  Italy  was  necessarily  productive 
of  a  certain  degree  of  monetary  conformity  on  the  part  of 
the  Peninsula  to  Teutonic  treatment  and  feeling. 

The  Italian  trading  communities,  such  as  Venice,  Genoa, 
and  Pisa,  exercised  an  influence  in  the  same  direction  by 
spreading,  wherever  their  ships  penetrated,  or  their  colonies 
established  themselves,  an  acquaintance  with  the  monetary 
medium  employed  at  home.  This  agency  may  explain  a 

Introduction  1 7 

certain  resemblance  in  fabric  and  design  between  the  Lombard 
denaro,  of  which  so  many  varieties  existed  in  the  Peninsula, 
and  the  mediaeval  currency  of  regions  so  far  apart  as  France 
and  Armenia.  But  with  both  the  Venetians  became  familiar 
in  the  Middle  Ages.  A  Venetian  settlement  was  formed  at 
Limoges  in  977  ;l  and  in  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth 
century  the  republic  contracted  a  mercantile  treaty  with  Leo 
I.,  King  of  Armenia.  The  coinages  of  feudal  France  and 
many  of  the  small  pieces  struck  under  Leo  II.  and  his  suc- 
cessors appear  to  shew  the  ascendency  of  the  same  Italo- 
Teutonic  genius. 

There  is  a  striking  general  resemblance  among  the  entire 
family  of  ancient  European  coins,  always  excepting  those 
which  we  owe  to  temporary  Byzantine  or  Oriental  inspira- 
tion ;  and  the  reason  may  be,  that  the  Continent  was  prin- 
cipally indebted  for  its  primitive  currency  to  a  Teutonic 
germ,  undoubtedly  traceable  to  Roman  or  Greek  prototypes, 
and  gradually  developed  by  the  revival  of  art  and  mechanical 
knowledge.  Many  of  the  coins  of  the  Medici,  Gonzaga,  and 
Farnese  families  in  Italy,  for  instance,  are  beyond  question 
very  fine  specimens  of  the  moneyer's  skill  ;  and  nothing  can 
be  bolder,  freer,  and  more  characteristic  than  some  of  those 
of  the  fifteenth  century,  or  even  of  the  first  half  of  the 
sixteenth,  which  appeared  at  Milan  and  Ferrara  under 
Visconti  and  D'Este  rule  ;  but  we  must  recollect  that  the 
Germans  have  it  in  their  power  to  point  to  such  superb 
productions  as  the  Maximilian  thaler  of  1479,  the  Klappe- 
miinze  or  gulden  groschen  of  Frederic  the  Wise  of  Saxony, 
and  the  two  later  Maximilian  thalers. 

The  great  initiative,  in  short,  is,  so  far  as  we  can  see  or 
judge,  ascribable  to  Northern  Germany,  whose  skilled  opera- 
tives had  before  them,  perhaps,  the  same  patterns  as  those 
employed  by  the  so-called  Merovingian  moneyers,  and 
already  in  the  former  moiety  of  the  ninth  century  had 
learned  to  execute  pieces  of  a  distinctly  improved  character 
at  Durstede  and  other  Merovingian  mints,  as  we  are  able  to 
infer  from  a  large  number  of  extant  monuments  in  the  shape 

1  See  Hazlitt's  Venetian  Republic,  1860,  iv.  234-238. 

1 8  The  Coins  of  Europe 

of  deniers,  first  of  the  original  Prankish  type,  and  secondly 
of  the  less  archaic  one  belonging  to  the  later  years  of 
Charlemagne,  with  which  the  French  silver  currency  prac- 
tically commenced  under  Charles  le  Chauve. 

The  German  series  in  its  wealth  of  portraiture,  and  the 
singularly  strong  personality  of  many  of  its  larger  silver 
coins,  \sfaciUprinceps.  There  was  a  manifest  aim  on  the 
part  of  those  who  controlled  the  designs  for  the  currency  to 
profit  to  the  utmost  extent  and  at  every  opportunity  by  the 
advantage  which  was  undoubtedly  discerned  in  popularising 
the  likenesses  of  reigning  families  ;  and  even  on  pieces  of 
the  smallest  module  we  find  the  portrait  of  the  sovereign 
introduced.  Of  all  the  Teutonic  nationalities,  however, 
Saxony  through  its  length  and  breadth  carried  this  principle 
the  farthest :  on  several  of  the  thalers  of  the  ancient  dukedom 
proper  it  is  not  unusual  to  meet  with  three  or  four  portraits, 
representing  the  prince  himself  and  his  brother  or  cousins 
in  a  variety  of  positions;  and  one  of  Saxe- Weimar,  1615, 
bears  the  bell,  we  believe,  in  possessing  the  maximum  of  eight 
effigies — those  of  Johann  Ernst  and  his  seven  brothers — an 
absolute  gallery  of  family  portraits  within  an  extremely 
moderate  compass. 

We  prefer  to  see  in  such  a  practice  more  than  meaning- 
less self-assertion  or  vainglory.  It  was  rather  a  method, 
agreeable  to  the  spirit  and  possibilities  of  the  time,  of  identi- 
fying and  recognising  the  members  of  the  reigning  family, 
and  of  bringing  their  resemblances '  before  the  eyes  of  the 
people  in  the  readiest  and  most  frequent  manner. 

In  venturing  upon  such  a  high  estimate  of  German 
excellence  in  this  direction,  we  must  remember  that  that 
country  was  only  carrying  into  a  cognate  and  collateral 
field  its  noble  achievements  in  wood-engraving  ;  nor  do  we 
lose  sight  of  the  early  Italian  school  of  numismatic  and 
medallic  art,  for  the  close  relationship  between  Italy  and 
Germany  under  the  imperial  system  from  the  time  of  Char- 
lemagne produced  a  community  of  taste  and  treatment  easily 
recognisable  on  the  coinages  of  the  two  nations,  both  in 
regard  to  portraiture  and  costume. 

Introduction  1 9 


The  Low  Countries,  numismatically  considered,  fall  at 
different  periods  under  four  successive  systems  of  divisional 
or  other  treatment:  namely,  I,  the  ancient  feudal  States; 
2,  the  United  Provinces  ;  3,  the  Kingdom  of  Holland  ;  4, 
the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands.  For  our  immediate  object 
the  first  period  is  immeasurably  the  most  important,  and  the 
two  monarchical  eras  the  least  so.  Such  space  as  it  is  in 
our  power  to  allot  will  therefore  be  chiefly  occupied  by  a 
sketch,  sufficient,  it  is  to  be  hoped,  to  guide  our  readers,  of 
the  long  and  extensive  series  of  virtually  autonomous  coinage 
with  and  without  the  imperial  titles,  struck  between  the 
eighth  and  sixteenth  centuries  by  the  Counts  and  Dukes 
of  Gueldres  ;  the  Counts  of  Holland  and  West  Friesland  ;  the 
Bishops  of  Utrecht,  Daventer,  and  Lie"ge ;  the  Counts  of 
Flanders,  Hainault,  and  Namur  ;  the  Dukes  of  Luxemburgh, 
and  a  host  of  subsidiary  personages  ;  no  less  than  by  such 
towns  as  Nimmhegen,  Daventer,  Campen,  Zwolle,  Maestricht, 
Ghent,  Antwerp,  Tournay,  and  Bois-le-Duc. 

The  consolidation  of  the  Netherlands  into  provinces, 
concurrently  with  the  cruel  and  protracted  struggle  against 
foreign  invaders,  introduced  a  new  monetary  epoch,  which 
possesses  its  own  strong  and  often  painful  interest,  and 
which  in  reality  was  brought  to  a  close  only  in  the  present 
century  on  the  establishment  of  the  existing  forms  of  govern- 
ment in  Holland  and  Belgium  respectively. 

Certain  general  features  of  similarity  in  fabric,  linear 
disposition,  and  the  treatment  of  the  Cross  as  an  auxiliary 
between  some  of  the  Carlovingian  coins  of  bath  types,  the 
coeval  Anglo-Saxon  and  Anglo-Norman  pennies,  and  the 
silver  money  published  by  the  eleventh  century  rulers  of 
Denmark  and  Norway,  are  apt' to  awaken  curiosity  and 
speculation.  The  subject  is  a  very  obscure  and  complicated 
one  ;  and  the  differences  of  judgment  among  the  best  and 
latest  authorities  upon  it  may  warrant  us  in  declining  to 
enter  into  the  argument  in  more  than  a  passing  way. 

2O  The  Coins  of  Europe 

The  constant  intercourse  of  the  sea-rovers  of  the  North, 
by  whatever  name  they  might  be  known — Saxons,  Danes, 
or  Jutes — with  the  British  Isles  might  serve  to  account  for 
the  introduction  into  England  of  such  money  as  they  had  in 
use  from  time  to  time  and  the  loan  of  suggestions  from 
it.  In  the  course  of  their  dealings  and  depredations  these 
adventurers  naturally  came  in  contact  with  the  money  of 
different  countries,  and  parted. with  it  in  exchange;  and  a 
second  channel  for  this  sort  of  influence  was  France,  whence 
the  Britons  had  been  borrowers  of  numismatic  patterns  and 
symbols  from  the  most  remote  period,  and  with  which  there 
was  a  steady  commerce.  The  money  coined  by  Pepin  le 
Bref  and  Charlemagne  in  the  second  half  of  the  eighth 
century,  and  that  issued  by  the  latter  on  an  improved  or  at 
least  altered  model  toward  the  close  of  the  reign,  were 
equally  of  Teutonic  origin,  and  with  the  various  Merovingian 
types  and  even  certain  hints  from  the  inscribed  British  gold 
pieces  of  Cunobeline,  Verica,  and  others,  constituted  the 
material  from  which  the  Anglo-Saxon,  Anglo-Norman,  and, 
last  of  all,  the  successors  of  Canute  II.  in  Denmark,  derived 
their  own  productions.  The  coinage  of  the  kings  of  Mercia 
exhibits  in  a  very  marked  manner  the  diversified  form  of 
the  Cross,  till  the  original  conception  was  lost  and  forgotten  ; 
and  there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt  that  the  Anglo-Danish 
monarchs  or  their  mint-masters  in  the  eleventh  century  were 
indebted  to  English  prototypes  for  those  artistic  and  graceful 
pennies  which  belong  to  the  reigns  of  Magnus  and  Sweyn 
II.,  and  which  vary  alike  from  the  Teutonic  taste  and  from 
the  primitive  Swedish  mintage. 

Italy,  like  Germany,  is  susceptible  of  treatment  under 
two  grand  sections,  the  Northern,  including  Lombardy,  and 
the  Southern,  comprising  Sicily,  or  in  other  words,  the  Two 
Sicilies,  and  with  these  Savoy  may  be  most  appropriately 
grouped,  not  only  on  geographical  and  political,  but  on 
artistic,  grounds. 

In  Northern  Italy  we  have  to  deal  with  at  least  four 
classes  of  coinage  :  i ,  the  money  issued  in  the  name  of  the 
Gothic,  Lombard,  and  other  early  conquerors  ;  2,  the 


2  I 

autonomous  coins  of  the  republics  and  states  gradually 
formed  within  those  limits  ;  3,  the  money  of  the  French, 
Spanish,  and  Austrian  occupiers  ;  and  4,  that  of  the  two 
kingdoms  as  constituted  in  1804  and  1860,  of  which  the 
latter  at  all  events  removed  the  stigma  conveyed  in  the 
epigram  describing  Italy  as  "  a  geographical  expression." 

The  foundations  of  the  monetary  systems  of  Northern 
Italy  were  almost  undoubtedly  German  or  Teutonic,  and 
were  far  less  indebted  to  classical  suggestion  and  Oriental 
feeling  than  the  southern  portion,  or  than  the  region  within 
which  the  Merovingian  family  of  gold  tricntes  circulated. 
Ages  elapsed  before  the  Venetians  resorted  to  Byzantine 
models  ;  the  latest  researches  have  identified  twenty  -  four 
varieties  of  the  denier  or  danaro  produced  under  imperial 
control  from  the  ninth  to  the  twelfth  century  ;  and  the 
other  portions  of  this  division  of  the  Peninsula  conducted 
their  transactions  where  specie  was  demanded  with  descrip- 
tions of  money  on  which  there  is  no  distinct  trace  of  Greek, 
Roman,  or  Oriental  taste.  At  the  period  of  the  Renaissance, 
the  autonomous  currency  of  some  of  the  states  exhibited 
proofs  of  the  study  and  appreciation  of  ancient  numismatic 
art,  modified  by  contemporary  requirements  ;  but  the  noble 
examples  of  medallic  work,  produced  by  such  men  as 
Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Pisanello,  Francia,  and  Cellini,  under 
the  auspices  of  generous  patrons,  were  virtually  as  original 
as  any  of  the  other  cinquecento  masterpieces  in  oil,  marble, 
or  bronze.  These  great  artists,  instead  of  servilely  and 
unskilfully  copying  the  coins  of  the  ancients,  as  the  British, 
Gaulish,  and  Merovingian  moneyers  had  severally  done, 
sought  to  shew  the  world  that  they  could  equal  if  not 
surpass  them. 

With  the  South,  including  Sicily,  the  case  stood  some- 
what differently,  owing  to  the  Lombard  settlement  in  the 
sixth  century  at  Beneventum  and  the  adoption  of  Mero- 
vingian patterns,  and  to  the  successive  conquests  of  Sicily  and 
Apulia  by  the  Arabs,  the  Normans,  the  French,  the  Spaniards, 
as  well  as  by  the  Germans.  These  great  and  frequent 
political  changes  could  not  be  unattended  by  striking  numis- 

22  The  Coins  of  Europe 

matic  effects  and  by  the  presence  on  the  same  soil  in 
course  of  time  of  coins  commemorative  of  each  nationality 
which  had  taken  its  turn  in  occupying  and  governing  the 
territory  ;  for  the  earliest  care  of  a  conqueror  was  to  secure 
the  distribution  of  monetary  tokens  of  his  jurisdiction,  if  not 
of  his  personality.  We  accordingly  find  on  the  mediaeval 
Sicilian  series  between  the  sixth  and  sixteenth  centuries, 
instead  of  the  purely  Teutonic  types  current  in  the  northern 
portion,  a  chronological  memorial  of  all  the  vicissitudes 
undergone  by  the  country  during  this  long  lapse  of  time, 
local  emblems  accompanied  by  the  names,  legends,  and 
mottoes  of  foreign  masters,  and  under  the  Normans  (1085- 
I  200)  even  pronounced  Arabic  workmanship  with  bilingual 


As  we  have  made  Switzerland  and  the  Low  Countries 
fall  under  the  German  group  of  districts,  we  now  pass  over 
into  FRANCE,  where  we  without  much  difficulty  perceive  a 
very  wide  field  and  a  very  extensive,  as  well  as  varied,  body 
of  material.  What  is  now  recognised  as  exclusively  French 
ground  has  been  trodden  and  held  by  Greek,  Roman,  Gaul, 
Visigoth,  Frank,  Breton,  and  Norman,  all  of  whom  have  left 
their  footprints  and  their  contributions  to  its  archaeology  and 
history.  The  boundaries  of  this  fair  and  fertile  region  since 
the  mediaeval  era  have  been  repeatedly  exposed  to  modifica- 
tion by  the  fortune  of  war  or  the  force  of  circumstances  ; 
the  royal  authority  in  many  important  respects  has  been 
shared  with  feudal  potentates,  all  of  whom  claimed  local 
supremacy  ;  while  a  few  were  almost  as  powerful  as  the 
Crown  itself;  and  among  the  pretensions  which  these 
magnates,  alike  secular  and  ecclesiastical,  advanced  and 
valued,  not  the  least  was  that  of  coining  their  own  money. 
The  product  of  such  a  system  prevailing  over  so  wide  an 
area  through  so  lengthened  a  term  is  the  survival  of  an 
enormous  volume  of  currency  in  all  metals,  of  all  types,  and 
of  innumerable  denominations.  Leaving  out  of  account  the 

Introduction  2  3 

numismatic  annals  prior  to  the  Gauls,  the  regal  and  seigniorial 
coinage  of  France  has  formed  the  subject-matter  of  a  small 
library  of  descriptive  and  critical  literature,  and  embraces, 
besides  an  unusually  rich  assortment  of  essais  or  patterns,  a 
store  of  rarities  in  the  Merovingian,  Franco -Italian,  and 
other  sections,  more  than  sufficient  to  engross  the  lifetime 
and  resources  of  the  most  enthusiastic  and  opulent  collector. 

Opening  the  series  with  the  Merovingian  princes,  who 
struck  gold  money  at  Paris,  St.  Lo,  and  elsewhere  between 
the  fifth  and  eighth  centuries  (480-750),  we  pass  to  their 
successors  in  authority,  the  Carlovingian  and  Capetian  races 
(7  5  O'1  328),  with  which  we  have  to  associate  a  very  large, 
long-lived,  and  varied  body  of  money,  chiefly  billon  and 
copper,  issued  by  the  grand  and  minor  feudatories  of  France 
from  the  mediaeval  era  to  the  French  Revolution.  Among 
these  royal  and  seigniorial  currencies  there  is  an  abundance 
of  material  for  study  and  a  fair  number  of  rarities,  although 
the  difficulty  of  procuring  ancient  French  coins  sensibly 
declines  after  the  Merovingian  epoch.  The  house  of  Valois, 
founded  by  Charles  of  Valois,  "the  son,  brother,  and  father 
of  kings,  though  never  himself  a  king,"  lasted  from  1328  to 
1574,  and  is  remarkable  from  two  points  of  view,  for  the 
Anglo-Gallic  group  of  coins  produced  by  the  dispute  for  the 
succession  with  England,  and  mostly  struck  at  Rouen  and 
Bordeaux,  and  for  the  Franco-Italian  one,  struck  at  a  variety 
of  places.  The  latter  are  among  the  most  difficult  to  obtain 
in  fine  state  of  all  the  French  money  of  this  period  ;  and 
even  of  the  Anglo-Gallic  pieces  some  are  rare,  as  will  be 
hereafter  specified.  But,  as  we  have  elsewhere  noted,  the 
coins  in  billon  and  silver  of  the  later  Valois  and  of  Henry 
IV.  are  particularly  ill-struck  and  ill-preserved. 

The  Bourbons  occupied  the  French  throne  during  three 
centuries  in  the  persons  of  five  monarchs,  of  whom  three 
reigned  164  years.  Very  few  features  of  interest  can  be 
mentioned  as  belonging  to  this  long  lapse  of  time.  There 
was  nothing  beyond  the  reform  of  the  gold  and  silver  coinage 
quite  at  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIII.  (1640-41),  the 
issue  of  the  Franco-Spanish  money,  and  a  limited  colonial 

24  The  Coins  of  Europe 

series,  and  the  continuation  of  the  very  striking  deniers  and 
double  tournois  in  copper,  which  had  been  commenced  under 
Henry  III.,  and  remained  in  use  till  they  were  replaced  by 
the  Hard  and  the  sol.  They  are,  which  seems  curious,  far 
more  carefully  struck  than  some  of  the  higher  denominations. 

The  operations  of  the  French  mints  during  the  revolu- 
tionary era  and  under  the  First  Republic  deserve  attentive 
consideration,  and  included  several  patterns,  novel  termin- 
ology, countermarked  pieces,  and  hybrid  productions  between 
the  assignat  and  the  current  coin.  It  was  then  that  the 
earliest  centime  appeared,  and  the  modern  type  of  the  franc  ; 
but  the  Republic  limited  itself  to  a  piece  of  5  francs,  just  as 
it  issued  6  livres  in  silver  and  24  livres  in  gold,  yet  no  unit. 

A  few  words  on  the  coinage  of  Napoleon  I.  will  be  all 
that  the  circumstances  render  necessary.  The  most  note- 
worthy specimens  connected  with  Napoleon  himself  are  the 
presumed  patterns  for  a  sol  or  a  piece  of  5  centimes  struck 
by  Gengembre  in  1802,  with  the  earliest  portrait  of  the  First 
Consul,  the  loo  francs,  and  the  silver  type  of  1807  (t£te  de 
negre}>  which  does  not  seem  to  have  gone  beyond  the  circula- 
tion of  the  ^  franc.  The  bust  of  the  emperor  somewhat 
resembles  in  style  that  on  his  Italian  currency. 

The  feudal  money,  which  was  current  in  parts  of  France 
down  to  comparatively  modern  times,  comprises  many  pro- 
ductions of  artistic  merit  and  historical  importance,  and  is  a 
series  of  vast  extent.  It  divides  itself,  in  common  with  that 
of  Germany  and  the  Low  Countries,  into  two  principal 
sections,  Lay  and  Ecclesiastical,  of  which  the  latter  offers  to 
view  the  coinage  of  archbishops,  bishops,  abbots,  and  priors, 
and  the  former  exhibits  a  limited  number  of  grand  fiefs  of 
the  Crown,  such  as  Brittany,  Normandy,  and  Burgundy, 
with  a  long  roll  of  names  of  minor  dependencies,  each 
in  many  respects  self-governing  and  jealous  of  interference 
or  control.  With  such  a  political  fabric  the  English  found 
it  an  easy  task  to  deal  when  the  war  of  succession  between 
Edward  III.  and  the  Valois  dynasty  commenced  about  1340. 

The  origin  of  the  SPANISH  coinage  is  to  be  found  in  the 
Gothic  conquest  and  occupation  of  Spain,  Portugal,  and  a 

Introduction  2  5 

portion  of  France  from  the  commencement  of  the  fifth  to 
that  of  the  eighth  century.  Italy,  France,  and  the  Peninsula 
were  in  fact  colonised  by  Northmen — Vandals,  Huns,  Goths 
—just  as  England  received  in  turn  settlers  from  the  same 
part  of  Europe,  variously  designated  Danes  and  Saxons. 
But  in  the  case  of  Spain  the  Gothic  influence  and  rule  were 
supplanted  at  a  very  early  date  by  a  circumstance  which 
completely  changed  and  permanently  affected  the  fortune  of 
the  country.  In  the  opening  years  of  the  eighth  century  it 
became  the  object  of  a  Mohammedan  invasion,  and  down  to 
the  close  of  the  fifteenth  it  remained  the  seat  of  what  is 
known  as  the  Moorish  power.  This  new  element  in  the 
religious  and  political  constitution,  which  from  the  long 
anterior  migration  of  the  Goths  or  Vandals  of  Spain  to 
Morocco  was  probably  of  a  very  mixed  character,  limited 
its  domination  to  Cordova  and  Granada,  and  side  by  side 
with  it — -in  Arragon,  in  Navarre,  in  Asturias  or  Oviedo, 
Leon  and  Castile,  and  even  in  Galicia  and  elsewhere — 
separate  governments  rose  and  flourished  ;  and  after  many 
changes  the  whole  was  only  eventually  united  under  Fer- 
dinand and  Isabella  in  the  beginning  of  the  fifteenth  century. 
These  successive  changes  and  fusions  unavoidably  in- 
volved a  correspondingly  complex  and  voluminous  numis- 
matic chronicle,  of  which,  in  a  general  manual,  an  outline, 
drawing  attention  to  features  and  points  of  particular  interest 
to  the  student  or  the  collector,  is  all  that  is  readily  feasible. 


It  is  probable  that  very  few  specimens  of  the  extremely 
debased  form  of  the  Merovingian  type,  known  as  the  Visi- 
gothic,  and  remarkable  only  as  existing  both  in  gold  and 
silver,  and  of  the  currency  of  the  Moorish  emirs  and  kings 
of  Granada,  will  satisfy  the  taste  or  enthusiasm  of  the 
majority.  The  two  constitute  a  large  body  of  coins,  of 
course  totally  distinct  from  each  other,  and  are  in  many 
instances  of  the  utmost  rarity.  They  are  interesting,  how- 

26  The  Coins  of  Europe 

ever,  from  the  presence  among  them  of  certain  dated 
examples,  which  are  entitled  to  rank  as  the  earliest  attempts 
of  the  kind.  But  slight  progress  is  perceptible  in  the  style 
and  execution  of  the  money,  even  when  we  arrive  at  the 
eleventh  century,  and  examine  the  types  in  use  in  Arragon 
and  in  Leon  and  Castile  ;  and  it  was  not  till  the  close  of  the 
thirteenth  that  a  marked  improvement  occurred  in  the  pro- 
ducts of  these  mints,  and  that  we  discern  the  beneficial 
results  of  combined  Gothic  and  French  influence. 

The  numismatic  system  of  Leon  and  Castile  appears 
to  have  been  somewhat  irregular.  Some  pieces  bear  the  lion, 
others  the  castle,  alone,  while  a  third  variety  unites  those 
symbols.  It  is  likely  enough  that  there  were  special  coin- 
ages for  the  two  divisions  of  the  kingdom. 

The  armorial  bearing  or  cognisance  on  some  of  the 
early  silver  pieces  of  these  provinces  exhibits  a  curious 
anomaly  and  contradiction  in  the  shape  of  a  rampant  lion, 
although  on  the  other  side  the  true  etymology  of  the  name 
of  the  former  province  presents  itself  in  the  word  Legio.  A 
coin  of  Alfonso  X.  (1252-84)  has  the  legend  disposed  in 
a  then  novel  linear  fashion  ;  and  one  of  John  II.  (1406-54), 
in  whose  reign  commenced  a  currency  in  a  sort  of  metal 
resembling  copper,  adopted  the  lamb  and  flag  of  the  French 
moutons  (for,  and,  like  the  maravedioi  Ferdinand  and  Isabella, 
the  initial  of  the  monarch,  crowned,  on  the  other  side. 

The  money  peculiar  to  Arragon,  prior  to  its  amalgamation 
with  the  remainder  of  Spain,  is  found  as  far  back  as  the 
thirteenth  century  with  the  distinctive  emblems  of  the  Barce- 
lona mint,  the  pellets  and  annulets  in  the  alternate  angles  of 
the  Cross  on  the  reverse  ;  and  from  the  same  period  we  have 
a  series  of  characteristic  portraits  of  the  reigning  princes. 

On  the  whole,  the  strange  vicissitudes  which  Spain 
underwent  are  tolerably  legible  in  the  variant  character  of 
her  coinage  while  she  remained  the  home  of  so  many 
successive  or  contemporary  races.  Visigothic  Northman, 
Moorish  Goth  (descendant  of  Genseric  and  his  fellow-emi- 
grants), Celt,  Provencal,  Frenchman,  left  their  mark  in  turn 
on  her  institutions  of  all  kinds.  During  the  Visigothic  era 

Introduction  2  7 

her  frontier  extended  far  into  France.  Toward  the  end  of 
the  thirteenth  century  Navarre  lapsed  by  the  marriage  of  an 
heiress  to  the  French,  and  continued  to  be  an  appanage  of 
that  kingdom  till  the  extinction  of  the  Capetian  line.  But 
although  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  augmented  the  heraldic 
cognisance  with  the  arms  of  those  provinces  which  they  were 
the  first  to  reduce  to  submission,  if  not  to  uniformity  of 
government,  their  successors  down  to  the  period  of  the 
Republic  of  1869  renounced  all  but  the  ancient  quartered 
insignia  of  Leon  and  Castile. 

At  the  same  time,  pronounced  individuality  of  character 
will  be  discerned  in  the  several  branches  of  this  group  of 
productions,  both  during  the  coexistence  of  more  than  one 
autonomous  state  on  Spanish  soil  and  after  the  consolida- 
tion into  one  monarchy  by  Ferdinand  and  his  consort. 
Some  of  the  earlier  gold  coins,  such  as  those  of  Peter  the 
Cruel  (1350-69),  are  coveted  on  account  of  their  rarity. 

The  Spanish  copper  coins  may  be  commended  to  notice 
as  a  peculiarly  rich  field  for  the  amateur  who  desires  curious 
specimens  at  a  moderate  cost.  Starting  with  the  reign  of 
John  II.  (1406-54)  he  will  find  it  possible  to  possess  an 
almost  consecutive  assemblage  of  specimens  and  types  to 
the  present  day,  including  the  special  currency  for  Pampeluna, 
the  siege  pieces  of  the  Peninsular  struggle,  1808-1809,  and 
the  colonial  money.  The  larger  proportion  of  the  ordinary 
coins  are  very  poorly  executed  and  very  roughly  struck,  and, 
when  they  are  in  pristine  state,  do  not  offer  a  very  inviting 
appearance,  especially  where  they  are  countermarked. 

The  numismatic  history  of  PORTUGAL  appears  to  date 
from  the  eleventh  century,  when  that  extremity  of  the 
Peninsula  was  already  under  the  government  of  independent 
and  hereditary  counts.  These  in  the  person  of  Alfonso  I. 
(1139-85)  assumed  the  royal  title  after  a  victory  over  the 
Moors  of  Granada.  In  the  course  of  three  hundred  years  the 
country,  under  the  auspices  of  several  wise  administrators, 
and  through  the  spirit  of  maritime  discovery,  rose  by  steady 
degrees  to  the  rank  of  a  first-rate  European  power.  From 
1 5  80  to  1 640  its  fortunes  were  bound  up  with  those  of 

28  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Spain  ;  but  the  zenith  of  its  commercial  prosperity  and 
political  importance  had  been  long  reached  when  Philip  II. 
annexed  it  to  his  dominions.  Subsequently  to  the  revolution 
of  1640,  by  which  Portuguese  independence  was  restored, 
and  John,  Duke  of  Braganza,  proclaimed  king  as  John 
IV.,  the  annals  yield  very  few  incidents  of  intere'st  to  the 

The  coinage  of  the  Portuguese  is  infinitely  less  intricate 
than  that  of  Spain  for  obvious  reasons.  There  is  merely  the 
usual  currency  of  the  counts  and  kings,  supplemented  by 
that  established  during  the  sixty  years  of  Spanish  sway,  and 
by  the  money  struck  for  Brazil  and  other  colonies.  The 
most  conspicuous  features  in  the  series  are:  I,  the  heavy 
gold  pieces,  commencing  at  an  unusually  early  period  — 
about  1521 — and  preserving  their  continuity  down  to  the 
middle  of  the  last  century,  while  the  national  wealth  still 
outlived  the  wealth-earning  power;  and  2,  the  Spanish 
money  issued  in  the  names  of  Philip  II.  and  his  two  suc- 
cessors, some  of  which  is  of  the  most  uncommon  occurrence. 
The  coins  of  John  IV.  and  Alfonso  VII.  (1640-67)  are  also 
difficult  to  procure  in  desirable  preservation.  Respecting  the 
more  modern  numismatic  productions  there  is  nothing  special 
to  note.  Some  account  of  these  will  be  furnished  hereafter, 
as  well  as  of  the  coinage  for  Brazil,  Goa,  Guinea,  Terceira, 
Madeira,  and  the  Azores.  As  far  back  as  the  closing  years 
of  the  fifteenth  century  some  of  the  ordinary  money  of  John 
II.  (1481-95)  and  Emmanuel  (1495-1521)  describe  them 
as  Lords  of  Guinea. 

Our  survey  of  the  European  monetary  system  terminates 
with  a  glance  at  that  of  modern  Greece  under  Capo  d' I  stria 
(1828-30),  and  of  the  Ionian  Isles  during  the  British  pro- 
tectorate. The  types  used  by  the  Turkish  Government  for 
their  possessions  on  the  Continent  belong  rather  to  the 
Oriental  series,  and  are  in  any  case  of  very  slight  import. 

The  parts  of  Europe  where  the  Byzantine  influence 
lingered  or  survived  the  longest  were  the  Eastern  princi- 
palities bordering  on  Turkey  in  Europe  :  Sicily,  and  Venice. 
In  Servia,  Cyprus,  and  Sicily,  not  only  the  style,  but  the 

Introduction  29 

concave  fabric  of  the  money  struck  by  the  later  emperors  at 
Constantinople,  was  servilely  imitated  ;  and  it  is  worthy  of 
remark  that^  while  the  Britons  copied  the  patterns  of  their 
gold  and  silver  money  either  from  Macedonia  or  from  Gaul, 
they  followed  in  some  of  their  copper  pieces  the  concave 
form  of  the  Byzantine  currency.  It  would  be  interesting  to 
know  the  origin  of  this  module ;  whether  it  was  suggested  by 
the  cup-like  development  of  certain  shells  or  by  its  supposed 
facility  for  preserving  the  type  of  the  obverse.  But  the 
British  concave  coins  were  evidently  copies  from  Byzantine  pat- 
terns, and  were  therefore  among  the  latest  issues  of  the  series. 
The  money  in  all  metals  of  the  earliest  Norman  kings 
of  Sicily  was  distinctly  Eastern  in  its  complexion,  while  it 
partook  of  the  two  principal  sources  of  inspiration  —  Arab 
and  Greek  prototypes.  We  find,  side  by  side  with  the  con- 
cave forms  borrowed  from  Constantinople,  the  copper  coins 
of  thick  fabric,  and  some  of  them  of  unusually  large  module, 
evidently  copied  from  earlier  Greek  or  from  Arabian  sources. 


The  at  first  surprising  multiplicity  of  currencies  and 
mints  is  susceptible  of  easy  explanation  by  the  ancient  and 
prolonged  severance  of  centres  from  each  other  by  wide 
areas  of  forest  and  waste,  interconnected  only  by  the  rudest 
form  of  foot  or  packhorse  track.  Towns  at  an  inconsider- 
able distance  were  virtually  isolated  at  certain  seasons  of  the 
year ;  and  the  primitive  clearing  in  the  woods  became  by 
degrees  a  free  burgh  or  a  feudal  lordship,  alike  substantially 
independent  of  the  emperor  or  other  suzerain.  This  condi- 
tion of  affairs  naturally  favoured  the  growth  of  mints  as 
well  as  of  types  ;  and,  again,  even  in  comparatively  small 
dominions,  the  ruler  is  found  employing  several  seats  of 
coinage.  In  the  dukedom  of  Cleves  there  were  at  least 
four  within  a  small  territory.  Yet  it  is  possible  that  the 
mint-master  and  his  staff  moved  from  place  to  place,  and 
that  only  a  single  apparatus  was  employed  or  required. 

30  The  Coins  of  Europe 

We  seem  to  know  comparatively  little  of  the  history  of 
the  somewhat  extensive  and  artistic  coinage  of  Louis  of 
Maele,  Count  of  Flanders  from  I  346  to  1 384.  This  powerful 
prince,  who  went  with  the  times  in  multiplying  and  improving 
his  types,  possessed  at  successive  periods  no  fewer  than  seven 
denominations  in  gold  alone  ;  and  both  here  and  in  other 
cases  it  is  obviously  almost  impossible  to  be  sure  whether  all 
the  issues  of  a  minor  ruler  proceeded  from  mints  in  situ,  or 
were  struck  at  the  nearest  great  centres  on  their  behalf. 

The  varying  delimitation  of  frontier  from  time  to  time 
naturally  accounts  for  the  transition  of  seats  of  coinage  and 
for  the  presence  of  mints  beyond  the  region  to  which  they 
may  appear  to  have  belonged.  It  was  on  a  somewhat 
cognate  principle  that  the  German  or  Roman  emperor,  down 
to  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  struck  coins  for  nearly 
every  part  of  Europe,  and  that  Napoleon  I.  issued  French 
money  from  the  mints  at  Utrecht,  Rome,  and  Turin.  Paris 
did  not  become  the  capital  of  the  kingdom  till  the  tenth 
or  eleventh  century,  and  at  that  time  Normandy,  Brittany, 
Burgundy,  Dauphine,  Vermandois,  and  Navarre  were  inde- 
pendent, while  during  the  Middle  Ages  on  the  Spanish  side 
there  were  constant  fluctuations  of  boundary.  The  capital 
of  the  Visigothic  kingdom  was  at  Bordeaux.  That  of  the 
Merovingians,  prior  to  their  removal  to  Paris,  had  been  at 
Soissons,  and  subsequently,  on  the  partition  of  the  kingdom, 
the  seats  of  government  were  at  Paris,  Soissons,  Orleans, 
and  Metz. 

The  mintage  of  coins  in  feudal  castles  was  nothing 
more  than  that  of  the  English  money  in  the  Tower  of 
London  during  centuries.  The  seigniorial  chateau  or  the 
royal  fortress  was  the  only  place  of  security,  where  there  were 
no  municipal  or  official  centres. 

At  present  all  is  changed.  Our  arrangements  are 
simplified.  The  entire  modern  machinery  is  mechanical  and 
monotonous.  The  mints  of  these  days  are  strictly  utili- 
tarian. Coins  are  no  longer  works  of  art  and  historical 

In   the   case   of  many   of  the    minor   mints,  where  the 

Introduction  3 1 

number,  as  in  France  and  Germany  more  particularly  for 
the  earlier  stages  of  our  inquiry,  was  enormous,  it  de- 
manded too  large  a  space  to  admit  every  one  into  the 
alphabetical  arrangement,  but  no  locality  of  any  consequence 
has  been  overlooked  either  in  our  Catalogue  or  our  Chart. 
It  is  quite  necessary  to  remark  that  others  than  the  rulers 
of  the  several  states  struck  money  within  their  confines  for 
currency  there  or  elsewhere.  Wiirtemburg,  to  cite  a  typical 
example,  has  at  present  within  its  territory  a  single  mint  ; 
formerly  it  had  at  least  fifty. 

The  contrast  between  ancient  and  modern  political  con- 
ditions cannot  be  more  forcibly  exemplified  than  by  the  radical 
change  which  has  been  accomplished  in  the  laws  of  mone- 
tary production.  The  want  or  absence  of  consolidation  in 
this  respect,  which  survived  the  great  revolutionary  crisis  of 
1789,  was  an  inheritance  from  the  militarism  of  the  Romans, 
and  was  favoured  and  extended  by  the  bias  and  demands  of 
the  feudal  system.  The  successive  dynasties  which  swayed 
the  Continent  in  and  after  the  Middle  Ages  found  it  neces- 
sary to  propitiate  the  towns  and  the  clergy;  the  coinage  of 
each  locality  was  a  question  in  which  the  emperor  or  king,  the 
bishop,  the  lord,  and  the  municipality  claimed  to  have  a  voice 
and  a  share  :  and  a  variety  of  coexistent  pretensions  was 
constantly  traversed  and  entangled  by  abuse  and  usurpation. 

The  committal  of  the  most  ancient  mediaeval  mints  to 
the  superintendence  of  ecclesiastics  was  necessitated  by  the 
absence  of  the  culture  required  to  transfer  Latin  legends  and 
mottoes  to  the  dies  with  accuracy  on  the  part  of  the  lay 
folk  ;  and  the  employment  of  a  dead  language  in  a  state  of 
barbarous  decadence  as  a  vehicle  for  conveying  to  the  people 
at  large  the  meaning  of  the  engraved  characters  on  the 
money  intended  for  their  common  use  was  in  perfect  keep- 
ing with  the  habit  of  rendering  all  public  acts  and  documents 
by  the  same  means  incomprehensible  to  every  one  who  was 
not  a  scholar  or  a  clerk  in  orders.  The  imperfect  knowledge 
of  the  mechanism  of  the  coining  processes  may  be  sufficient 
to  account  for  the  faulty  presentment  of  the  type  on  many 
early  pieces,  which,  so  far  as  they  go,  are  clerically  e^cact ; 

32  The  Coins  of  Europe 

but  illiterate  readings  not  unreasonably  excite  a  suspicion 
that  the  coin  belongs  to  some  unauthorised  source,  or  was  at 
least  put  into  circulation  by  a  pretender  or  usurper. 

Our  Catalogue  of  Mints,  shewing  approximately  at  least 
all  the  places  on  the  Continent  which  at  various  times 
have  been  employed  as  seats  of  coinage,  no  less  than 
those  of  Denominations  and  Rulers,  will,  it  is  trusted,  be 
found  of  service  and  interest.  Many  of  the  localities  still 
retain  their  importance  and  the  distinction  of  coining  for  the 
region  to  which  they  belong ;  others,  from  fundamental 
political  changes,  have  long  ceased  to  be  centres  of  activity, 
or  have  at  all  events  lost  their  numismatic  associations  ;  and 
of  a  few  little  beyond  the  site  is  at  present  known.  One  or 
two  towns,  which  must  have  possessed  at  one  period  trade 
and  power,  have  altogether  disappeared,  and  survive  only  in 
numismatic  and  other  records. 

It  is  more  than  possible  that  in  certain  cases  we  have 
erred  in  ascribing  the  coinage  of  money  to  given  localities  ; 
but  we  have  never  done  so  without  a  careful  consideration 
of  all  the  circumstances  and  probabilities. 

The  disparity  in  the  mechanical  execution  of  continental 
coins  is  too  conspicuous  to  escape  observation  ;  it  is  a 
phenomenon  which  affects  certain  periods  more  than  others, 
certain  metals,  or  certain  parts  of  a  series.  The  gold  money 
appears,  as  a  rule,  to  have  been  treated  with  greater  care  ; 
while  the  silver  of  low  standard,  so  largely  used  over  the 
whole  world  for  small  values,  before  copper  grew  more 
general,  met  with  almost  invariable  neglect,  as  it  has,  from 
its  nature,  descended  to  us  in  the  same  deplorable  state  as 
the  "brazen-nose"  shillings  of  Henry  VIII.  of  England. 
But  even  the  silver  currency  of  France  down  to  the  Napoleon 
epoch  is  notoriously  ill-struck,  and  collectors  find  it  hard  to 
secure  for  their  cabinets  really  fine  specimens  either  of  the 
early  French  or  the  Franco-Italian  series,  nay,  of  the  coins 
of  Louis  XIV.  XV.  and  XVI.  and  of  the  First  Republic. 
The  gigliati,  gold  sequins,  and  other  money  of  the  Knights  of 
St.  John  of  Jerusalem  are  almost  invariably  poor  from  a 
similar  cause.  On  the  contrary,  the  good  work  which  soon 

Introduction  33 

began  to  appear  on  the  German  and  Netherland  currencies, 
is  generally  shewn  to  the  best  advantage  by  the  staff  of  the 
mint-master  ;  and  it  is  a  pleasure  to  meet  with  a  mediaeval 
piece  in  high  preservation,  where  the  skilfully -executed 
portrait  or  other  design  is  as  fresh  as  when  it  left  the  die, 
and  is  perfect  in  all  its  elaborate  details.  The  mintage  is 
obviously  as  paramount  in  importance  as  the  part  played  by 
the  moneyer  ;  for  the  finest  production  may  be  marred  in 
the  striking,  while  the  utility  to  the  student  of  the  most 
barbarous  effort  peculiarly  depends  on  the  choice  of  an 
adequate  flan  and  a  successful  transfer  to  it  of  the  type. 

Perhaps  there  is  no  country  in  Europe  where  the  weight 
of  the  money  has  fluctuated  more  than  in  Russia,  and  yet 
there  is  none  where,  from  the  great  numismatic  revolution 
under  Peter  the  Great,  the  coinage  in  every  metal  has  been 
carried  out  with  greater  care,  and  where  so  few  weakly-struck 
pieces  have  been  produced,  or  at  least  suffered  to  pass. 

A  natural  fruit  of  the  always  increasing  monetary  inter- 
change among  the  various  divisions  of  Europe  was  the 
mutual  imitation  of  types  by  moneyers  in  quest  of  novel  or 
improved  designs.  We  find  from  the  very  outset  the  Mero- 
vingian dynasty  in  France,  the  Visigoths  in  Spain,  the 
Anglo-Saxons  in  England,  even  the  Italians,  copying  with 
a  varied  measure  of  skill  and  success  the  products  of  the 
mints  of  Utrecht  and  West  Friesland  in  the  Low  Countries, 
and  the  German  types.  The  Netherlands,  on  their  side, 
adopted  the  English  rose  -  noble,  the  Swiss  dicken,  the 
Bolognese  lira,  the  Brunswick  thaler,  the  Hungarian  gold 
type  of  Virgin  and  Child,1  the  French  gros,  the  last  a  piece 
of  which  the  germ  is  Oriental.  Throughout  Eastern  Europe 
the  Byzantine  influence  and  style  were  followed  with  an 
intermixture  of  Arab  and  Tartar  feeling  ;  in  the  North,  and 
eventually  in  the  West,  through  immigrants  or  invaders,  the 
Teutonic  models  prevailed  ;  and,  finally,  in  the  South — in 

1  What  is  generally  known  as  the  Hungarian  type,  or  Italian  ungaro  of  gold, 
limited  itself  to  reproducing  the  small  full-length  portrait  on  obverse.  But  the 
Netherlands  copied  the  whole,  including  the  of  course  incongruous  legend.  This 
rather  favourite  pattern,  as  far  as  the  portrait  went,  was  copied  by  the  Medici 
and  other  Italian  rulers. 


34  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  Two  Sicilies  notably — the  current  money  was  a  tolerably 
faithful  reflex  of  the  successive  races  which  obtained  a  footing 
on  that  soil. 

All  sorts  of  obscure  and  accidental  circumstances  con- 
tributed to  govern  the  countless  varieties  or  modifications  of 
fabric  and  character  which  now  represent  the  European 
family  of  current  coins,  and  favoured  the  tendency  to  borrow 
what  was  evidently  treated  as  public  property — the  happiest 
experiments  in  numismatic  art.  On  the  innumerable  inde- 
pendent townships  and  seigniorial  fiefs  which  swell  the  propor- 
tions of  our  Catalogue  of  Mints,  the  neighbourhood  of  a  power- 
ful and  permanent  central  authority,  with  affinity  of  language 
and  religion,  naturally  operated  toward  the  spread  of  certain 
favourite  and  familiar  coins  over  a  region,  and  even  from 
one  region  to  others  ;  and  this  incidence  has  sometimes 
created  a  difficulty  in  assigning  pieces  to  their  true  patria. 

The  trading  caravans  by  land,  and  the  annual  fleets  of 
the  Italian  republics  and  other  maritime  commercial  states 
of  Europe,  with  the  great  periodical  fairs  and  the  constant 
movements  of  troops,  were  the  distributing  agents  in  times 
when  modern  travelling  was  almost  unknown,  and  was  chiefly 
undertaken  with  a  military  or  a  diplomatic  object. 

Denominations,  as  well  as  types,  were  freely  appropriated 
under  the  ancient  system  of  monetary  economy ;  and  it 
strikes  us  as  a  personal  trait  on  the  part  of  an  imperious  and 
irascible  pontiff,  rather  than  a  gauge  or  test  of  the  average 
sentiment  of  the  period,  when  Sixtus  V.  excommunicated  the 
Marquis  of  Castiglione  for  copying  a  small  papal  coin  known 
as  a  picciolo. 


A  good  deal  of  perplexity  and  inconvenience  has  been 
occasioned,  in  regard  .to  the  older  continental  money,  by 
the  want  of  some  authority  for  determining  the  actual 
nomenclature.  The  circumstances  under  which  appellations 
were  bestowed  by  accident  or  design  were  so  remote  and 
even  so  obscure,  that  it  has  only  been  by  a  gradual  process 

Introduction  35 

and  by  co-operative  research  that  the  true  distinctive  terms 
have  been  to  a  large  extent  recovered,  and  even  now  there 
exists  a  large  assortment  of  pieces,  especially  in  copper,  of 
which  the  correct  denomination  is  uncertain  or  unknown. 
But  the  present  work  will,  it  is  hoped,  contribute  not  incon- 
siderably to  set  this  branch  of  the  question  on  a  clearer  and 
more  satisfactory  footing,  and  to  diminish  the  necessity  for 
specifying  foreign  coins,  of  whatever  country  or  source,  as 
deniers,  oboles,  and  such  other  vague  or  generic  titles.  In 
almost  every  instance  coins  had  their  own  habitat,  and  circu- 
lated within  their  own  appointed  lines  ;  and  the  numismatic 
frontier  was  formerly  observed  and  respected  as  scrupulously 
as  the  political  or  geographical  one. 

Coins  of  foreign  extraction  derived  their  appellations  ( I ) 
from  the  standard  to  which  they  belonged,  as  sol  parisis,gros 
tournois  ;  (2)  from  the  place  of  origin  ;  (3)  from  the  method 
of  original  fabrication,  as  the  rouble  ;  (4)  from  some  con- 
spicuous feature,  as  the  croivn,  the  rider  or  cavalier,  the 
griffin,  the  pkcenix,  the  briquet  (short  sword),  the  cruzado, 
the  glocken-gulden  and  thaler,  the  ecu  or  schild ;  (5)  from 
the  metal  ;  from  the  weight,  as  the  livra  or  livre,  the  onsa, 
the  dracJima,  the  peseta  ;  (6)  from  the  value,  as  the  dnarius, 
the  vintem,  the  denier,  the  cent,  centime,  or  centimo ;  or 
(7)  from  the  monarch  under  whom  they  were  first  introduced 
or  were  current,  as  the  Carolus,  the  PJiilippus,  the  Leopold, 
the  Francois,  the  Louis,  the  Napoleon,  and  (at  Venice)  the 
Marcella  and  Moceniga.1 

The  silver  coinage  of  Capo  d'Istria,  President  of  the  Greek 
Republic,  1828-30,  bore  the  same  symbol  as  his  copper, 
namely,  the  phoenix,  mentioned  above,  and  was  known  under 
that  name  ;  it  was  an  appropriate  one  for  a  scheme  of  national 

As  with  the  English  Jacobus  and  Carolus,  Harry  groat 
and  Edward,  the  inclination  of  the  community  to  identify 
the  public  currency,  as  it  passed  from  hand  to  hand,  with 

1  It  is  necessary  to  observe  that  nearly  all  the  foreign  numismatists  translate 
terms  and  names  into  their  own  language,  and  thus  often  mislead  the  inquirer. 
The  French  are  the  worst  culprits  in  this  direction  ;  everything  and  everybody  has 
to  be  re  baptized. 

36  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  reigning  prince  or  his  family,  was  one  which  the  Crown 
had  every  reason  to  encourage.1  It  was  a  practice  which 
tended  to  familiarise  and  endear  the  features  of  the  sovereigns 
to  thousands  who  had  never  beheld,  and  might  die  without 
beholding,  the  individual  ;  and  the  engraver  often  succeeded 
in  idealising,  so  as  to  convey  a  favourable  notion  of  the 
personality  of  the  king  or  queen,  if  he  did  not  go  so  far  as 
the  artists  of  Greece,  when  they  produced  deified  resemblances 
of  great  rulers,  and  led  an  ignorant  and  unlettered  nation 
to  look  upon  them  as  allied  to  the  immortals. 

We  ought  to  feel  very  well  satisfied  that  so  many,  not 
only  of  the  technical  terms,  but  of  what  may  be  called  the 
vernacular  or  sobriquets,  bestowed  on  early  continental  coins, 
have  been  recoverable  ;  and  we  must  not  be  surprised  that 
some,  the  product  of  a  temporary  feeling  or  a  humorous 
fancy,  are  unintelligible  even  to  the  country  of  their  birth. 

The  legends  on  Teutonic  coins,  both  German  and 
Netherlandish,  were  ordinarily  in  Latin,  but  occasionally  in 
the  vernacular.  There  is  an  urban  silver  crown  or  gulden 
of  Nimmhegen,  1565,  with  Dutch  inscriptions;  the  modern 
Belgian  Government  has  recently  adopted  the  practice  of 
using  the  national  language  for  this  purpose. 

It  is  a  curious,  and  not  uninteresting,  study  to  pass 
under  review  a  selection  from  the  various  European  series 
appertaining  to  a  period  of  despotic  and  oppressive  rule,  and 
to  take  note  of  the  pious,  sympathetic,  and  paternal  senti- 
ments which  are  engraved  on  the  money.  We  hear  of  little 
but  clemency  and  justice,  noble  and  unselfish  devotion  to  the 
general  welfare,  contempt  of  lucre,  reliance  on  the  Almighty 
or  on  some  patron-saint.  On  the  contrary,  the  extremely 
valuable  assortment  of  siege  pieces  tells  a  very  different  tale : 
of  cruel,  unbearable  tyranny,  of  sordid  greed,  of  insolent 
arrogance,  of  paltry  treachery,  of  popular  despair.  Such 
mottoes  as  we  encounter  on  the  coins  of  the  Netherlands 
under  Spanish  misrule  are  eloquent  enough  :  Aid  us  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord !  Save  us,  O  Lord ;  we  perisli  !  From 

1  See   Cat.   of  Denominations  under   "Carolus,"    "Frangois,"    "Leopold," 
"  Napoleon,"  etc. 

Introduction  3  7 

the  lowest  depths  ^ve  cry  unto  Tkeey  O  Lord  /  Others  point  a 
similar  moral,  but  are  more  restrained,  as  Jure  et  Tempore, 
Pro  Rcge  et  Patrid,  Hcec  Libertatis  ergo.  We  can  afford — 
the  Italians  and  Sicilians  themselves  can  afford  to  smile, 
when  they  take  up  an  old  piece  of  the  Bourbons  with  Publica 
Felicitas  or  Securitas  Publica ;  a  copper  coin  of  the  Two 
Sicilies  (seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries)  is  even  termed 
a  publica  ;  we  read  on  some  of  the  reverses  of  the  currency 
of  the  Knights  of  Malta,  Non  ^s,  sed  Fides  ;  and  a  favourite 
sentence  is  Cliristo  Auspice  Regno.  On  a  piece  of  Philip  II. 
struck  for  the  Low  Countries  about  1585,  we  meet  with 
such  sentences  as  Hilaritas  universa  and  Pace  et  Justitia} 
The  interesting  variety  of  the  Netherlandish  2  oort  and  Hard 
with  the  reading  on  the  reverse  -Avx.  Nos  in  Nom.  Dom.  was, 
like  the  majority  of  political  movements,  a  gradual  evolution. 
The  original  pieces,  of  which  there  is  a  tolerably  long  and 
regular  series,  bore  on  the  obverse  a  portrait  of  Philip  II. 
and  his  title  as  King  of  Spain,  and  on  the  other  side  a 
shield  of  arms  with  the  remainder  of  his  honours.  The  first 
revolutionary  step  was  to  substitute,  in  15/7,  for  the  royal 
bust  the  kneeling  or  seated  figure  of  a  man  within  a  hedge 
beckoning  for  assistance,  and  the  supplicatory  reading  above- 
mentioned  ;  the  next  replaced  the  shield  with  the  name  of 
the  province  issuing  the  money  ;  and  at  length  we  find  the 
figure  removed  to  make  room  for  the  lion  grasping  in  his 
claw  the  staff  surmounted  by  the  bonnet.  Such  is  the 
numismatic  story  in  little  of  a  noble,  prolonged,  and  patient 
struggle  for  freedom.  Apart  from  the  protest  and  assertion 
which  these  changes  conveyed,  the  employment  of  the  coinage 
as  a  political  vehicle  helped  to  educate  the  popular  eye  and 
thought  in  the  new  doctrines  of  self-government. 

It  is  for  their  multifarious  interest  and  value  in  preserving 
for  the  consideration  and  sympathy  of  later,  and  the  latest, 
ages  fugitive — though  acute  and  profound — exigencies,  that 

1  Some  instructive   particulars   under   this  head  may  be  found  in  Armand, 
"  Tables  de  Legendes  "  apud  his  Medailleurs  Italiens,  1883-87. 

2  Two  specimens  before  us,  lent   by  Mr.    W.    Stampa  Lambert,  are  dated 
respectively  1577  and  1578,  and  give  the  titles  of  Philip  as  Count   of  Holland 
and  Zeeland. 

38  The  Coins  of  Europe 

we  should  prize  our  Money  of  Necessity  of  every  region 
and  period.  We  have  elsewhere  spoken  of  the  excellent 
monograph  of  M.  le  Colonel  Maillet ;  it  is  wonderful  for  its 
completeness  and  accuracy,  and  for  the  story  which  it  tells — 
a  story  of  all  nations.  That  it  might  be  improved,  goes 
without  saying  ;  and  the  process  might  perhaps  be  directed 
both  to  the  withdrawal  of  existing  matter  and  the  insertion 
of  new.  In  one  sense  and  way  it  may  be  predicated  of  the 
entire  coinage  of  the  Netherlands,  emanating  from  the 
Hollanders  or  Brabanters  themselves  during  the  transitional 
era  (1570-90),  that  it  was  the  product  of  a  whole  people  in 
a  state  of  siege. 


The  benevolent  motives  of  sovereigns,  enunciated  on 
their  currency,  went  hand  in  hand  with  their  claims  to  a 
divine  origin  and  sanction.  It  seems  to  have  been  in  the 
ninth  century  that  the  European  ruler  sought  to  add  to 
the  security  of  his  throne  by  declaring  himself  to  sit  there 
by  the  grace  of  God.  The  alliance  between  Church  and 
State  was  on  a  different  footing  when  this  pronunziamento, 
now  a  mere  formula,  was  originally  introduced  ;  nor  was  it 
by  any  means  universal  even  on  the  currency  of  the  divinely- 
born  House  of  Hanover.  The  great  aim  of  the  secular  and 
ecclesiastical  authorities  was  to  uphold  each  other  at  the 
cost  of  the  community  ;  and  we  see  how  the  Christiana 
Religio  and  Temple  type  was  favoured  by  the  Prankish 
kings,  and  continued  by  the  emperors.  In  some  of  the 
Brunswick  thalers  the  D.G.  of  the  legend  precedes  the 
rehearsal  of  the  name  and  titles,  as  if  it  were  thought  to  be 
the  primary  object  to  catch  the  eye  and  arrest  the  attention. 

In  an  excessively  rare  daalder  of  Hermann  Theodor 
Van  Bronkhorst,  Heer  Van  Stein,  etc.,  there  is  the  unusual 
motto  (for  the  Low  Countries)  of  Posvi  Devm  Adjvtorem 
qv\etn\  Timcbo. 

On  the  other  hand,  at  the  French  Revolution  in  1792, 
the  Democratic  party  crossed  over  to  the  opposite  side,  and 

Introduction  39 

placed  on  the  coinage,  in  lieu  of  the  Dei  Gratiti,  the  motto 
La  Nation,. La  Loi,  Le  Roi ;  and  in  1874  the  younger  Don 
Carlos  struck  money  with  Dios,  Patria,  y  Rey.  Napoleon 
never  used  the  Dei  Gratia,  and  was  here  followed  by  the 
Orleanists  and  by  his  nephew.  The  usage  was  at  all  times 
far  from  general  on  the  Continent  ;  and  it  seems  to  be  falling 
into  desuetude. 

Not  merely  did  the  titular  designations  of  many- 
European  sovereigns  outlive  any  actual  or  substantial 
sovereignty  over  particular  districts  or  regions,  but  the 
names  of  emperors  were  retained  during  centuries  after 
their  death  on  the  coinages  of  those  places  which  had  been 
accustomed  to  enjoy  partial  numismatic  independence,  as  in 
the  case  of  many  of  the  Italian  republics  and  German 
and  Low-Country  municipalities  or  seigniorial  fiefs.  The 
Kings  of  Spain  clang  to  the  title  of  Kings  of  the  Indies,  the 
Kings  of  England  to  that  of  Kings  of  France  ;  Henry  III. 
of  France  never  discontinued  the  addition  to  his  honours 
of  King  of  Poland  ;  princes  of  the  House  of  Hohenstaufen 
occur  on  the  money  of  Italian  cities  long  after  the  extinction 
of  the  dynasty  ;  and  in  the  seventeenth  century  Charles  V. 
is  found  on  the  ecus  of  Besangon  and  the  daalders  of  the 
Netherlands.  The  portrait  of  William  the  Silent  is  found 
on  a  piece  of  1687,  struck  in  gold  to  pass  for  fifty  guldens  ; 
and  that  of  Dudley,  Earl  of  Leicester,  remained  on  the 
Dutch  money  after  his  death  and  the  abandonment  by 
Elizabeth  of  the  cause. 

The  surrender  of  so  many  of  the  mediaeval  states  of 
Europe  to  the  supposititious  patronage  of  the  names  belong- 
ing to  the  Christian  hagiology,  commencing  with  the  St. 
Michael  types  of  the  Lombard  kings  and  dukes,  and  the 
celebrated  piece  of  Grimoald  IV.  Duke  of  Beneventum 
(806-17),  bearing  the  legend  Archangelvs  Michael,  became 
very  detrimental  to  the  original  and  artistic  treatment  of 
coins,  which,  as  media  of  general  exchange  and  of  every-day 
transactions,  were  regarded,  in  a  far  larger  measure  than 
medals,  appropriate  vehicles  for  the  expression  of  the  local 
popular  belief,  and  for  the  assertion  of  the  secular  authority. 

40  The  Coins  of  Europe 

The  figure  of  .the  patron-saint,  the  symbol  of  the  Cross,  and 
the  portrait  and  titles  of  the  rulers  or  government,  are 
prevailing  characteristics  on  early  numismatic  monuments. 
At  Venice,  St.  Mark  ;  at  Naples,  St.  Januarius  ;  at  Florence, 
St  John  ;  at  Genoa,  in  Hungary,  in  Bavaria,  the  Virgin 
Mary  ;  and  in  Marisfeldt,  in  Russia,  at  Saluzzo,  Mantua, 
Ferrara,  and  elsewhere,  St.  George  ;  and  so  through  the 
Calendar — strike  us  as  monotonous  ;  and  we  turn  with  a 
feeling  of  relief  and  satisfaction  to  a  view  of  some  city,  a 
piece  of  architecture,  a  shield  of  arms,  even  if  rather  puzzling 
and  mysterious,  or  to  the  Wolf  and  Twins,  or  the  Three 
Graces,  on  coins  of  Piacenza.  The  culture  of  Florence, 
Urbino,  and  Ferrara,  and  the  wealth,  taste,  and  opportun- 
ities of  the  Venetians,  might  have  led  us  to  look  for  some 
digression  from  commonplace,  yet  there  is  only  the  striking 
series  of  Medicean  portraits  in  the  one  case,  and  in  the  other 
the  memorial  of  the  Battle  of  Lepanto  in  the  shape  of  the 
Giustina  where,  in  lieu  of  a  battle-scene  or  other  suitable 
embellishment,  we  get  nothing  but  a  figure  of  the  saint,  on 
whose  day  the  engagement  took  place.  At  Venice  the 
denominations  are  unusually  numerous  ;  but  the  spirit  of 
invention  was  absent,  and  the  types  were  differentiated  to 
the  most  limited  extent. 

The  adoption  of  St.  George  by  Russia  and  by  Ferrara 
suggests  the  mention  of  two  curious  coincidences.  In  a 
grosso  of  Ercole  I.  D'Este  of  Ferrara  (1471-1505)  the 
reverse  exhibits  a  horseman  derived  from  some  ancient 
Greek  medal  ;  but  in  a  danaro  of  the  same  prince  the  type 
has  been  altered  to  St.  George  and  the  Dragon.  In  the 
coinage  of  a  region  at  that  period  in  every  sense  so  distant 
from  Italy  as  Russia,  the  myth  evidently  originated  in  an 
equally  casual  way.  A  denga  of  Alexander  of  Poland,  struck 
for  Lithuania  (1501-1  506),  bears  on  one  side  simply  a  horse- 
man ;  in  one  of  Ivan  the  Terrible,  Duke  of  Muscovy 
(1533-84),  there  is  a  spear  in  the  rider's  hand  and  a  vestige 
of  a  monster  below  ;  and  in  a  lo-kopek  piece  of  Peter  the 
Great  (1682-1725),  struck  about  1704,  the  whole  legend  is 
displayed.  Yet  even  then  there  was  some  degree  of 

Introduction  4 1 

indecision  as  to  the  permanent  acceptance  of  the  canonised 
Cappadocian  contractor,  who  possibly  presented  a  portion  of 
his  plunder  to  the  priests  ;  for  a  pattern  kopek  of  Peter, 
1701,  a  current  one  of  1711,  and  a  pattern  of  1724,  shew 
only  a  mounted  spearman,  while  a  pattern  of  1723  inserts 
the  dragon.  The  saint  ultimately  triumphed,  and  appears  on 
a  kopek  of  Catherine  I.  1727,  and  on  subsequent  kopeks 
and  their  multiples,  and  on  some  of  the  silver  money,  but 
with  constantly  diminishing  prominence  in  modern  days. 
An  Italian  (Pistrucci),  who  should  have  been  capable  by 
tradition  of  achieving  something  better,  brought  him  to 
England,  and  placed  him  on  the  money  of  George  III.  Any 
other  Government  in  Europe  would  have  dismissed  him  from 
its  service  for  such  a  wretched  abortion. 

There  are  one  or  two  remaining  aspects  of  this  part  of 
the  subject  worth  notice  and  attention.  The  canonisation  of 
monarchs  or  rulers,  usually  after  their  death,  as  in  the  cases 
of  Edward  the  Confessor  and  Henry  VI.  of  England,  the 
Emperor  Henry  II.  of  Germany,  Philip  le  Beau,  Duke  of 
Burgundy,  and  St.  Stephen  and  St.  Lladislaus  of  Hungary, 
formed  a  circumstance  of  which  their  successors,  as  a  rule, 
took  the  fullest  advantage,  by  perpetuating  their  sanctity  on 
the  coins  of  subsequent  reigns.  The  legend  of  St.  Lladislaus 
is  preserved  on  the  reverses  of  the  money  of  Matthias 
Corvinus  two  centuries  later ;  and  a  noble  gold  piece  of 
Maximilian  the  Great  of  Bavaria,  1598,  exhibits  on  one 
side  a  small  full-length  in  armour  and  imperial  robes,  with 
sceptre  and  globe,  of  Henry  II.  who  died  in  1024.  This 
policy  tended  to  shed  a  religious  halo  over  the  throne,  and 
to  confer  on  the  occupants  a  species  of  divine  origin.  The 
same  principle  and  feeling  underlay  the  not  unfrequent 
practice  of  introducing  on  the  face  of  the  coinage  the 
delivery  of  the  national  banner  by  the  patron-saint  to  the 
reigning  prince  ;  the  ceremony  imported  or  suggested  a 
superhuman  delegation  of  power,  of  which,  even  in  such 
commercial  states  as  Venice  and  Florence,  the  standard  was 
the  embodiment  and  symbol. 

Another  respect,  in  which  the  same  principle  was  kept 

4 2  The  Coins  of  Europe 

in  view,  was  where  a  prince  favoured  the  association  with 
his  currency  of  a  saint  his  namesake,  as  we  see  in  several 
instances.  Two  members  of  one  illustrious  Dutch  house,  that 
of  Brederode,  Henry  of  Brederode  and  Oswald  II.,  introduced 
upon  their  coinage  St.  Henry  and  St.  Oswald.  It  brought 
them  at  least  one  degree  nearer  to  the  Calendar. 


The  express  notation  of  value  on  the  face  of  a  coin, 
which  is  not  found  on  the  earlier  continental  money,  seems 
only  to  have  been  introduced,  and  then  very  sparingly,  when 
the  enlargement  of  intercourse  between  States,  and  the  changes 
of  frontier  by  conquest,  gradually  accomplished  a  revolution 
in  the  old  system,  under  which  each  limited  currency  was 
restricted  to  a  narrow  and  definite  radius,  and  the  worth,  as 
well  as  name,  of  every  piece  was  well  understood  to  the  few 
concerned.  The  multiplication  of  mints  ordinarily  meant 
that  of  more  or  less  variant  types  ;  and  the  light  shed  on 
the  origin  of  a  piece  by  the  legend  conveyed  no  intelligence 
to  the  popular  mind.  For  instance,  on  the  Merovingian, 
Carlovingian,  and  Anglo-Saxon  coinage  we  meet  with 
nothing  but  the  names  of  the  sovereign  and  the  moneyer, 
—perhaps  the  former,  perhaps  the  latter,  alone — in  barbarous 
and  illiterate  Latin.  The  inscription  merely  served  as  an 
official  record  ;  yet  the  general  appearance  and  weight  of 
the  denarius  or  penny  may  have  sufficed  as  a  passport  ; 
and  the  circulation  was  at  first  bound  to  be  circumscribed. 

The  formal  resort  to  convention-money  long  remained 
exceptional  on  the  Continent,  and  always  continued  to  be 
very  incomplete.  But  practically,  as  is  still  the  case  with 
very  few  reservations,  money  of  recognised  character  and 
weight  in  the  more  precious  metals  was  accepted  with  or 
without  countermarks,  and  even  early  copper  coins  occur 
with  evident  traces  of  having  travelled  far  beyond  their  legal 
boundaries.  The  mixed  complexion  of  some  of  the  large 
hoards  discovered  in  England  testify  to  this  practice. 

Introduction  43 

It  was  upon  the  last-named  description  of  specie,  how- 
ever, that  the  idea  of  stamping  the  settled  rate  was  first, 
we  believe,  carried  out  ;  coins  of  the  lower  denominations 
were  precisely  those  which  passed  through  the  most  ignorant 
hands  ;  and  the  employment  of  numerals  facilitated  com- 
prehension while  it  checked  deceit.  The  chronology  of  the 
currency,  except  in  special  pieces,  designed  to  signalise  an 
important  event,  was  as  much  disregarded  by  the  authorities 
during  centuries  as  the  standard  of  exchange  ;  it  was  the 
greater  frequency  of  issues,  with  the  diminishing  ratio  per- 
haps of  small  local  mints,  and  the  sense  of  convenience,  which 
slowly  led  to  the  habitual  insertion  of  the  period  of  mintage. 

The  principle  of  authenticating  coins  as  those  of  a  given 
prince  or  moneyer,  if  not  of  both,  came  first  ;  then  followed 
that  of  publishing  the  denomination  ;  then  the  date  ;  finally 
the  value. 

Special  attention  must  be  invited  to  the  continental 
initiative  in  dating  coins,  and  to  the  important  series  of 
pieces  bearing  the  year  of  production.  The  earliest  examples 
commence  with  the  first  half  of  the  eighth  century,  and 
belong  to  the  Moorish  kings  of  Granada,  many  of  whose 
coins,  struck  in  Europe,  bear  the  year  of  the  Hegira  ;  the 
next,  whose  origin  is  also  in  part  Oriental,  belong  to  Apulia, 
where  we  find  gold  pieces  of  Roger  II.  (i  105-54)  with  the 
words  An\no\  R\egnt\  X.  Germany  seems  to  take  the 
third  place.  There  is  a  gros  tournois  of  Aix-la-Chapelle  of 
1422  ;  the  Swiss  plappart  of  1424  ;  and  also,  longo  intervallo, 
the  gold  ducat  of  the  Palatinate,  1437,  which  last  is  not 
very  uncommon,  and  exists  in  more  than  a  single  variety. 
But  except  in  priority  of  time,  the  thalers  of  Austria  from 
1479  to  1518,  and  the  Joachim  thalers  of  Bohemia,  with  one 
or  two  in  ,the  Saxon  coinage,  are  perhaps  of  superior  interest. 
The  piece  struck  at  the  marriage  of  Maximilian  I.  with 
Mary  of  Burgundy,  in  1477,  is  the  first  coin  of  that  deno- 
mination of  which  the  chronology  can  be  absolutely  fixed, 
and  the  portraits  of  the  young  couple  render  it  highly 
attractive  and  desirable,  especially  in  that  variety  where  the 
Arch-Duchess  appears  in  a  steeple  bonnet  and  veil.  The 

44  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Low  Countries  seem  to  have  nothing  anterior  to  1475  m 
any  metal  or  form.  But  after  that  period  the  principle  was 
carried  out  very  generally  on  the  Continent.  Denmark  re- 
sorted to  the  practice  in  1496,  Brittany  in  1498,  Branden- 
burgh  in  1500,  Saluzzo  in  1503,  Savoy  in  1508,  Scotland  in 
1539,  England  in  1551.  But  the  observance  was  by  no 
means  universal  or  invariable  even  among  those  nations 
which  introduced  it.  The  value  to  posterity  was  not  the 
motive,  although  at  present  it  is  the  consideration  which 
recommends  it  to  us. 


Scarcely  any  substance  can  be  mentioned  of  which  in  some 
region  or  at  some  period  coins  have  not  been  struck.  Gold, 
electrum,  platinum,  silver,  tin,  iron,  lead,  copper,  glass,  porce- 
lain, leather,  paper,  salt,  not  to  mention  shells  and  beads  ; 
all  these  have  constituted  the  material  whence  men  have 
supplied  themselves  with  the  means  of  exchange,  when  some 
process  outside  mere  barter  became  requisite  or  feasible. 
Among  all  such  devices  the  application  of  the  six  last-named 
products  to  numismatic  purposes  may  be  considered  more 
especially  remarkable,  since  we  somehow  associate  a  currency 
with  the  various  metals,  from  a  natural  preference  for  a  token 
at  once  portable  and  negotiable. 

Within  the  confines  of  Europe  itself,  leather,  paper,  and 
salt  have  been  employed  as  representatives  of  values  in  early 
times.  The  Russians,  after  the  abandonment  of  whole  skins, 
used  irregular  strips  and  then  circular  blanks  of  leather, 
stamped  with  some  type  at  a  remote  date ;  and  specimens 
are  said  to  survive.  At  the  siege  of  Leyden  in  1574  pieces 
of  5,  10,  and  20  sols,  formed  of  the  leaves  of  missals,  were 
accepted  in  payment.  The  ancient  inhabitants  of  Venetia, 
like  those  of  Hindoostan  in  more  recent  days,  recognised 
impressed  cakes  of  salt  as  an  equivalent  for  a  coinage,  and 
the  Abyssinians  employ  for  the  same  purpose  rock-salt 
in  bar. 

Introduction  45 

The  use  of  copper  as  a  material  for  currency  has  been 
uninterrupted  from  the  earliest  coinage  of  the  Greeks  in  that 
metal  to  the  present  day.  The  British  and  Northumbrian 
series,  running  concurrently  with  the  Byzantine  money,  were 
followed  by  the  curious  pieces  struck  for  Hungary,  the 
Norman  kingdom  of  Sicily,  and  for  certain  feudal  possessions 
in  Germany  and  the  Netherlands.  In  the  fifteenth  century 
Italy,  Spain,  and  Portugal  began  to  employ  the  metal ;  we 
have  tolerably  abundant  examples  of  the  Papacy,  Venice, 
Castile,  and  Arragon,  and  the  earlier  Portuguese  kings. 
From  this  period  the  supply  has  been  more  or  less  copious, 
and  the  continuity  unbroken.  But  it  may  be  observed  that 
among  the  latest  countries  to  adopt  copper  were  France, 
Russia,  Sweden,  Norway,  Denmark,  and  (after  the  cessation 
of  the  Northumbrian  mint)  Great  Britain,  unless  we  consider 
the  Gaulish  copies  of  Roman  brass  as  entering  into  the  same 
category  as  the  stycas  of  Northumbria  and  the  copper  and 
tin  pieces  of  Southern  Britain  ;  and  again  there  is  always, the 
doubt  to  which  side  of  the  Channel  many  of  these  latter 
examples  owed  their  first  rise. 

An  interesting  feature  in  the  copper  series  of  any  country 
is  that  they  were  essentially  for  popular  use,  and  above  all 
so  in  cases  where  daily  commodities  were  obtainable  for  low 
denominations,  and  the  public  call  for  articles  of  higher  price 
was  chronically  restricted.  When  the  primitive  nature  of 
exchange,  first  by  barter  and  secondly  by  bullion,  was 
partially  superseded  by  the  employment  of  tokens  (inonetce)  of 
fixed  and  recognised  value,  apart  from  weight,  copper  soon 
came  into  use  as  a  medium  for  retail  trade,  and  the  import- 
ance of  a  trustworthy  and  uniform  standard  was  discerned 
by  the  Romans,  who  by  law  required  the  sanction  of  the 
Senate  for  issues  in  this  metal,  though  not  in  the  others.  It 
was  the  money  of  the  people,  and  was  the  principal  factor  in 
supplying  their  common  wants,  as  well  as  in  furnishing  the 
pay  of  the  soldier.  The  vast  quantity  of  small  brass 
pieces  of  Roman  fabric  still  existing,  and  the  innumer- 
able mints  from  which  they  issued,  demonstrates  the 
enormous  demand  for  them  at  the  time  ;  and  during 

46  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  Middle  Ages  they  continued  to  pass  in  France, 
if  not  elsewhere,  in  default  of  small  coinage,  at  an  under- 
stood rate. 

The  copper  coin  remained  in  modern  times  the  special 
machinery  for  all  ordinary  transactions  of  small  amount,  and 
its  early  introduction  into  those  European  states  which  were 
the  pioneers  in  commerce  and  discovery,  was  a  step  at  once 
wise  and  convenient.  The  Arabian  and  Norman  settlers 
in  the  Two  Sicilies  were '  followed  in  this  respect  by  the 
Spaniards  and  the  Netherlanders,  the  Venetians  and  Portu- 
guese ;  and  in  some  instances,  as  at  Ragusa  in  Sicily, 
we  find  copper  money  of  Roman  type  and  fabric,  and 
of  admirable  execution,  current  during  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuries.  In  parts  of  Holland,  even  in  the 
fourteenth  century,  there  was  already  seigniorial  or  feudal 
money  in  copper.  In  the  later  half  of  the  fifteenth,  Pesaro 
in  Italy  possessed  a  currency,  like  Venice,  in  copper  sesmi, 
bearing  on  the  obverse  the  effigy  of  Giovanni  Sforza  (1483- 
1510),  and  on  the  reverse  the  significant  words  Pvblicae 
Commoditati.  A  copper  grano  of  Malta  of  1629  reads  on 
reverse  Hospitali  Hiervsalem  Vt  Commodivs,  Almost  within 
our  own  time  Portugal,  though  deposed  from  its  former  rank 
as  a  first-rate  Power,  had  an  issue  of  4O-reis  pieces  in  copper 
of  the  module  of  the  English  twopence  of  1797,  inscribed  in 
a  similar  spirit,  Pvblicae  Vtilitati. 

On  the  Continent  from  at  least  the  sixteenth,  and  in 
England  from  the  seventeenth  century,  the  deficiency  of 
small  change  was  met  by  the  local  issue  of  traders'  tokens  of 
copper  ;  and  in  England,  again,  the  higher  average  of  wealth, 
with  the  existence  of  minor  subdivisions  of  the  silver  penny, 
rendered  the  absence  of  a  currency  in  the  lower  metal  less 
momentous.  It  was  not  till  1672  that  the  confusion  and 
inconvenience  arising  from  the  multiplicity  of  tokens  led  at 
last  to  the  addition  of  a  halfpenny  and  farthing  of  Swedish 
copper  to  the  royal  coinage  ;  and  these  new  denominations 
were  appropriately  designated  Numorum  famuli,  or,  in  other 
words,  pieces  of  humbler  value  for  common  use.  This 
designation  was  exactly  on  continental  lines,  just  as  the 

Introduction  4  7 

material   for    fabricating  the    new  pieces  was   of  continental 


In  ancient  times  the  mutual  association  of  money  with 
weight  on  the  original  theory  and  basis  of  exchange  is  per- 
ceptible in  the  Spartan  iron  currency  and  the  primitive 
Roman  As  and  its  parts  ;  and  when  those  inconvenient 
symbols  had  been  superseded  or  modified,  the  idea  survived 
in  such  terms  as  drachma,  libra,  lira,  livra,  peso,  peseta,  ounce, 
while  among  certain  uncivilised  communities  the  use  of  bars 
lingered  down  to  the  present  time.  The  Hollanders  in  the 
seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries  employed  for  their 
commerce  with  the  East  Indies  and  Ceylon  a  class  of  coinage 
approximate  in  character  to  that  in  vogue  among  the  native 
population — rough  thick  pieces  of  metal,  or  copper  ingots  of 
graduated  lengths,  stamped  with  the  respective  values.  This 
was  a  concession  on  the  part  of  the  European  trader  to  the 
Asiatic,  for  at  that  period  we  know  very  well  that  the 
Low  Countries  were  numismatically  in  a  very  advanced 

The  link  between  the  old  and  modern  systems  is 
strangely  illustrated  by  a  temporary  Franco-Spanish  bronze 
coinage  in  the  South  of  France  in  the  thirteenth-fifteenth 
century.  It  appears  to  have  consisted  of  a  livra,  the  half, 
the  quarter,  and  the  eighth  or  onsa,  so  that  those  responsible 
for  the  output  of  the  series  imagined  and  created  an  artificial 
monetary  pound  of  eight  ounces  ;  and  in  point  of  fact  the 
terminology  imported  a  twofold  use  as  a  coin  and  a  weight. 

In  England  the  heavy  copper  penny  and  twopence  of 
1797,  equivalent  to  one  ounce  and  two  ounces,  was  the  sole 
instance  of  an  approach  to  the  same  principle  ;  and  both 
these  pieces  were  used  as  weights.  But  in  what  may  be 
described  as  recent  days — in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth 
centuries — the  simple  habits  and  ignorance  of  the  Swedish 
and  Russian  peasantry  prompted  a  resort  and  adherence  to 
a  species  of  currency  which  partook  of  the  nature  of  barter 

48  The  Coins  of  Europe 

more  obviously  than  one  adapted   to  a  scientific  standard, 
fixed  and  enforced  by  governments. 

Every  collector  has  probably  met  with  what  are  termed 
weights  belonging  to  different  nationalities  and  periods. 
They  usually  represent  the  correct  standard  of  the  piece 
named  on  them  without  respect  to  the  metallic  value,  as,  for 
instance,  a  copper  weight  balancing  a  gold  ducat  or  real  or 
an  English  sovereign.1  These  contrivances  appear  to  have 
been  intended  to  assist,  when  no  scales  of  suitable  nicety 
were  generally  available,  to  test  the  authenticity  of  coins,  of 
which  the  weight  was  known  through  proclamations  or 
periodical  pamphlets,  such  as  in  the  Low  Countries  they 
designated  Placaets,  and  which  were  issued  at  one  time 
nearly  every  year.  Somewhat  similar  books  of  a  more 
elaborate  character  were  published  abroad,  furnishing  engrav- 
ings of  money  current  in  various  countries,  its  value,  and 
its  weight.  A  very  singular  one,  in  agenda  form,  found  at 
Antwerp,  is  in  the  British  Museum. 

The  very  designation  Or,  pi.  Ore,  applied  to  the  old 
Swedish  copper  specie,  seems  to  be  allied  to  our  word  ore  or 
bullion,  as  if  a  certain  quantity  of  metal  was  originally 
bartered  for  a  certain  quantity  of  goods. 

The  employment  of  ingots  of  gold  and  silver,  which  has 
to  a  certain  extent  survived  among  primitive  communities  in 
the  East  to  the  present  day,  was  doubtless  very  general  so 
long  as  no  coinage  beyond  the  silver  penny  and  its  moiety 
existed  in  any  part  of  Europe.  In  the  celebrated  Cuerdale 
find,  among  a  large  assortment  of  currency  of  Anglo-Saxon 
and  Carlovingian  origin,  occurred  several  of  these  ingots  in 
silver  stamped  with  a  cross,  and  undoubtedly  used  in  com- 
mercial transactions  in  the  eighth  and  ninth  centuries.  So 
long  as  the  monetary  representation  of  such  lumps  of  metal 
was  understood  and  accepted,  the  conduct  of  business  on  a 
larger  scale  was  immensely  facilitated,  more  especially  if 
similar  tokens  or  equivalents  for  value  in  gold  were  also 
once  available.  The  discovery  of  the  hoard  at  Cuerdale  was 
perfectly  fortuitous. 

1  See  Catalogue  of  Denominations,  v.  "  Arnoldus  Gulden." 

Introduction  49 

Immense  quantities  of  those  strange  unwieldy  discs  of 
copper,  stamped  with  a  value  representing  only  the  cost  of 
the  metal,  once  existed  in  Sweden,  where  the  buyer  of 
old  days  must  have  carried  his  money,  not  in  a  purse, 
but  in  a  cart,  and  where  weight  was  almost  evidently  given 
for  weight — a  daler's  worth  of  provisions  or  goods  balancing 
a  daler  itself  in  the  scales.  The  output  and  circulation  of 
gold  and  silver  were  extremely  circumscribed. 

The  introduction  of  this  heavy  and  barbarous  medium 
into  the  Swedish  dominions  was  not,  however,  an  abrupt 
step  or  a  rudimentary  effort ;  for  from  the  reign  of  Gustavus 
Adolphus  (161 1-32)  the  kingdom  had  possessed  the  denom- 
ination known  as  an  or  and  its  divisions.  The  original 
or  resembled  in  fabric,  and  equalled  in  weight,  the  common 
Russian  5 -kopeck  piece  current  from  1758  to  1804,  or 
thereabout;  and  the  ponderous  dalers  of  Charles  XII.  and  his 
successors  amounted  to  an  extension  or  exaggeration  of  this 
currency.  Prior  to  the  or  the  Swredes  had  had  nothing  in 
copper  larger  than  the  mark  of  John  III.  and  a  coin  in  the 
same  metal  and  of  the  same  reign,  called  the  New  Stock- 
holm money  (1573).  In  other  words,  the  abnormal  dalers 
of  the  fifteenth  century  corresponded  with  an  epoch,  not 
of  numismatic  infancy  or  of  rising  power,  but  with  one  of 
decline,  when  the  country  reverted  temporarily  to  primitive 
methods  of  finance,  and  after  about  half  a  century  (1697- 
1747)  of  trial  relinquished  them,  perhaps  from  their  sheer 

In  the  time  of  Catherine  I.  of  Russia  (1725-28)  an 
experiment  was  made  in  the  same  direction  and  from  a 
similar  motive — the  motive  which  actuated  the  primitive 
rulers  of  Sparta  ;  but  no  further  progress  was  made  in  it, 
and  two  or  three  patterns  of  the  square  copper  rouble  and 
kopeck  of  1726  appear  to  be  all  that  survives  of  the 
attempt  to  emulate  Sweden. 

50  The  Coins  of  Europe 


The  respect  for  metrology  appears  to  have  long  remained 
everywhere  very  slight,  and  it  is  difficult  to  comprehend, 
even  in  some  of  the  modern  currencies,  such  as  Austria  and 
Prussia,  whether  any  standard  exists,  or,  if  it  exists,  is 
recognised.  One  of  the  inconveniences  attendant  on  decen- 
tralisation and  an  infinite  number  of  petty  states  was  the 
total  absence  during  centuries  of  any  uniform  basis  of  calcu- 
lation ;  within  a  moderate  radius  a  dozen  currencies  under 
various  names  and  of  conflicting  weights  were  in  force  ;  and 
this  evil  the  convention -money  was  introduced  to  meet 
or  mitigate.  It  is  impossible  to  believe  that  any  settled 
principle  was  known,  or  at  least  followed,  inasmuch  as  the 
same  value  is  found  inscribed  on  pieces  of  the  most 
dissimilar  character  ;  and  whereas  it  appears  to  have  been, 
toward  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century,  considered  expe- 
dient in  parts  of  North  Germany  to  insert  the  reassuring 
phrase  "  good  "  by  way  of  denoting  that  the  coins  are  true 
to  weight,  we  see  a  small  flan  of  copper  marked  III.  Gute 
Groschen,  of  Mecklenburgh-Strelitz,  1793,  and  one  of  Bruns- 
wick in  silver,  about  four  times  as  large  and  about  six  times 
as  heavy,  current  for  16  Gute  Groschen,  1820. 

The  French  possessed  at  an  early  date  two  standards, 
those  of  Paris  and  Tours  ;  but  the  most  ancient  numismatic 
specimens,  posterior  to  the  so-called  Gaulish  money,  were 
independent  of  either  system,  and  belong  to  the  Merovingian 
and  Prankish  series.  The  former  are  almost  exclusively  in 
gold,  the  latter  almost  exclusively  in  silver.  The  Paris 
mint,  before  the  Carlovingian  era,  struck  indeed  nothing 
but  pieces  in  the  most  precious  metal  ;  but  the  Visigoths, 
whose  territories  extended  over  a  considerable  portion  of 
what  is  now  France,  had  their  own  silver  money  in  addition 
to  rudimentary  types  of  the  tremissis  or  triens.  The  Carlo- 
vingian currency,  which  commenced  with  Pepin  le  Bref,  was 
in  its  module  German,  not  French,  and  when  Charlemagne 
improved  the  coinage,  and  issued  deniers  and  oboles  of 

Introduction  5 1 

a  new  type  and  of  good  silver,  a  distinct  era  was  marked 
in  the  Prankish  numismatic  records.  A  reaction  or  relapse, 
however,  took  place  in  the  troubled  times  which  followed 
the  death  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire  in  840 ;  the  period  between 
the  close  of  the  tenth  and  the  middle  of  the  thirteenth 
century  witnessed  a  great  decline  in  the  currency  through- 
out Western  Europe  ;  and  it  was  not  till  the  reign  of  Louis 
IX.  (1226-70),  when  the  Crusades  had  done  so  much 
to  promote  commerce  and  the  arts,  when  in  Italy  the 
Florentines  and  Venetians  had  set  the  example  of  a  gold 
coinage  and  a  fixed  standard,  and  when  in  the  Two  Sicilies 
Frederic  II.  (1220-50)  had  issued  his  augustale^  that  the 
monetary  system  in  France  once  more  received  attention, 
and  underwent  reform.  The  gros  tournois  of  St.  Louis,  of 
which  the  pattern  was  partly  suggested  by  an  Arabic 
dirkem,  not  only  current  in  Spain  at  that  time,  but  in  all 
probability  allowed  to  circulate  in  France  itself,  became  a 
very  popular  and  favourite  coin,  and  was  imitated  both  in 
the  Low  Countries  and  in  Germany.  Its  standard  and 
purity,  which  surpassed  those  of  the  dirhem,  seem  to  have 
been  fairly  maintained,  and  in  the  same  way  as  the  Vene- 
tian and  English  gold  currencies  it  won  the  confidence  of 
the  trader  even  beyond  the  French  frontier. 

Everywhere  the  condition  of  national  money  or  of  local 
currencies  formerly  depended  in  great  measure  on  circum- 
stances, which  were  perpetually  subject  to  change  or  modifica- 
tion ;  and  improvements  were  intermittent  and  spasmodic. 
Occasionally  the  fluctuations  and  irregularities  strike  us  as 
capricious.  Nothing  can  be  much  worse  than  the  French 
silver  coinage  from  Charles  VIII.  to  Henry  IV. — a  period  of 
about  1 20  years  ;  yet  the  gold  fan  in  its  varied  types  did 
not  sensibly  deteriorate,  and  the  copper  currency  of  the  later 
Valois  and  early  Bourbon  monarchs  is  remarkable  for  the  ex- 
cellence of  its  character  and  the  maintenance  of  its  standard. 

We  have  spoken  of  the  development  and  vicissitudes  of 
the  Swedish  copper  coinage,  which,  if  it  were  exhaustively 
treated,  might  form  a  topic  in  itself.  The  Russians  appear 
to  have  followed  in  the  steps  of  their  neighbours  and  rivals 

52  The  Coins  of  Europe 

to  a  certain  extent,  not  only  in  the  rouble  of  1726,  but  in 
those  ponderous  5 -kopek  pieces,  which  were  associated  in 
the  popular  mind  with  value,  and  which  had  their  immediate 
germ  in  the  lo-kopeks  of  1726,  struck  at  the  coronation  of 
Catherine  I.  But  Sweden  also  set  Russia  the  precedent  of 
a  permanent  reduction,  as  the  principles  of  metallic  currency 
became  better  understood,  to  a  more  reasonable  standard 
and  module,  although,  as  will  be  evident  to  anybody  applying 
the  test,  the  latter  Power  has  displayed  at  all  times  an 
indifference  to  metrology  throughout  its  monetary  system, 
which  is  apparently  independent  of  method,  and  leaves  the 
public  convenience  out  of  the  question. 

It  surely  goes  without  saying,  that  if  the  regular  coinage 
of  the  Continent  was  so  untrustworthy,  with  a  few  signal 
exceptions,  that  intended  for  colonial  and  provincial  use,  as 
well  as  the  special  issues  for  the  payment  of  troops  or  for 
other  emergencies,  was  still  more  liable  to  suspicion  and 
criticism  ;  and  the  discrepancy  between  the  intrinsic  and  the 
artificial  values  lay  in  the  metal  no  less  than  in  the  weight. 
To  gain  an  insight  into  this  branch  of  the  inquiry  we  have 
only  to  examine  the  Roman  currency  for  Egypt,  Judaea,  or 
Britain  ;  the  Venetian  for  Albania,  Dalmatia,  or  Cyprus  ;  the 
later  Portuguese  for  Goa  or  Guinea  ;  the  English  for  Ireland  ; 
and  the  French  for  the  lies  de  France  and  the  Mauritius. 

The  exceptions,  which  are  to  be  noted,  are  the  early 
Spanish  and  Portuguese  money  within  the  periods  of  the 
highest  prosperity  of  those  kingdoms;  the  colonial  series  of 
the  East  India  Company,  starting  with  the  portcullis  money 
of  Elizabeth  in  1 600  ;  and  the  equally  creditable  coinage  of 
the  Netherlands  for  their  East  Indian  possessions,  extending 
from  1 60 1,  when  the  piece  of  eight  with  its  divisions  came 
from  the  Amsterdam  mint,  to  the  present  day. 


The  question  of  alloy,  in  common  with  that  of  weight, 
entered   into  the  calculation  of  governments  under  the  old 

Introduction  53 

regime  purely  from  a  commercial  point  of  view.  Trading 
communities,  such  as  the  Italians,  Portuguese,  Spaniards, 
and  Hollanders  in  turn,  appreciated  the  vital  importance  of 
employing  in  their  transactions  with  foreigners  a  medium 
which  was  capable  of  bearing  the  test  of  the  scales  ;  and  it 
affords  a  criterion  of  the  status  of  a  people  when  the  coinage 
begins  to  part  with  its  prestige.  The  Venetians  during  their 
enjoyment  of  prosperity  and  power,  and  from  their  first  rise 
indeed  into  prominence  after  the  fourth  Crusade,  jealously 
preserved  the  integrity  of  their  money  both  in  silver  and 
gold,  and  alike  as  regarded  its  weight  and  its  fineness  ;  and 
we  may  be  at  liberty  to  surmise  that  the  stress  laid  on  those 
points  had  been  originally  inculcated  by  the  necessity  of 
possessing  for  the  Eastern  trade  a  currency  which  would  not 
suffer  from  comparison  with  the  high  Oriental  standard,  and 
would  even  become  at  need  exchangeable  as  bullion.  It 
was  much  the  same  with  the  English  noble,  and  it  is  so  with 
the  modern  English  sovereign.  The  utility  of  gold  as  a 
medium  long  remained  nearly  altogether  commercial  ;  and 
even  in  the  absence  of  treaties  or  a  convention  the  probably 
studied  coincidence  of  a  coinage  in  that  metal  under  various 
names,  but  equivalent  in  value,  throughout  all  the  most 
civilised  parts  of  the  Continent,  aimed  at  the  acceptance  of 
gold  or  even  silver  specie  on  some  international  footing. 
When  the  knowledge  of  printing  and  engraving  began  to 
facilitate  the  production  of  such  books,  the  foreign  bankers 
and  financiers  were  provided,  as  we  have  mentioned,  with 
the  means  of  ascertaining  to  a  fraction  the  current  worth  of 
every  piece  in  circulation  from  one  end  of  Europe  to  the 
other ;  and  before  these  curious  and  interesting  manuals 
existed  in  a  printed  shape,  they  were  to  some  limited  extent 
multiplied  in  manuscript  with  drawings  of  the  coins. 

The  endowment  of  a  person  or  a  locality  with  a  mint 
was  prized,  no  doubt,  as  an  honour  and  a  prerogative  ;  but 
the  tenor  of  documents  and  other  information  seems  to  be 
unanimous  in  shewing  that  the  concession  had  its  commercial 
side,  and  that  even  a  comparatively  small  municipal  centre 
involved  to  the  owner  an  appreciable  amount  of  profit  on 

54  The  Coins  of  Europe 

production  under  any  circumstances.  It  therefore  followed 
that  the  more  the  mint-master  debased  his  issues,  the  greater 
was  the  revenue  arising  to  his  employer,  whether  a  secular 
lord,  an  ecclesiastical  dignitary,  or  a  township.  It  seems  to 
have  been,  so  far,  very  reasonably  and  naturally  a  constant 
incidence  of  the  surrender  of  a  mint  by  the  lord,  if  not  by 
the  Crown,  that  a  proportion  of  the  surplus  after  the  clear- 
ance of  expenses  was  settled  on  the  original  feoffee  ;  and 
long  after  the  mediaeval  period,  in  the  closing  years  of  the 
sixteenth  century,  the  directors  or  lessees  of  the  mint  at 
Montpellier  are  found  engaging  to  give  the  seigneur  of 
Damville  15,000  gold  ecus  to  induce  him  to  close  a  seat  of 
coinage  which  he  had  opened  in  the  vicinity,  and  which,  so 
far  as  we  can  learn,  was  on  a  very  modest  scale.  The  value 
of  the  vested  interest  was  presumably  considerable,  since 
this  was  a  political  juncture,  when  private  individuals  were 
taking  advantage  of  the  general  disorder  in  France  to  strike 
money  in  all  directions  on  their  own  account,  and  the  removal 
of  one  competitor  was  apt  to  favour  the  rise  of  others.  But 
during  centuries,  apart  from  special  circumstances,  the  coinage 
was  regarded  and  employed  as  a  method  of  raising  funds  ; 
and  the  difference  between  the  outlay  and  the  income  varied 
with  the  amount  of  central  control  or  the  financial  needs  of 
the  proprietor.  The  deplorable  spectacle  which  so  much 
of  the  foreign  currency,  till  we  approach  the  middle  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  presents,  is  largely  due  to  the  free  and 
unscrupulous  depreciation  by  personages  in  authority  of 
all  such  species  of  money  as  lent  themselves  to  the  object 
or  repaid  the  process.  The  billon  types  afforded  the 
greatest  temptation  to  the  speculator,  who  was  usually  pre- 
cluded from  striking  gold,  and  could  gain  little  by  tampering 
with  copper.  The  relative  impurity  of  the  metal  was  not  easily 
detected,  and  the  current  rate  remained  unchanged  ;  and  this 
circumstance  may  be  one  way  of  explaining  the  wide  preva- 
lence on  the  Continent  in  former  days  of  plated  currency. 

A  survey  of  the  whole  range  of  European  coins  con- 
vinces us  that  each  region,  enjoying  the  privilege  of  a  mint, 
was  a  law  to  itself,  and  that  the  sole  check  on  a  perfect 

fniroduction  5  5 

disregard  of  economic  fitness  and  justice  was  the  convention- 
money.  But  this  system  was  apparently  limited  to  Northern 
Germany  and  the  Netherlands,  where  it  more  or  less  prevailed 
from  the  thirteenth  century.  Elsewhere  the  utmost  difficulty 
must  have  been  experienced  in  adjusting  values  in  all  mone- 
tary transactions  ;  and  it  was  only  the  very  restricted  inter- 
course of  communities  outside  their  own  local  boundaries 
down  to  quite  modern  times  which  tended  to  render  such  a 
complex  arrangement  tolerable.  For  it  was  principally,  of 
course,  where  smaller  amounts  were  concerned,  that  the 
obscurity  and  confusion  were  likely  to  arise  :  a  far  greater 
uniformity  was  observed  in  the  gold  values  and  in  the 
standard  of  pieces  in  that  metal. 

There  has  always  been  a  certain  degree  of  perplexity 
and  doubt  in  respect  to  a  family  of  foreign  coins,  which 
from  their  composite  formation  in  a  varied  degree  are 
assignable  either  to  the  billon  or  to  the  copper  series.  An 
incorrect  appropriation  is  never  satisfactory ;  and  of  the 
circumstances  under  which  the  bulk  of  these  insignificant 
pieces  appeared,  we  possess  in  England  such  slight  know- 
ledge, that  we  have  little  beyond  the  prima  facie  evidence  to 
guide  us.  Again,  the  currencies  in  different  districts  and 
governments  diverged  and  fluctuated  in  value  so  much,  either 
from  local  conditions  or  from  temporary  exigencies,  that  what 
is  a  silver  denomination  in  one  state  or  at  one  date,  becomes 
a  plated  or  copper  one  in  another  state  or  at  another  time. 

Taking  two  12-kreutzer  pieces  of  Hesse- Cassel,  1/59, 
one  is  manifestly  plated,  while  the  other  presents  the  aspect 
of  being  copper.  But  the  fact  is  that,  instead  of  having  a 
basis  of  mixed  metal,  it  is  a  copper  coin  plated  to  pass  for 
silver  value.  Indistinct  traces  of  the  coating  remain  in  the 
letters  and  the  edge.  Time  has  uncased  it,  and  we  have  it 
before  us  as  it  was  struck.  It  is  a  sort  of  nondescript,  yet 
it  is  preferable  to  those  dilapidated  relics  which  so  often 
present  themselves,  in  the  shape  of  worn  billon  money,  with 
nothing  but  the  wretched  foundation  surviving.  The  plating 
process  was  an  expedient  widely  adopted  by  the  German- 
speaking  communities  from  the  seventeenth  century,  but 

56  The  Coins  of  Europe 

more  particularly  within  the  last  one  hundred  and  fifty 
years.  It  was  a  poor  device,  encouraged  by  the  immemorial 
predilection  of  humanity  for  something  bright,  and  by  the 
advantage  accruing  to  the  state  from  the  difference  between 
the  intrinsic  and  the  official  worth.  In  the  Netherlands  the 
practice  was  almost  unknown  ;  there  the  "  black "  money 
circulated  without  disguise  and  concealment ;  and  with  the 
fewest  exceptions  the  Dutch  and  Flemish  systems  were 
exempt  from  this  disfigurement,  till  the  modern  Belgian 
kingdom  instituted  its  issue  of  nickel. 

The  question  of  impure  or  mixed  coinage,  which  dates 
from  the  later  Greek  and  Roman  periods,  the  prototype  of 
German  silver  being  the  plated  tetradrachm  of  Parthia  and  the 
denarii  of  a  portion  of  the  Roman  imperial  series,  brings  us 
to  the  consideration  of  another  more  or  less  immediately  allied 
to  it.  We  refer  to  the  possibility  of  estimating  the  material 
standing  of  a  country  by  its  coinage  ;  and  this  test  limits 
itself  to  the  metrology.  The  execution  is  an  independent 
department,  and  may  be  influenced  by  the  state  of  the  arts 
or  by  the  personal  taste  of  the  ruler.  Some  early  European 
governments,  as  the  Venetian  Republic,  subsisted  during  ages, 
with  ample  facilities  at  command,  without  producing  a  single 
specimen  of  high  character.  Others,  as  Florence,  Parma, 
Salzburg,  Brunswick-Luneburg,  have  left  an  abundance  of 
beautiful  types  and  excellent  and  careful  work.  But  the 
more  ancient  currency  of  Venice,  if  it  was  never  remarkable 
for  its  artistic  qualities,  was  scrupulously  exact  in  its  weight, 
and  almost  without  exception  of  true  standard.  Toward 
the  end  it  displayed  greater  negligence  in  workmanship  and 
inferior  purity,  more  especially  in  its  lower  divisions. 

From  the  most  remote  times  spasms  of  political  depres- 
sion and  distress,  no  less  than  a  permanent  decline  in 
resources,  have  betrayed  themselves  by  monetary  degrada- 
tion. Temporary  straits  tell  their  tale  to  us  across  centuries 
in  an  enormous  assortment  of  what  is  termed  money  of 
necessity — coins  or  rather  tokens  struck  in  any  available 
material,  and  stamped  with  fictitious  marks  of  value.  The 
practice  imparted  a  passing  pressure,  and  if  it  was  too  often 

Introduction  5  7 

repeated,  Was  bound  to  impoverish  the  community  or  the 
purse-holder.  The  debasement  of  the  ordinary  currency  was 
a  still  graver  symptom  and  danger.  It  might  equally  denote 
an  intermittent  or  temporary  phenomenon  arising  from  the 
dishonesty  or  extravagance  of  the  Executive,  and  might  in 
such  a  case  be  susceptible  of  remedy  ;  but  chronic  and 
progressive  deterioration  rarely  signified  less  than  the  de- 
moralising effect  of  political  decadence. 

Outside  the  mere  numismatic  point  of  view  there  is  a 
third  direction  in  which  the  student  or  observer  may  judge 
by  this  sort  of  help  the  financial  rank  and  capacity  of  a 
people.  The  descent  of  the  currency  to  an  infinitesimal 
unit,  as  in  the  aspar,  which  in  the  days  of  Byron  was  current 
in  Turkey  in  Europe  at  less  than  the  thirtieth  part  of  a 
penny,  is  the  surest  indication  of  poverty  and  insignificance, 
since  the  circumstance  too  clearly  shews,  not  that  the  market 
was  proportionately  cheap,  but  that  there  was  nothing  which 
in  the  eyes  of  a  prosperous  nation  answered  to  one.  A 
moderate  proportion  of  individuals  may,  from  choice  or  need, 
be  "  passing  rich  on  forty  pounds  a  year,"  and  a  Hindoo 
rice-eater  can  perhaps  live  on  fourpence  a  day  ;  but  prices 
may  just  as  easily  be  too  low  as  too  high. 


It  is  hardly  within  our  immediate  province  to  enter  into 
the  question  of  numismatic  development  among  the  ancient 
Greeks;  but  an  examination  of  all  the  known  types  of  Hellenic 
origin  fills  us  with  an  agreeable  persuasion  of  the  sense  of 
beauty  and  symmetry,  accompanied  by  a  reverence  for 
anatomical  laws  and  a  thorough  insight  into  the  structure 
of  the  human  frame.  The  union  of  genius  with  industry 
and  mechanical  skill  produced  some  of  the  most  masterly 
examples  of  medallic  art  which  the  world  can  ever  hope 
to  see,  and  which  found,  perhaps,  their  nearest  parallels  in 
the  chefs  d'ccuvre  of  the  Renaissance  in  Italy.  In  physio- 
gnomical excellence  and  external  accessories  the  latter  quite 

58  The  Coins  of  Europe 

rivalled  the  finest  Greek  work  ;  but  the  men  who  were 
patronised  by  the  great  mediaeval  families  of  the  Peninsula 
were  in  the  presence  of  conditions  and  restraints  unknown 
to  their  predecessors. 

The  Greek  feeling  and  taste  revealed  itself  in  the 
Roman  consular  or  family  series,  but  was  gradually  lost  in 
the  imperial  one,  more  especially  in  the  decadence  of  the 
reverses.  Even  in  the  consular  coinage,  however,  the 
delineation  of  the  human  figure  already  exhibited  a  marked 
declension  from  the  high  standard  of  fine  Greek  art, 
although  bust-portraits  and  inanimate  objects  are  rendered 
with  equal  success  and  felicity. 

Again,  the  Byzantine  corruption  of  the  debased  Roman 
type,  spreading  itself  after  the  fall  of  the  western  division 
of  the  empire  over  the  greater  part  of  Europe,  and  affected 
in  its  progress  by  climatic,  local,  and  religious  influences, 
penetrated  on  the  one  hand  to  Bulgaria,  Servia,  and  Muscovy, 
where  we  discern  it  in  the  coins  of  the  grand  duchy  of 
Kief,  while  on  the  other  it  found  its  way  westward  to 
Venice  and  other  parts  of  Italy,  to  the  Two  Sicilies,  France, 
Spain,  England,  and  the  Low  Countries,  where  it  formed 
the  basis  of  the  so-called  Merovingian  family  of  gold  and 
silver  pieces,  but  more  particularly  of  coins  in  the  more 
precious  metal  equivalent  in  weight  and  value  to  the  third 
part  of  a  Byzantine  solidus. 

The  variations  and  disparity  observable  in  the  abundant 
remains  of  the  Merovingian  money  are  to  be  attributed, 
perhaps,  to  the  character  of  the  colonial  or  provincial  coin- 
age of  Greece  and  Rome,  with  which  the  mediaeval  copyists 
were  brought  into  contact,  to  the  degree  of  success  in 
reproducing  originals,  and  to  gradual  improvement  in  con- 
ducting the  processes  of  fabrication  during  the  course  of 

At  the  same  time,  the  types  of  many  of  the  ancient 
specimens  of  continental  currency  were  advisedly  or  insen- 
sibly adapted  to  local  characteristics  and  peculiarities,  and 
were  broadly  governed  by  the  predominance  of  military  and 
feudal  sentiment.  Even  before  any  idea  of  introducing  a 

Introduction  59 

date  or  the  value  was  carried  out,  the  importance  seems  to 
have  been  appreciated  of  identifying  coins  with  the  name  of 
a  ruler  and  a  religious  or  heraldic  symbol  ;  and  the  early 
employment  of  shields  of  arms,  prior  to  the  use  of  portraits, 
was  dictated  by  the  sense  of  a  link  between  the  bearings  on 
the  money  and  those  on  the  escutcheons  of  sovereigns.  The 
mediaeval  denier  soon  lost  all  real  relationship  to  the 
Roman  denarius,  and  more  and  more,  in  its  multiples  up  to 
a  crown  or  ecu,  complied  with  the  spirit  of  more  modern  life 
and  the  militarism  of  the  Middle  Ages.  The  English  word 
arms  is  translated  into  most  of  the  Gothic  or  Teutonic 
languages  by  one  signifying  weapons.  It  was  a  notion  in 
analogy  with  the  formation  of  tribal  government  under  the 
Lombard  dux — the  duke  of  later  times. 

In  the  reduction  of  mediaeval  European  currency  to  chrono- 
logical stages  of  development,  we  must  first  deal  with  typical 
objects  without  a  key  or  inscription  ;  (2)  typical  objects 
accompanied  by  a  few  characters  more  or  less  unintelligible; 
(3)  the  same  with  a  distinct  legend,  and  the  name  of  the 
moneyer  and  mint  ;  (4)  with  a  shield  or  cognisance  and  a 
cross  on  the  reverse  infinitely  varied  in  its  form  and  canton- 
ments ;  (5)  with  a  rudimentary  portrait  on  the  obverse  ;  (6) 
with  an  ideal  one;  (7)  with  a  positive  or  approximate  likeness, 
a  fully  descriptive  legend,  and  an  elaborate  blazon  ;  (8)  with 
the  date  and  the  value.  The  extension  of  Christianity  and  the 
influence  of  the  Crusades  gradually  effaced  and  superseded  the 
Byzantine,  as  well  as  the  Roman,  feeling  and  style  ;  and  with 
very  few  exceptions  the  prevailing  tone  of  Western  money 
became  toward  the  ninth  century  Teutonic  and  unclassical. 

In  the  European  coins  of  most  remote  date  co-ordinate 
prominence  is  given  to  the  ruler  of  the  country  or  province 
and  to  the  place  of  origin  and  the  engraver.  Where  there 
was  an  infinite  subdivision  of  territory  and  jurisdiction,  and 
an  equal  multiplicity  of  mints,  this  course  was  a  safeguard 
against  confusion  and  fraud. 

The  leading  symbols  on  coins  are :  i ,  a  cross  ;  2,  a 
crown  ;  3,  a  sceptre  and  orb  ;  4,  a  sword  ;  5,  an  animal  as 
an  heraldic  cognisance  or  a  figurative  emblem  ;  6,  a  shield 

60  The  Coins  of  Europe 

with  or  without  quarterings  ;  7,  and  finally,  an  effigy  of  a 
patron-saint,  ultimately  superseded  or  accompanied  by  one 
of  the  temporal  ruler.  All  these  marks  of  authority  and 
distinction  underwent  from  period  to  period  development  and 
change  indicative  of  modified  political  and  religious  feeling, 
of  more  complex  relationships  between  reigning  families,  or 
of  the  growth  of  artistic  taste. 

The  type  with  the  cross  presents  itself  with  an  infinite 
amount  of  variation  both  in  the  form  of  the  cross  and  in 
the  character  of  the  cantonments.  The  most  usual  features 
in  the  angles  are  pellets,  or  globules,  or  annulets  ;  and  most 
frequently  the  number  corresponds  to  that  of  the  Trinity. 
But  on  some  pieces — it  is  true,  of  later  date — -four  of  these 
objects  appear ;  and  if  there  is  no  mystical  figure  intended, 
there  is  certainly  no  reference  to  value,  as  the  penny  or 
denier  and  the  groat  or  gros  equally  bear  these  unexplained 

The  evolution  of  the  portrait  on  coins  was  gradual.  The 
earliest  stage  was  a  head,  which  occurs  in  the  rudest  shape 
on  the  gold  trientes  of  the  Visigothic  princes  of  Spain  ;  the 
next  step  was  the  addition  of  a  sceptre,  as  we  see  it  on 
some  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  Anglo-Norman  pennies. 
Then  followed  in  succession  the  bust  or  full-length  figure  in 
armour,  the  head  bare  or  helmeted  ;  the  crowned  bust  in 
ordinary  costume  (sometimes,  as  on  the  money  of  the 
Renaissance  in  Savoy,  Saluzzo,  Monteferrato,  and  Bologna, 
with  a  characteristic  head-dress),  in  armour,  or  with  the 
armour  partly  draped  ;  and  the  modern  head,  ordinarily 
uncovered  and  uncrowned.  Between  these  progressive 
varieties  there  were,  of  course,  many  special  and  exceptional 
examples,  such  as  the  portrait  of  Charles  V.  or  the  splendid 
quadruple  ducat  of  1528,  and  the  civil  costume  and  peculiar 
head-dress  on  certain  Italian  coins  of  the  Renaissance  era, 
among  which  we  may  cite  the  very  striking  tallero  of 
Marguerite  de  Foix,  Marchioness  of  Saluzzo,  1516. 

The  Cross  was  not  the  only  device  of  the  kind,  even 
supposing  the  triads  in  the  angles  to  have  no  religious 
import ;  for  on  the  mediaeval  Bohemian  money  we  perceive 

Introduction  6 1 

the  Hand,  just  as  it  is  on  some  of  the  pennies  of  Edward  the 
Confessor  ;  and  abroad  it  lingered  even  to  a  later  epoch. 
The  strange  type  adopted  by  the  Georgians  of  an  ingot  cut 
in  the  form  of  the  thumb  and  fingers,  and  impressed  with  a 
legend,  more  than  possibly  referred  to  the  ancient  super- 
stitious belief  in  the  binding  nature  of  contracts  made  with 
the  thumb. 

The  earliest  deniers  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht  some- 
times bore  a  curious  symbol  in  the  form  of  the  Greek  letters 
Alpha  and  Omega,  the  latter  before,  the  former  behind,  the 
crozier.  This  was  a  symbol  of  mortality,  while  the  serpent 
on  the  reverse  of  some  of  the  grossi  of  Ercole  I.  Duke  of 
Ferrara  (1471-1505)  offers  the  idea  of  infinitude. 

Another  remarkable  divergence  from  the  normal  stand- 
ard and  style  on  numismatic  productions  was  the  Low- 
Country  loan  of  the  so-called  Phrygian  cap  in  the  stadt- 
holder's  bonnet,  with  which,  surmounting  his  staff  or  other- 
wise, we  meet  on  the  money  of  the  United  Provinces.  The 
same  symbol  served  at  a  subsequent  crisis  for  one  of  the 
insignia  of  the  revolutionary  currency  in  France. 

In  considering  the  question  of  types,  too  great  a  stress 
is  sometimes  laid  on  casual  and  subsidiary  variations  ;  and 
the  cabinet  of  the  amateur  is  embarrassed  by  duplicate 
specimens  of  substantially  identical  coins.  We  perhaps 
still  know  too  little  of  the  incidence  and  volume  of  early 
production  to  enable  us  to  speak  confidently  on  this 
subject  ;  but  a  differentiation,  often  far  more  minute  and 
trivial  than  on  Greek  or  Roman  coins  belonging  to  the 
same  issue,  can  scarcely  be  held  to  amount  to  a  plea 
for  possessing  eight  or  ten  pieces,  exhibiting  common 
features  and  telling  no  more  than  a  single  story,  yet 
no  two  of  them  absolutely  identical. 


In   the    body   of  the    volume  it  is   proposed  to  furnish 
to    collectors    some  suggestions  in    aid   of  the  formation  of 

62  The  Coins  of  Europe 

cabinets,  where  the  plan  is — I,  general;  2,  special;  or  3, 
representative.  We  cannot,  perhaps,  urge  too  emphatically, 
when  the  initiatory  stage  has  been  passed,  and  the  amateur 
begins  to  enter  seriously  on  his  undertaking,  the  impolicy 
of  casting  his  net  too  wide,  unless  it  is  the  case  that  he 
proposes  to  study,  not  completeness,  but  condition  alone. 
An  assemblage  of  coins,  all  highly  preserved,  may  well  be 
rather  promiscuous  in  their  character,  and  may  probably 
leave  very  few  places  unrepresented ;  and  yet  the  aggregate 
will  not  be  excessive.  After  an  experience  of  many  years, 
the  actual  discovery  and  conclusion  are,  that  of  the  entire 
mass  submitted  to  our  inspection  and  judgment,  an  excess- 
ively slender  percentage  reaches  a  fastidious  standard. 

When  the  governing  motive  is  special,  either  from  the 
standpoint  of  archaeological  inquiry  or  of  ordinary  curiosity, 
it  becomes  difficult  to  exercise  the  selecting  process  with 
any  severity.  A  student  or  collector  on  these  lines  lays 
down  for  his  guidance  the  law  that  it  is  absolutely  requisite 
to  secure  every  existing  specimen  of  the  coinage  of  some 
given  country,  prince,  or  line  of  princes  ;  or  again,  to  bring 
together  in  one  focus  all  recoverable  pieces  presenting  a 
particular  type  or  legend,  not  excluding  such  as  bear 
illiterate  or  erroneous  inscriptions,  mules  and  contrefa$on$. 
It  is  a  class  of  enterprise  on  which  it  is  hardly  our  province 
to  offer  an  opinion  ;  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  judicious 
comparison  of  differentiated  coins  side  by  side  has  often  led 
to  useful  results. 

The  collection  formed  on  a  representative  basis  may  or 
may  not  embrace  an  adherence  to  a  high  standard  of 
preservation  in  each  instance  ;  but  it  is  under  any  circum- 
stances that  of  an  amateur.  The  owner  is  a  person  who 
acquires  only  what  pleases  or  suits  him.  He  does  not 
expend  his  resources  in  purchasing  items  because  he  sees 
them  in  the  hands  of  his  friends,  or  desires  to  forestall  his 
friends  in  the  possession.  If  he  does  not  know  that  the 
largest  public  museums  of  all  countries  have  desiderata,  he 
finds  in  due  course  that  the  acquisition  of  certain  rarities^  is 
either  an  impossibility  or  a  matter  of  onerous  outlay.  By 

Introduction  63 

contenting  himself  with  the  proportion  which  falls  in  his 
way  from  season  to  season,  unless  he  is  a  second 
Fortunatus,  he  will  become  aware  at  all  events  of  one  fact, 
— that  the  supply  of  desirable  articles  will  always  exceed 
the  means  of  securing  them. 

An  additional  plea  for  a  representative  programme, 
rather  than  a  general  or  special  one,  lies  in  the  consideration, 
which  to  some  may  not  be  material,  that  too  great  an 
abundance  of  a  particular  class  of  property,  and  still  more 
of  any  given  section  or  department,  is  a  sure  mode  of  entail- 
ing commercial  loss  ;  for  the  very  superfluity  of  examples 
exercises  a  depreciatory  influence.  It  is  sometimes  wiser  to 
be  incomplete. 

From  the  immensity  of  its  range  and  the  multifarious 
character  of  its  subdivisions  the  continental  series  is  perhaps, 
above  all  others,  the  one  where  representative  treatment  can 
be  adopted  with  the  largest  degree  of  convenience  and  the 
least  amount  of  scruple. 

In  arranging  continental  coins  in  the  cabinet  in  such 
order  as  may  facilitate,  where  the  collection  is  extensive  and 
varied,  reference  to  any  piece,  the  political  changes  in  Europe 
and  the  fluctuations  of  empire  from  the  Middle  Ages  down  to 
the  eighteenth  century  have  rendered  it  in  numerous  instances 
a  task  of  difficulty  to  decide  on  the  allotment  of  numerous 
groups  of  coins  struck  by  foreign  rulers  for  territories  over 
which  their  jurisdiction  was  more  or  less  titular.  Such  are 
the  money  issued  by  the  French  for  parts  of  Spain  and 
Italy,  by  the  Spaniards  and  Austrians  for  parts  of  the 
Netherlands,  by  the  Poles  for  Lithuania,  by  the  Russians  for 
Prussia  and  Finland,  by  Venice  for  Dalmatia,  Albania,  and 
other  colonies,  and  by  the  Teutonic  Order  and  the  Margraves 
of  Brandenburgh  for  Prussia.  Probably  the  simplest  and 
truest  principle  is  to  allow  the  soil  or  locality  which  purports 
to  have  produced  the  currency  to  govern  its  distribution. 

The  subjection  of  coins  to  cleaning  processes  is  a  matter 
which  requires  caution  and  experience.  The  removal  of 
superficial  incrustation  by  soap  and  water,  in  the  case  of  all 
but  proof  pieces,  is  unattended  by  much  risk  of  damage, 

64  The  Coins  of  Europe 

more  particularly  where  gold  and  silver  are  concerned  ;  but 
billon  and  copper  coins  have  to  be  treated  with  great 
tenderness,  and  while  ammonia  and  other  chemical  appliances 
may  be  employed  by  proficient  persons  to  restore  to  their 
original  state  specimens  in  the  more  precious  metals,  their 
use  in  other  cases  is  apt  to  produce  unsatisfactory  results,  if 
not  positive  disaster.  Where  the  dirt,  accumulated  by  time 
on  old  gold  or  silver  money,  is  loose,  its  disappearance  is 
certainly  advantageous  and  agreeable  to  the  eye,  and  the 
injury  to  the  tone  of  the  surface  or  to  the  patina  is  temporary. 
But  there  is  a  very  broad  distinction  between  tone  and 
discoloration  by  soil  ;  and  where  a  coin  of  early  date  has 
acquired  genuine  patination,  it  should  on  no  account  be 
disturbed,  unless  it  be,  perhaps,  by  the  softest  possible  brush, 
where  particles  of  dust  have  filled  up  the  characters  of  the 
legend  or  the  details  of  the  type. 

One  word  more  in  the  way  of  caveat  is  requisite  under 
this  head.  Old  coins  frequently  present  themselves  in  a 
more  or  less  worn  condition  with  bright  fields  or  surfaces, 
which  to  an  experienced  eye  offer  a  rather  painful  contrast 
to  the  remainder.  These  pieces  have  been  tooled  and 
burnished  by  modern  hands,  and  are  materially  impaired  in 
value  by  the  process.  Their  purity  has  been  irretrievably 


The  reader  will  observe  that  the  work  in  his  hands 
divides  itself  into  four  portions  :  the  Introduction  ;  the  Two 
Catalogues  ;  the  Descriptive  Text.  In  the  first  an  endeavour 
has  been  made  to  survey  the  whole  field,  and  to  assist  the 
student,  before  he  proceeds  farther,  in  forming  as  accurate  a 
notion  as  possible  of  its  extent,  its  character,  and  its  claims. 
The  Catalogues,  which  are  taken  to  be  infinitely  more 
complete  than  anything  of  the  same  kind  hitherto  procurable 
in  English  and  in  one  corpus,  embrace  a  very  considerable 
amount  of  information,  calculated  to  be  serviceable  and 
interesting,  upon  many  matters  of  technical  and  even  of 

Introduction  65 

commercial  detail ;  they  have  been  drawn  up  in  the  alphabetical 
form,  with  cross-references,  to  economise  time  and  trouble. 
As  for  the  remaining  section,  it  may  be  predicated  of  it  that 
the  body  is  in  this  case  not  much  more  than  equal  to  each  of 
its  component  parts  ;  for  all  that  seemed  to  be  left,  when  the 
rest  had  been  done,  was  to  present,  according  to  geographical 
distribution,  an  outline  of  European  numismatic  production, 
and  to  knit  the  whole  together,  as  it  were,  with  a  tolerably 
copious  General  Index. 

That  the  earliest  attempt  on  these  broad  lines  will  be 
found  imperfect,  can  hardly  be  doubted  ;  but  its  utility  may 
nevertheless  prove  considerable,  since  it  embodies  in  a 
convenient  and  accessible  compass  a  very  large  assortment 
of  particulars  indispensable  to  the  English  and  American 
collectors  of  the  continental  series.  To  the  majority  of 
these  two  classes  of  students  the  voluminous  works  of 
reference  in  foreign  languages,  which  form  in  themselves  a 
sort  of  library,  are  sealed  literature,  alike  from  their  obscurity, 
bulk,  and  cost.  Here  the  means  are  readily  furnished  of 
enabling  the  ordinary  collector  to  satisfy  himself  what 
constitutes  a  fairly  complete,  or  at  any  rate  representative, 
series  in  the  several  departments,  what  the  leading  denom- 
inations, types,  and  varieties  are,  and  what  rarities,  or  pieces 
historically  or  otherwise  curious,  exist.  Occasional  anecdotes 
and  illustrations  have  been  inserted  where  it  was  thought 
that  they  might  be  of  interest  or  service  ;  and  the  writer  has 
now  and  then  permitted  himself  to  enter  into  particulars  of 
price.  But  the  question  of  price  and  value  is  one  of  great 
delicacy  and  difficulty  ;  for  condition  and  circumstances  rule 
everything,  and  the  selling  figure  of  one  coin  is  no  law  for 
that  of  another. 

To  the  professed  and  advanced  antiquary  language  is  no 
bar  ;  and  those  who  do  not  care  to  bestow  the  time  requisite 
for  mastering  the  almost  innumerable  monographs  of  the 
several  European  countries,  and  a  formidable  supplementary 
body  of  pamphlets  illustrative  of  local  and  sectional  details 
perpetually  arising,  have  the  opportunity  of  resorting  to  the 
admirable  Manual  of  M.  Blanchet,  1890.  This  work  is, 


66  The  Coins  of  Europe 

however,  far  too  elaborate  and  technical  to  suit  the 
ordinary  collector  either  in  or  out  of  England  ;  and  it 
seemed  worth  while,  within  the  compass  of  a  single  volume, 
to  endeavour  to  attract  more  general  attention  among 
English-speaking  folk  to  the  immense  store  of  interest  and 
information  which  has  been  hitherto  unaccountably  neglected 
both  by  ourselves  and  by  the  Americans,  and  which  far 
surpasses  the  British  series  in  archaeological  importance  from 
every  point  of  view. 




Aalborg,  Alborga,  Aalborgen,  Alebv,  etc.,  an  ancient  mint  of  the 
Kings  of  Denmark,  and  one  of  the  Kings  of  Sweden  in  the  I7th  c. 
There  is  an  Or  of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  1627,  struck  there. 

Aargau,  Switzerland,  a  seat  of  cantonal  coinage  for  the  lower  values 
in  batzen. 

Aarhuus,  in  Jutland,  a  Danish  mint  in  the  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  A  coin  of 
Steno  Storre  (1470-97)  reads  Moneta  Arvs.  A  piece  of  four  skilling, 
lS3Si  of  Christian  III.,  belonging  here,  has  a  half-length  portrait  of  the 
King  and  Christianus  D.G.  Elect.  Rex  Da. 

Abbeville,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Ponthieu,  I2th-i3th  c.  In  1283 
Philip  le  Hardi  accorded  permission  to  Edward  I.  of  England,  as  Count 
of  P.,  to  strike  money  of  the  usual  type  and  standard.  Both  Edward  I. 
and  II.,  and  perhaps  even  Edward  III.,  issued  coins,  some  of  which  have 
a  leopard  as  a  difference,  with  Moneta  Pontivi  and  Abbatis  Ville,  or 
Abbeville.  In  1291  Philip  le  Bel  acknowledged  the  right  of  the  com- 
mune of  A.  to  strike  money  ;  and  the  reverses  with  Sit  Nomen,  etc.,  are 
ascribed  to  this  source. 

Abo  (since  1743  part  of  Russian  Finland),  an  early  Swedish  mint. 

Acquabella,  Savoy,  the  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Maurienne  in  the  loth- 
i  ith  c.,  and  possibly  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  earliest  Counts  of  Savoy, 
of  whom  no  money  is  at  present  identifiable  prior  to  that  of  Umberto 
II.  (1091-1103).  Aqvabella.  It  is  worth  suggesting  that  the  A  on  many 
Savoyard  coins  may  stand  for  this  place,  or  for  Avigliana,  though  in 
the  field.  The  episcopal  money  was  copied  from  the  types  of  Vienne  in 

Acqui,  Piedmont,  17  miles  S.S.W.  from  Alessandria,  a  place  of  coinage 
in  the  I2th-i3th  c.  There  is  a  silver  danaro  with  Fredric  (?  Frederic 
Barbarossa),  and  (in  the  field)  I. P.  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Aqve.  In  the 
1 4th  c.  episcopal  money  was  coined  here.  There  is  a  matapan  of  Otto 
Belingeri  (1305-10)  with  Odonvs  Aqvesis. 

Aerschot,  S.  Brabant,  18  miles  N.E.  from  Brussels.  The  place  of 
coinage,  doubtless,  of  the  early  Dues  d'Aerschot,  though  possibly  at  a 
later  period  the  money  may  have  been  struck  at  Brussels  itself.  We 
have  only  met  with  jetons  and  medals  ;  but  the  administrative  machinery 
indicated  on  one  of  these  pieces,  with  lect.  De  La  Chambre  Des  Compt. 
Dv  Dvc,  and  the  law  of  analogy,  unite  in  supporting  the  idea  of  a  local 
currency,  if  only  of  copper  and  billon.  Similar  jetons,  as  we  know, 

70  The  Coins  of  Europe 

were  issued  in  countless  profusion  by  all  the  continental  Powers,  espe- 
cially in  France,  Germany,  and  the  Netherlands. 

Agen.     See  Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Agen  or  Auch,  a  mint  of  Edward  I.  of  England  as  Duke  of  Aquitaine, 
c.  1 1 86  ;  of  the  Bishops  of  A.,  9th-i3th  c.  ;  and  of  the  Counts  of  Fezenzac 
(nth  c.),  whose  capital  was  here.  Deniers  of  the  latter  read  on  rev. 
Auscio  Civ. 

Agimont,  near  Givet,  Ardennes,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  Jean  de  Looz, 
1280-1310,  known  from  an  esterlin  with  loh.  Dns.  De  Agimot,  and  (on 
rev.)  Monet  a  Agimot. 

Ahlen,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  place  to  which  the  Bishop  of  Munster 
accorded  a  license  to  coin  copper  money  in  1597  :  the  pieces  bear  a 
winged  eel,  crowned. 

Aire-sur-la-Lys,  Pas  de  Calais,  near  St.  Omer,  formerly  part  of 
Flanders,  one  of  the  places  which  struck  the  communal  niailles,  and 
perhaps  a  mint  of  Baudouin  IX.,  Count  of  Flanders,  1 194-1206.  Ariensis 
with  a  lion  passant,  or  Aria.  The  place  of  origin  of  money  of  necessity 
during  the  sieges  by  the  French  and  Spaniards  in  1641  under  the  Mat- 
erial de  Meilleray,  and  by  the  Allies  in  1710.  Of  the  former  there  is  a 
silver  livre. 

Aix-en-Provence,  Bouches  du  Rhone,  a  Carlovingian  mint  (Aguis 
urbs\  one  of  the  Counts  of  Provence  mentioned  in  a  charter  of  1146,  and 
an  occasional  place  of  coinage  of  the  Bourbon  Kings  of  France.  A  piece 
of  12  sols,  1776,  has  the  mark  &  for  this  place. 

Aix-la-Chapelle,  Aachen  or  Agen  (Aquis  Grant,  Aquensis,  Aqvs), 
a  mint  of  the  Carlovingian  dynasty,  subsequently  of  the  Hohenstaufen 
line.  Here  in  1422  was  struck  a  gros,  one  of  the  earliest  genuine  existing 
pieces  with  a  date.  At  a  later  period  it  was  the  place  of  coinage  of  a  long 
series  of  civic  or  urban  money  in  silver  and  copper.  There  is  also  siege- 
money,  struck  here  in  1597  and  1670. 

Aix-lcs-Bains,  Savoy,  a  Savoyard  mint,  I4th-i5th  c. 

Aixe,  near  Limoges,  the  seat  of  a  special  coinage  of  Gui  V.,  Viscount 
of  Limoges  (1199-1230),  who  struck  barbarins  in  his  chateau  there. 

Alba,  in  the  Abruzzi,  a  seat  of  a  small  coinage  in  the  i6th  c. 

Alba  Julia,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  independent  waiwodes. 

Alba  Regia,  or  Agria,  an  early  Hanoverian  mint. 

Albi  or  Alby,  Dept.  of  Tarn,  42  m.  N.E.  of  Toulouse,  a  mint,  of  which 
the  profits  appear  to  have  been  shared  from  an  early  period  between 
the  Bishop  and  the  Count  of  T.  In  1037  the  latter  is  found  bestowing 
his  quota  on  his  bride  as  a  dowry.  In  1278  the  mint-master  had  liberty 
from  the  Crown  to  strike  petits  tournois  and  oboles  tournois  in  considera- 
tion of  paying  30  livres  tournois  to  the  King  and  the  same  to  the  See  for 
each  striking.  Albieci.  The  money  bearing  Albicnsis  and  N.  Bonafos 
was  struck  in  and  after  1248  at  the  Chateau  Neuf  de  Bonafos,  the  residence 
of  Sicard  d'Alaman,  Minister  of  the  then  Count.  The  Count,  the  Bishop, 
and  Sicard  divided  the  profits. 

Alessandria,  Piedmont,  the  seat  of  a  republican  coinage,  I2th-i4th 
c.  There  is  a  copper  sesino  with  the  head  of  St.  Peter,  and  on  rev. 
Alexandria.  In  1746  a  piece  of  10  soldi  in  bronze  or  copper  was  struck 
during  the  blockade  by  the  Marechal  de  Maillebois. 

Alkmaar,  N.  Holland,  the  place  of  origin  of  tin  and  lead  money, 
struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1573. 

Almeloo,  Overijssel,  a  mint  of  the  seigneur,  Evert  van  Hekeren,  i5th  c. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  71 

Alost,  a  itiint  of  the  Count  of  Flanders,  I3th-i4th  c.  Under  Mar- 
garet of  Constantinople,  Countess  of  Flanders,  1244-80,  and  John  I.  of 
Namur,  Count,  1302,  \he  groat  and  the  tornese  were  struck  here. 

Alpen,  Cleves,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  I4th  c.,  with  a  crest  on  obv. 
entwined  with  G.E.R.D.  [Count  Gerard],  and  on  rev.  Alp. 

Altenberg,  Saxony,  an  urban  mint  in  the  I3th  c.,  and  one  of  the 
Dukes  of  Saxe-Altenberg,  extinct  in  1762.  It  subsequently  struck  money 
for  the  Dukes  of  Saxe-Coburg,  to  whom  this  portion  of  the  dominion 

Altenkirchen,  Rhenish  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Count  of  Sayn,  I7th  c. 
Only  small  denominations. 

Altona,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Holstein,  1620. 

Amalfi,  the  seat  of  a  temporary  coinage  in  the  loth  and  nth  c.,  both 
of  gold  and  copper.  The  former,  which  belongs  to  the  latter  half  of  the 
nth  c.,  consisted  of  tart,  somewhat  akin  to  those  of  Sicily,  but  apparently 
copied  from  a  distinct  Mohammedan  prototype.  There  are  copper 
follari  of  Mastalo  I.,  Duke  and  Consul,  914-46,  and  of  Mansone  III. 
(1042),  who  bore  the  same  titles.  Some  of  the  coinage  is  anonymous, 
and  reads  merely  Consvl  Et  Dvx,  but  on  a  piece  of  Richard  II. 
(1121-35)  we  find  Ric.  Con.  Et  Dvx  11. 

Amatrice,  Naples,  in  the  Abruzzi,  a  mint  of  Ferdinand  I.  of  Arragon, 
King  of  Naples,  1458-94. 

Amiens,  an  episcopal,  seigniorial,  and  urban  or  municipal  mint  from 
the  gth  c.,  when  we  meet  with  Carlovingian  types.  Those  with  part  or 
a  corruption  of  the  word  are  ascribed  to  the  bishops  and  the  town,  which 
perhaps  continued  the  clerical  motto  in  a  degraded  form  on  its  oboles 
and  deniers.  The  former  are  mentioned  by  the  Bishop  of  Laon  in  1 1 1 1. 
In  the  1 3th  c.  this  place  adopted  the  Flemish  maille  with  Civium  and  (in 
a  triangle)  Amb.  on  obv.  and  on  rev.  Moneta.  The  pieces  reading 
Isiamunai  or  Isianumai  or  Isiamuntai  (?  the  name  of  the  moneyer)  are 
also  referred  hither.  After  the  Treaty  of  Arras,  1435,  Amiens  became  a 
mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  who  struck  there  money  of  the  regal 
type,  differenced  by  the  Burgundian  briquet.  This  was  one  of  the  places, 
with  Ghent,  Ypres,  Arras,  Noyon,  and  Roye,  where  the  moneyer  Simon 
worked  for  Philippe  d' Alsace. 

Amoeneberg,  Hesse,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishop  of  Mayence.  Amenebo, 
On  some  of  the  coins  of  this  place  occur  two  wheels  as  a  symbol  or 
as  armorial  bearings.  Comp.  Mayence. 

Ampurias,  Cataluna,  the  probable  place  of  coinage  of  the  ancient 
Counts  of  A.,  of  whom  there  was  a  long  line  from  the  gth  to  the  I4th  c. 
The  mint  may  have  been  in  the  Castellon.  Hugo  Comes  and  Impuriarum, 
Comes  Empvr.,  etc.  Low  values  only. 

Amsterdam,  doubtless  the  place  of  mintage  of  the  siege-money  of 
1578  and  1672-73,  as  well  as  of  the  colonial  series  of  1601,  both  fully 
noticed  elsewhere.  See  Ducaton,  Real,  and  Stumer  in  Cat.  of  Denom. 
Here  also  were  probably  struck  the  well-executed  'and  interesting  pieces 
bearing  the  name  of  Louis  Napoleon,  King  of  Holland,  1806-1 1,  who  made 
this  his  capital.  His  palace  still  survives.  There  is  a  local  tradition 
that  a  certain  number  of  proof  impressions  of  the  florin  of  1807  were  dis- 
tributed in  advance  among  the  ladies  of  the  Court. 

Ancona,  in  the  Papal  States,  a  seat  of  republican  coinage  from  the 
1 3th  to  the  1 6th,  and  of  papal  from  the  i6th  to  the  i8th  c.  Under  the 
republic  there  was  a  tolerably  plentiful  coinage,  shewing  a  state  of  pro- 
sperity. The  zecchino  and  double  zecchino  in  gold  ;  the  grosso,  grossetto, 

72  '  The  Coins  of  Europe 

and  mezzo-grossetto  in  silver  ;  and  the  sesino  in  bronze,  were  struck 
here.  A  double  zecchino  at  the  Rossi  sale  in  1880,  No.  6,  produced 
360  Iire  =  ,£i4  :8s.  The  popes,  from  Nicholas  V.  (1447-55)10  Pius  VI. 
(1775-99),  struck  the  usual  pontifical  types  in  all  metals.  In  1848,  pieces 
of  one  and  two  baiocchi  were  minted  in  the  revolutionary  interest. 

Andernach,  Rhenish  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Emperors  to  Henry  III.  ; 
of  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine  ;  and  of  the  Archbishops  of  Cologne.  Frederic 
I.  confirmed  the  right  of  the  last-named  in  1167.  Twodeniersof  Thierri, 
Duke  of  Lorraine,  984-1024,  read  Andernaka.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886, 
Nos.  1058-59.  Certain  municipal  or  civic  money  was  struck  here  in  1725. 

Anduse.     See  Sommieres. 

Angers,  a  Carlovingian  mint  and  one  of  Eudes,  Count  or  King  of 
Paris,  887-98  ;  also  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Counts  of  Anjou,  loth-nth 
c.  (Andegavis  Civitas},  and  of  the  Anglo-Gallic  rulers  under  the  Planta- 
genets.  There  is  a  double  louis  of  Louis  XIV.,  1702,  struck  here.  In 
1716,  Louis  XV.  purchased  the  tithes  claimed  by  the  chapter  of  St.  Laud 
d' Angers  on  the  profits  of  the  coinage,  granted  to  it  by  the  Counts,  for 
6000  livres.  The  money  produced  here  was  commonly  known  as  angevin 
or  monnaie  angevine. 

Anglo -Gallic  Mints:  Auch  or  Agen,  Auxerre,  Bayonne,  Bergerac, 
Bordeaux,  Calais,  Chateauroux,  Dax,  Ddols,  Dijon,  Figeac  or  Fontenay- 
le-Comte,  Guiche  or  Guessin  (chateau  near  Bayonne),  La  Rochelle, 
Lectoure,  Limoges,  Melle,  Montreuil-Bonnin,  Paris,  Poictiers,  Rouen, 
Saint  Quentin,  Salle-le-Roy  (near  Montreuil-Bonnin),  Tarbes. 

Angouleme,  the  seat  of  a  royal  and  seigniorial  mint  from  the  loth  to 
the  end  of  the  I4th  c.  Egolisime  or  Engolismc.  This  domain  was,  with 
that  of  La  Marche,  united  to  the  Crown  in  1322. 

Angra,  in  the  island  of  Terceira,  one  of  the  Agores,  a  place  of  inde- 
pendent Spanish  coinage  in  1582  after  the  annexation  of  Portugal  itself 
to  Spain.  Coins  in  all  metals  of  Spanish  fabric  and  denominations  were 
struck  here  with  A  and  a  falcon  for  the  Agores. 

Anhalt-Dcssait,  Saxony,  a  principality  in  the  nth  c.  under  a  son  of 
the  Duke  of  Saxony.  A  mint  of  the  Dukes  and  of  the  Emperors.  The 
right  of  coining  gold  was  conferred  in  1 503.  A  bracteate  of  Albert  the 
Bear  reads  Marchio  Anehaldensi.  The  earliest  thalers  are  referred  to 
1539.  We  have  a  very  early  copper  pfennig  with  Man.  Princ.  Anh.  Dt. 
and  a  lion  rampant  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  in  four  lines  In  Domin.  Fiducia 

Anhalt-Bernburg.     See  Bernburg. 

Anholt,  Westphalia,  a  seigniorial  fief,  which  obtained  in  1571  from 
Maximilian  II.  a  recognition  of  its  right  to  strike  money.  In  1618  it  was 
a  mint  in  the  employment  of  the  Grafen  von  Bronkhorst,  and  from  1637 
to  1663  in  that  of  the  Prince  of  Salm.  There  are  duits  in  copper  read- 
ing Civitas  Anh.  or  Cvsa  Anh. 

Aniche,  Dept.  of  Nord,  France,  the  place  of  origin  ot  a  bronze  piece 
of  30  sols,  struck  for  the  miners,  1820. 

Annaberg,  Saxony,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Saxony,  i6th  c. 

Annecy,  in  the  Genevois,  a  mint  of  the  feudal  counts,  opened  1 5th 
Aug.  1356,  closed  in  consequence  of  opposition  from  the  See  of  Geneva 
and  from  Savoy  in  1362,  reopened  in  1374,  and  finally  abandoned  in 

Annenskoie,  a  Russian  mint  under  Catherine  II. 

Anspach,  Bavaria,  probably  (with  Culmbach)  the  place  of  coinage  of 
the  early  feudal  lords  of  Brandenburgh-Anspach. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  73 

Antignate,  a  mint  of  the  Bentivoglio  family,  in  the  Bergamasque 
territory,  Lombardy.  Giovanni  Bentivoglio  I.  and  II.  (1401-2,  1449- 
1 509)  both  struck  money  here  in  gold  and  silver  :  the  scudo  and  doppio 
sctido  (of  which  latter  there  are  two  types)  and  the  zecchino  in  gold,  and 
the  bianco,  testone,  and  half-testone  in  silver.  Only  the  coins  of  the  second 
Bentivoglio  bear  the  name  ;  those  of  the  first  have  Bononia  docet  and 
^V.  Petroni  de  Bonon.,  with  the  papal  type  of  St.  Petronius  holding  the 
Church  in  his  right  hand.  On  the  gold  money  of  Giovanni  1 1.,  Bentivoglio, 
we  find  a  charming  portrait  with  the  close-fitting  berretta.  The  reverse 
of  a  zecchino  of  Giovanni  II.,  Bentivoglio,  reads  Maximiliani  Mvnvs, 
which  probably  refers  to  the  right  of  coinage  accorded  by  the  Emperor. 

Antwerp,  a  busy  seat  of  coinage  from  the  Middle  Ages  down  to  the 
present  century  for  local  money  of  low  values  and  for  that  of  the  successive 
rulersof  the  Southern  Netherlands.  John  III.,  Duke  of  Brabant,  1312-55, 
used  this  mint.  A  type  of  the  gros  tournois  was  struck  here  in  the  I3th 
c.  In  1584,  during  the  blockade  byAlessandro  Farnese,  Duke  of  Parma, 
Spanish  Governor  of  the  Low  Countries,  the  ecu  robustus  and  its  divisions 
were  coined  for  the  use  of  the  besieged  ;  and  in  1814  independent  pieces 
of  10  and  5  centimes  appeared,  bearing  the  respective  initials  or  mono- 
grams of  Napoleon  I.  and  Louis  XVIII.  M.M.  a  hand. 

Aosta,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Savoy,  1393-1590.  Avgvste 

Aquila,  in  the  Abruzzi,  Italy,  a  place  of  royal  coinage  in  the  I4th  and 
1 5th  c.  The  sovereigns  of  Naples  from  Louis  I.  of  Anjou  (1382-84)  to 
Ferdinand  I.  of  Arragon  (1458-94)  employed  this  mint.  They  struck  the 
bolognino  and  its  half  in  silver,  and  the  cavallo  in  copper.  There  is  also 
a  copper  cavallo  of  Innocent  VIII.  (1484-92)  belonging  here,  as  well  as  a 
coin  of  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  and  a  sestino  in  the  same  metal  of  Louis 
XII.  of  France.  Ay.,  Aqla,  or  De  Aqvila. 

Aquileia,  on  the  Adriatic,  a  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  patriarchs  from 
the  1 2th  to  the  I5th  c.  The  denaro,  mezzo-denaro,  and  picciolo,  all  in 
silver,  were  struck  here.  The  fabric  of  the  earlier  pieces  resembles  that  of 
the  mediaeval  Mantuan  denari,  both  being  alike  loans  from  the  Lombard 
bracteate  or  semi-bracteate  types.  The  first  known  issue  with  a  name  is 
the  denaro  ofVolckervon  Leubrechts-Kirchen  (1204-1218)  with  Volker  P. 
and  the  seated  figure  of  the  patriarch,  and  on  the  rev.  Civitas  Aqvilegia. 
The  arms  on  the  rev.  of  an  Aquileian  denaro  of  Antonio  II.  Panciera 
(1402-18)  are  partly  borrowed  on  the  Venetian  money  for  Dalmatia, 
struck  about  1414.  The  adoption  of  this  cognisance  was  surely  influenced 
by  the  consideration  of  the  excellent  quality  of  the  patriarchal  money  and 
of  the  prestige  which  his  ecclesiastical  rank  carried  with  it. 

Arches,  Dept.  of  Vosges,  36  miles  from  Nancy,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes 
of  Nevers  in  the  17th  c.  The  coins  are  chiefly  liards  and  doubles 
tournois  in  copper  (1601-62).  The  liards  of  Charles  II.  appear  to  be 
the  earliest  (1601-37). 

Arenberg.     See  Armberg. 

Arezzo,  a  mint  of  Hugo,  Marquis  of  Tuscany,  loth  c.  (Carlovingian 
types),  and  during  the  republican  epoch  in  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  The  types 
were  :  the  grosso  and  half-grosso  in  silver,  the  denaretto  in  billon,  and  the 
quattrino  in  copper.  A  bishop  (Guido  Tarlato  di  Pietramala)  struck 
money  here  in  1313.  The  mint  was  suspended  during  the  Florentine  rule. 
Some  of  the  early  money  bears  the  name  and  bust  of  the  patron  saint, 
San  Donate. 

Aries,  a  mint  of  Carloman,  son  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire,  and  of  Charles 

74  The  Coins  of  Europe 

le  Gros,  and  an  ecclesiastical  seat  of  coinage  from  the  beginning  of  the 
loth  c.  to  that  of  the  1 3th,  when  the  coinage  was  transferred  to  Beaucaire. 
About  1480  the  Primate  had  also  an  establishment  at  Montdragon.  In  1 177 
a  seigneur  named  Bernard  d'Auriac  enjoyed  an  interest  in  the  coinage, 
whence  an  inference  may  be  drawn  that  Aries  was  also  a  seigniorial 
mint.  The  earliest  pieces  are  deniers  of  Rostan  I.  (870-913)  with  Con- 
stantina  on  rev.  Others,  including  those  struck  by  the  Primate  in  con- 
cert with  the  King  of  Arragon  about  1266,  have  the  name  of  the  city  : 
Arcla  Civi.,  Areta,  Arelato,  or  Arelaten.  Some  early  pieces  of  small 
module  with  AR.  have  been  assigned  to  this  place  and  mint  which,  with 
Lyon  and  Trvees,  has  been  supposed  to  have  been  employed  by  the 
Gauls.  The  later  Primates  assumed  the  title  of  Princeps,  and  struck 

Arleux,  Cambrai,  a  mint  of  Jean  de  Flandre  and  his  widow,  Beatrix 
de  Saint  -  Pol,  1313-25.  Moneta  Arleus,  Arleus  Casri  Moneta,  or 
Moneta  Allodiensis.  Also  of  Jean  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de  Saint-Pol, 
1317-44,  of  whom  there  is  a  piece  in  fine  silver  with  Moneta  DElincowt 
Fet.  En  Frans.  Arlevs. 

Arnhem,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Gueldres  and  of  the 
Emperors  of  Germany  from  the  I2th  c.  The  ancient  type  of  denier  bears 
on  one  side  a  donjon  flanked  by  two  towers. 

Arnsbcrg,  Arenberg,  or  Arcnsberg,  Livonia  or  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a 
mint  of  Schleswig-Holstein  and  of  the  Sees  of  Cologne  and  Oesel,  I4th- 
i6th  c.  Arensboch.  Also  a  seigniorial  place  of  coinage,  and  one  of  the 
Dukes  of  Arenberg  down  to  the  close  of  the  i8th  c.  There  is  a  thaler  of 
Lud.  Engelbert,  Duke  of  A.  and  S.R.I. P.,  1785,  with  his  portrait  and 
shield  of  anus. 

Arquata,  N.  Italy,  the  probable  place  of  coinage  of  a  luigino  of 
Gerardo  Spinola,  Marquis  of  Arquata  (1682-94),  under  imperial  sanction. 
The  reverse  has  the  two-headed  eagle,  crowned. 

Arragonese  Mints  during  the  French  occupation,  1640-52  :  Agramon, 
Arbeca,  Balaguer,  Banolas,  Bellpuig,  Berga,  Besalu,  Bisbal,  Caldas, 
Casdona,  Cervera,  Figueras,  Gerona,  Granollers,  Igualada,  Lerida, 
Manresa,  Mataro,  Oliana,  Olot,  Puigcerda,  Reus,  Rosas,  Solsona,  Taga- 
manent,  Tarragona,  Tarrasa,  Tarrega,  Tortosa,  Vails,  Vich,  and  Villa- 
franca  del  Panades. 

Arras,  a  mint  of  Charles  the  Simple  and  of  Philip  Augustus,  of  the 
Comtes  d'Artois,  of  the  Kings  of  France  in  the  1 5th  c.,  and  of  those  of 
Spain  from  Philip  II.  to  Philip  IV.  as  Comtes  d'A.,  and  of  Louis  XIII. 
and  XIV.  A  moneyer  named  Bertrand  de  Creuze  was  working  here  in 
12 12,  and  the  well-known  one  of  Philippe  d' Alsace,  Count  of  Flanders, 
struck  money  at  A.  among  many  other  places  for  his  employer.  Aras  O. 

Arta,  Majorca,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  Giovanni  II.  Orsini,  of  whom 
there  is  a  billon  tornese  \\-\thJoAs  Despotvs,  and  on  rev.  De  Aria  Castrv. 

Arx  Fogarach,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  independent  waiwodes 
or  princes.  A.F. 

Ascoli,  a  mint  of  the  mediaeval  republic  (i3th-i4th  c.),  of  Lladislas, 
King  of  Naples  (1406-10),  of  the  Carrara  family  (1410-20),  and  of  the 
Popes  from  Martin  V.  (1426-31)  to  Alexander  VI.  (1492-1503).  Fran- 
cesco Sforza,  afterward  Duke  of  Milan  by  his  marriage  with  Bianca 
Visconti,  struck  a  denaro  here.  Nothing  higher  than  the  grosso  seems 
to  have  been  struck.  There  is  a  baiocco  struck  under  the  Roman  republic 
of  1798-99  with  F.  Sforti.  on  obv.  De  Ascvlo,  Ascholo,  or  Escvlo. 

Asperden,  Aspermont,  or  Aspern,  Rhen.  Prussia,  the  place  of  origin  of 

Catalogue  of  Eiiropean  Mints  75 

a  grosch  of  Walram  von  Falkenberg,  G.M.  of  Teutonic  Order,  with 
Monet  a  Walranus  Asperensis. 

Asti,  in  the  Milanese  territory,  successively  a  republic  under  imperial 
authority  (i2th-i4th  c.),  and  a  dependency  of  the  Dukes  of  Orleans 
(1408-98),  of  Louis  XII.  of  France,  of  Charles  V.  of  Germany,  and  of  the 
Dukes  of  Savoy.  Of  these  rulers,  if  not  of  the  Dukes  of  Milan  of  the 
Visconti  family,  Asti  was  doubtless  one  of  the  mints,  as  most  of  the  coins 
indicate  local  fabrication.  Astensis. 

Astorga,  Prov.  of  Leon,  Spain,  a  Visigothic  mint.     Astorica. 

Atri  {Atri Picena],  Naples,  a  mint  of  the  feudal  dukes  (i  5th  c.). 

Attendant,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  an  early  mint  of  the  Archb.  of  Cologne, 
with  pieces  reading  Attendrvm. 

Audenarde,  or  Oudenarde,  Belgium,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  patard  of 
Charles  V.  struck  for  Brabant,  and  of  the  money  issued  during  the 
Spanish  siege  in  1582  :$  and  lo-stuiver  pieces  generally  countermarked. 

Augsburgh  {Augusta  Vindelicoruni),  Bavaria,  the  mint  of  the  Dukes 
and  Kings  of  Bavaria,  of  the  Bishops  of  Augsburgh,  and  of  the  Emperors, 
and  the  probable  place  of  coinage  bearing  the  name  and  titles  of  the 
great  Swabian  house  of  Fugger.  There  are  thalers  of  Ferdinand  III., 
1642,  with  a  view  of  the  city,  and  of  Francis  I.,  1745,  belonging  to  this 
place.  The  very  remarkable  volume  of  portraits  of  the  Fugger  family  is 
well  known.  Comp.  Weissenhorn. 

Aunelas  (Omellas),  Herault,  an  early  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Vicomtes 
de  Beziers,  of  the  Seigneurs  de  Montpellier,  and  of  the  House  of  Orange, 
apparently  dependent  by  way  of  homage  on  the  Counts  of  Melgueil. 
Very  little  money  seems  to  be  known.  Low  values  only.  Omelladis. 

Aurich,  Hanover,  the  place  of  origin  for  money  struck  by  Prussia  for 
East  Friesland.  There  is  before  us  a  marien-groschen  coined  here  by 
Frederic  II.,  1753,  for  that  province. 

Auroie,  Belgium,  a  mint  of  the  early  Bishops  of  Liege.  There  is  a 
groot  of  Adolf  van  Marck,  Bishop,  1313-1344. 

Austrian  Mints  (minor)  :  St.  Andreas  (S.  Andrati\  Auersperg, 
Beraun,  Bilitz,  Brixen,  Buchheim,  Budweis,  Cilly,  Eger,  Ems,  Eule, 
Formbach,  Freystadt,  Friedland,  Friesach,  Gitschin,  Gratz,  Grieven, 
Gurk,  Hall,  Iglau  ;  (ISTRIA)  Jaegendorf,  Joachimsthal,  Khevenhiiller, 
Kinsky  ;  (CARNIOLA  or  KRAIN)  Krumauv,  Kiittenburg,  Laudestrost, 
Leipa,  Lieding,  Lienz,  Linz,  Lobkowitz  ;  (MORAVIA  or  MAEHREN) 
Melnik,  Neuenkirchen,  Neustadt,  Ortenburg,  Paar,  Plan,  Sinzendorf, 
Sprintzenstein  ;  (STYRIA  or  STEIERMARK)  Trautson,  Troppau,  Tuln,  St. 
Veit,  Villach,  Voelkermarkt,  Withering,  Windischgratz,  Znaim. 

Autun,  Saone-et-Loire,  the  seat  of  an  obscure  episcopal  9th-i3th  c. 
mint,  supposed  to  have  been  authorised  by  Carloman  between  879  and 
884,  and  confirmed  by  Charles  the  Simple  on  his  visit  to  A.  in  900.  But 
the  right  was,  it  appears,  constantly  traversed  by  the  Comtes  d' Autun  and 
others.  Edua,  Hedua,  or  Eduens,  Civitas.  The  only  pieces  with  the 
name  of  Carloman  appear  to  be  later  imitations. 

Auxerre,  Dept.  of  Yonne,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  of  the 
Counts  of  Nevers,  and  of  the  Counts  of  A.  The  money  of  Auxerre  is 
cited  in  many  ancient  documents.  The  office  of  mint-master  was  here, 
as  elsewhere,  hereditary  in  1204.  The  Count  of  Nevers  was  striking 
money  at  Auxerre  in  1231.  Some  pieces  have  Senones  Civitas,  and  on 
rev.  Avtesiodr  Ci.,  suggesting  a  monetary  convention  with  the  Archb. 
of  Sens.  The  mint  is  said  to  have  been  closed  in  1267. 

Auxonne,  a  mint  in  the  diocese  of  Besan^on,  employed  by  the  Counts 

76  The  Coins  of  Europe 

and  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  I4th  c.  A  good  deal  of  friction  and  trouble 
arose  by  reason  of  the  pretensions  of  the  Archbishop  to  the  sole  control 
of  this  and  other  places  of  coinage.  Au.vona,  comes  Auxone,  Auxona 
castorro,  etc. 

Avallon,  Yonne,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Auxerre  and  Tonnerre,  where 
the  Carlovingian  and  Auxerrois  types  were  introduced  in  succession. 
Probably  the  coinage  did  not  survive  the  I3th  c.,  but  a  real,  ascribed  to 
the  latter  half  of  the  I5th,  reads  S.G.  Hovdavt  Monnoier  UAvalon. 

Avenches,  canton  of  Vaud,  a  Swiss  mint  under  the  Merovingian 
princes.  Aventtcum. 

Avigliana,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy,  1297-1405. 

Avignon  (Abinw),  a  place  of  Merovingian  coinage  and  an  autonomous 
civic  mint,  where  the  picciolo  in  billon  was  struck  with  Avioncnsis  partly 
on  one  side  and  partly  on  the  other.  Subsequently  a  place  of  coinage  of 
the  Popes  from  Clement  VI.  (1342-52)  to  Innocent  XII.  (1691-1700). 
Clement  VIII.  (1592-1605)  struck  a  double  and  a  quadruple  scudo  d'oro 
here  ;  Innocent  X.  (1644-55)  also  had  a  quadruple  scudo  ;  Gregory  XV. 
(1621-23)  struck  a.  piastra  ;  and  in  Cat.  Rossi,  p.  25,  several  examples  of  a 
billon  piece  occur,  with  the  name  mistura — a  makeshift  term  for  mixed 
metal.  One  of  the  scarcest  pieces  coined  here  is  a  gpld  scudo  of 
Innocent  VIII.  (1484-92).  Rossi,  1880,  No.  5716,  560  lire.  See  it 
figured  in  the  8th  plate  accompanying  Catalogue. 

Avioth,  Uept.  of  Meuse,  a  mint  of  the  Comte  de  Chiny,  i4th  c. 
Plaques  and  £  pi.  are  known.  Moneta  Aviotensis. 

Baar,  a  free  barony  formerly  belonging  to  the  great  feudal  family  of 
Brederode.  There  is  a  silver  daalder  or  thaler,  with  Moneta  Nova 
Argentea  I.  Ba.  of  Dietrich  van  Bronkhorst  and  Batenborg,  Heer  van 

Babenhausen,  a  mint  of  Lichtenberg,  1587-1632. 

Bacharach,  Prussia,  a  place  of  coinage  in  the  1 4th  c.  for  the  Counts  of 
Moers,  who  struck  here  the  gulden  and  the  grosch.  It  was  the  ancient 
seat  of  the  Counts  Palatine  of  the  Rhine,  and  their  mint.  A  gold  ducat 
of  Ludwig  IV.  (1436-99)  was  struck  herein  more  than  one  variety  in  1437. 

Badajos,  a  mint  of  the  Moorish  Kings. 

fiaden,  the  sole  mint  of  the  margraviat  and  duchy  down  to  1572  ;  but 
the  output  was  not  large.  At  the  end  of  the  I5th  c.  there  was  a  monetary 
convention  with  Wiirtemburg  for  the  supply  of  florins,  etc.  The  earliest 
copper  pieces  date  only  from  1766. 

Batten  Minis  (minor)  :  Bischofsheim,  Bischofsheim-am-Tauber, 
Bodmaun,  Bruchsal,  Carlsruhe,  Durlach,  Eberstein,  Emmendingen, 
Gengenbach,  Heidelberg,  Hochberg,  Klettgau,  Koenigshofen,  Langen- 
steinbach  (near  Durlach),  Lauda,  Offenburg,  Pforzheim,  Radolfszell, 
Reichenau,  Schwazach,  Thiengen  or  Tungen,  Tottnau  or  Taettnau, 
Usenberg,  Villingen,  Waldshut,  Weinheim,  Wiesloch. 

Badonvillers,  Lorraine,  a  private  mint  of  Francis  II.,  Duke  of 
Lorraine  (1625-32),  who,  on  his  abdication  in  the  former  year,  reserved 
the  right  of  coinage  on  his  own  domain.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No. 
1 542.  Ba. 

Bagnols.     See  Beancaire. 

Bamberg,  with  Villach  and  Grieven  in  Carinthia,  the  place  of  coinage 
of  the  Bishops  (iith-i8th  c.).  The  earliest  pieces  are  deniers  of  Bishop 
Rupercht  (1075-84).  The  gold  coinage  commenced  in  1354.  Franz. 
Ludwig,  from  1794  to  1798,  during  the  French  occupation,  struck  silver 

Catalogiie  of  European  Mints  77 

money  coined 'from  the  church  plate,  as  at  Eichstadt,  etc.  Bainberg  or 

Bannassac,  Gevaudan,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia,  6th  c,  and  of 
those  of  Aquitaine,  7th  c.  A  triens  of  Charibert,  brother  of  Dagobert 
I.,  reads  Bannaciaco  Fiit.  on  rev.  One  of  Childebert  II.,  King  of 
Austrasia,  575,  has  Gabalorvui.  A  two-handled  chalice  usually  appears 
on  the  products  of  this  mint.  , 

Banya-Nagy,  Hungary,  a  mint  of  the  Princes  of  Transylvania,  i6th- 
i;th  c. 

Bar,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Bar,  I4th-i5th  c.  The 
coinage  of  this  and  other  mints  seems  to  be  only  indicated  by  the  titles 
and  names  and  by  two  bars  juxtaposed. 

Barcelona,  Arragon,  a  Visigothic  mint  (Barcinona\  and  the  seat  of 
coinage  of  the  independent  Counts  prior  to  the  union  with  the  Kingdom 
under  Alfonso  II.  (1163-96)  Barkinot.  The  original  currency  appears 
to  have  been  imitations  of  the  Carlovingian  denier  and  the  gold  money 
introduced  by  the  Arabs.  There  is  a  marabotin  of- Raymond  Berenger 

I.  (1018-35)  with  Arabic  legends  and  Raimimd'vs  Comes.     It  was  subse- 
quently a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Arragon,  as  Counts  of  B.  iith-i5th  c.,  and 
an  occasional  one  of  the  Kings  of  Spain.     We  should  draw  attention  to 
a  very  rare  gold  piece  ascribed  in  the  Rossi  Cat.,  No.  5839,  to  Ramiro 

II.  of  Arragon,    1134;    it    reads    Arago.    Rex  Ra.     Siege-money    was 
struck  here  during  the  French  occupation,  1640-52,  and  during  the  Penin- 
sular War,  1 809- 1 3.     B.  or  Ba. 

Bardi,  in  the  Parmesan  territory,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  Landi 
family,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.  The  scudo  and  grosso  in  silver,  and  the  quattrino  in 
copper,  appear  to  have  been  struck  here. 

Bari,  Apulia,  a  mint  of  the  Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia,  iith-i2th  c. 

Bar-le-Dnc,  France,  Dept.  of  Meuse,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes 
of  Bar. 

B  arietta,  Terra  di  Bari,  Naples,  a  place  of  coinage  of  Charles  I.  of 
Anjou,  1266-78. 

Basle,  a  Merovingian  and  Carlovingian  mint,  one  of  the  bishops,  1087- 
1373,  1556-1789,  and  of  the  canton  down  to  the  establishment  of  an 
uniform  coinage  for  Switzerland.  Basel.  Basilea,  B-A. 

Bastogne,  Luxemburgh,  a  mint  of  Henry  IV.,  Count  of  Luxemburgh 
(1280-88).  Deniers  and  gros  only.  Bastonia. 

Batenborg,  Gelderland,  a  seat  of  coinage  of  the  powerful  and  illustrious 
house  of  Brederode,  Seigneurs  or  Heeren  of  Bronkhorst,  etc.,  i6th  c. 
Some  of  the  coins  bear,  as  usual,  the  imperial  titles  conjointly  and 
Batenborgen,  Batenborg,  or  Batenbo.  A  half  gulden  has  Moneta  Nova 
Argentea  Batenborgen,  and  a  goudgulden  of  1578  reads  Mo.  No.  Avrea. 
Dni.  Herm.  The.  [Hermann  Theodor  van  Bronkhorst].  A  daalder  of 
the  same  personage,  1577,  adds  to  the  ordinary  title  that  of  Seigneur 
of  Stein.  Comp.  Gronsfeld. 

Baugency,  near  Blois,  the  supposed  source  of  an  obole  of  Thibaut  le 
Tricheur,  Count  of  B.  Chartres  and  Tours,  about  938,  with  Tetiabdvs  Cm. 
/.,  and  on  rev.  Balcvnti  Civia. 

Bavarian  Mints  (minor)  :  Alsenz,  Allenbach,  Amberg,  Amweiler, 
Aschafifenburg,  Auerbach,  Bergzabern,  Billigheim,  Brettach,  Castell, 
Cham,  Ekersmuhlen,  Erlangen,  Forchheim,  Freisingen,  Fiirth,  Gerold- 
shofen,  Geyersworth,  Grunstadt,  Giinsburg,  Gundelbingen,  Haag,  Hachen- 
bach,  Hals,  Hamelburg,  Hassfurt,  Heidingsfeld,  Herrenwoerth,  Hersbruck, 
Hirschberg,  Hochstaedt,  Hoff,  Hohenlandsberg,  Ingoldstadt,  Kadolzburg, 

78  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Kalmiintz,  Karlstadt,  Kaufbeuren,  Kemnath,  Kitzingen,  Landshut,  Lan- 
genzenn,  Lauenstein,  Lauff,  Lauingen,  Lohr,  Ludwigstadt,  Memmingen, 
Mittenberg,  Mosbach,  Nabburg,  Neuburg,  Neumarkt,  Neustadt-am- 
Aisch,  Neustadt-am-Hardt,  Neustadt-am-Saale,  Nordlingen,  Ober- 
schwarzach,  Pappenheim,  Pfreimbt  (1487),  Reichenhall,  Reichertshofen, 
Roth,  Rothenburg-am-Tauber,  Rothenfels,  Schauenstein,  SchillingsfUrst, 
Schongau,  Schweinfurt,  Sternstein,  Stockau,  Straubing,  Saint -Theres, 
Voeringen,  Voltach,  Wachenheim,  Weissenstadt,  Wemdingen,  Woerstadt, 

Bayetix,  a  supposed  mint  of  the  autonomous  Dukes  of  Normandy. 

Bayonne,  a  place  where,  in  1377,  an  ordinance  of  Edward  III.  accorded 
to  John  of  Gaunt  the  right  of  striking  money  in  all  metals,  provided  that 
it  was  distinguished  from  that  of  England  and  Aquitaine.  No  specimens 
appear  to  be  known.  A  piece  of  12  sols  of  Louis  XV.  of  France,  1772, 
was  struck  here. 

Beancaire,  the  mint  of  the  Archbp.  of  Aries  from  the  beginning  of 
the  1 3th  to  the  end  of  the  I5th  c.,  and  an  unauthorised  place  of  coinage 
during  the  war  and  disorder  of  the  League,  1586.  The  Seigneur  de 
Damville,  Constable  of  Montmorency,  also  struck  money  (pieces  of  6- 
blanques  =  24  deniers),  to  pay  the  troops  of  the  insurgents,  at  Villeneuve 
and  Bagnols. 

Bcaulieu,  near  Loches,  Vicomte"  of  Turenne,  a  mint  of  the  ancient 
viscounts  and  the  seat  of  an  abbey.  In  1190  Raimond  II.,  V.  de  T., 
when  he  left  France  for  the  Holy  Land  granted  the  abbot  the  right  of 
striking  money  at  B.  with  a  tithe  of  the  profits.  A  supposed  place  of 
coinage  of  the  Counts  of  Anjou,  loth-nth  c. 

Beaumont,  Hainault,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  Baudouin  d'Avesnes,  I3th  c., 
where  were  struck  gros  au  cavalier  or  rijder-grooten  with  B.  LfAvenis 
Dns.  Bellimontis.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  259,  where  an  inedited 
variety  is  figured.  It  may  be  mentioned  that  at  B.-le-Roger  in  Normandy 
there  was  probably  no  coinage. 

Beauvais,  Dept.  of  Oise,  a  Carlovingian  and  Capetian  mint  under  the 
bishops,  who  from  the  beginning  of  the  nth  c.  enjoyed  the  temporalities. 
Roger  de  Blois,  1001-22,  also  struck  money  at  Nogent-sur-Eure,  which 
was  part  of  his  domain.  A  denier  and  obole  of  nerve",  Bishop  of  Pon- 
thieu,  with  the  name  of  Hugh  Capet  associated,  and  Belvacus  Ci-vitas, 
belong  here.  The  mint  did  not  survive  beyond  1312-15. 

Bechevilain,  Lyons,  a  chateau  of  the  archbp.,  1373,  where  it  appears 
that  he  had  a  mint,  and  counterfeited  the  regal  types  during  four  years. 

Beckuni,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  place  of  coinage,  I4th  c.,  with  two  wild 
sows  courant. 

Belgiojoso,  Lombardy,  probably  the  place  of  origin  of  a  scudo  of 
silver  and  a  gold  zecchino  of  the  Prince  of  B.,  Antonio  da  Barbiano, 
unless  indeed  these  pieces  were  struck  at  Vienna.  The  die  of  the  scudo 
has  the  appearance  of  an  Italian  origin. 

Belgrade,  capital  of  the  kingdom  of  Serbia  or  Servia,  and  the  seat  of 
the  national  coinage  since  1867. 

Bellac,  La  Marche,  a  mint  of  Hugues,  Comte  de  la  Marche,  established 
in  12 1 1.  Comp.  Grandmont. 

Bellinzona  or  Bellenz,  Switzerland,  canton  of  Ticino,  the  reputed  place 
of  coinage  of  certain  silver  pieces  of  an  episcopal  type  (1503-40),  and  a 
common  mint  for  the  cantons  of  Uri,  Schwyz,  and  Unterwalden. 

Belmont,  Switzerland,  canton  of  Vaud,  the  former  capital  of  a  princi- 
pality, and  presumably  its  mint.  There  is  a  gold  sequin  of  Antonio 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  79 

Pignatelli  (1733),  with  Antonivs  Pignatelli  and  a  bust  on  obv.,  and  on 
rev.  SrR.  I.  Princ.  Belmontis.  1733,  and  a  shield. 

Beneventum,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  solidi  and  trientes  of  gold 
and  of  the  silver  pieces  struck  by  the  Lombard  dukes  from  the  6th  to  the 
9th  c.  Some  of  the  earlier  of  these  bear,  as  elsewhere,  the  portraits  of 
Roman  emperors. and  Victoria  Aug.,  etc.,  while  others  (of  the  Lombard 
series)  couple  the  imperial  monogram  with  the  ducal  titles.  In  848  the 
duchy  was  divided  into  two  portions,  Beneventum  and  Salerno.  Bene- 

Bentheim,  Hanover,  the  mint  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Bentheim- 
Bentheim,  whose  territory  adjoined  the  Dutch  province  of  Overijssel. 
Schulman,  xiv.  432,  notices  a  thaler  of  Ernst  Wilhelm,  Count  of  Ben- 
theim, Tecklenbourg,  Steinfurt,  and  Limbourg. 

Berg  or  s'  Heerenberg,  Lat.  Mans,  Westphalia,  a  barony,  then  a 
county,  and  eventually  a  duchy.  It  was  united  to  Juliers  and  Cleves,  and 
successively  merged,  with  those  and  the  other  lordships  appertaining,  in 
the  dukedom  of  Saxony  and  that  of  Prussia  under  the  electoral  house  of 
Brandenburgh.  This  signiory  and  a  great  deal  of  surrounding  territory 
were  erected  in  1806  by  Napoleon  I.  into  a  grand-duchy  in  favour  of 
Murat,  and  again  constituted  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Westphalia  under 
Jerdme  Napoleon.  There  are  coins  of  both,  and  quite  a  plentiful  series 
of  the  latter.  The  early  seigneurs  of  B.  struck  money  here  as  elsewhere  : 
comp.  Dieren,  Hedel,  and  Miihlheim.  A  thaler  of  William  IV.  (1546-86) 
exhibits  the  shields  of  s'  Heerenberg,  Hedel,  and  Polanen.  On  one 
from  the  Dieren  mint,  1 578,  the  mark  is  a  pomegranate.  The  Dukes  of 
Saxony  long  retained  on  their  coinage  the  titles  of  Dukes  of  Juliers,  Cleves, 
and  Berg.  See  further  in  Blanchet,  ii.  103,  note,  and  Cat.  of  Denom. 
Mining  Pieces. 

Bergamo,  N.  Italy,  a  seat  of  republican  coinage  in  the  Middle  Ages 
under  imperial  control  or  sanction.  On  its  union  with  the  Venetian 
Republic  in  the  i$th  c.  it  adopted  the  types  and  currency  of  its  masters. 

Bergen-op-Zoom  struck,  after  the  Spaniards  had  raised  the  siege  in 
1588,  a  gold  piece  with  Bergen. 

Bergerac,  Dordogne,  a  mint  of  Henry,  Earl  of  Derby  and  Lincoln, 
pursuant  to  a  grant  of  Edward  III.,  June  I,  1347,  and  of  Edward  himself. 
Henry  struck  gros  and  \  gros,  blancs,  and  esterlins,  with  Hen.  Comes. 
Lane,  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Dns.  Bracaivaci  or  Bragairac.  He  was 
created  Duke  of  Lancaster  in  1351,  and  some  of  his  coins  have  H.  Dux 
Lancast.  Civitas  Bragie. 

Bergheim,  Alsace,  the  source  of  a  bracteate  of  the  I4th  c.  with  B-E., 
and  a  mint  of  the  duchy  of  Juliers  under  Raynald  IV. 

Bergues-Saint-  Winoc,  Dept.  of  Nord,  France,  formerly  in  Flanders, 
an  abbatial  mint,  nth  c.,  and  also  the  source  of  communal  mailles  with 

Berlin,  a  mint  in  the  I2th  c.,  and  in  or  about  1280  one  of  the  Mar- 
graves of  Brandenburgh,  Dukes  of  Prussia.  The  urban  coinage,  which 
commenced  in  1369,  represents  the  standing  figure  of  the  Margraf,  and 
on  rev.  the  arms  of  Berlin — a  bear  passant  to  r.  There  seems  to  have 
been  a  late  coinage  of  bracteates  here,  and  from  1621  to  1666  Berlin  struck 
pfennigen  and  hellers  in  billon  ;  it  does  not  appear  to  have  become  an 
important  mint  till  the  i8th  c.  There  is  a  grosch  of  Joachim  and 
Albrecht,  Margraves  of  Brandenburgh,  1575,  belonging  here. 

Bernburg  or  Anhalt-Bernburg,  probably  the  principal  mint  of  the 
principality,  and,  since  1806,  duchy.  The  coins  are  in  all  metals,  and 

8o  The  Coins  of  Europe 

usually  display  a  bear  passant  on  the  wall  of  a  fortress.  The  gold  money 
is  rare.  There  are  the  ruins  at  Wilhelmhof  of  an  ancient  castle  which 
may  have  been  a  mint  ;  it  dates  from  906.  The  ducal  residence  is  at 
Ballenstadt.  The  Coethen  branch  had  a  mint  at  C.  in  the  I3th  c.  There 
is  a  piece  in  silver  of  So-kreutzer  struck  for  A.-B.  in  1592  during  a  siege. 

Berncastel,  a  mint  of  Richard  of  Volrathi,  Archbishop  of  Troves 
(1511-31).  A  raderalbus  of  1516  reads  :  Moncta  Nova  Berncaslele. 

Berne,  the  mint  of  the  city  itself  from  1218  by  virtue  of  a  concession 
from  Frederic  II.,  of  the  canton,  and  probably  of  some  of  the  minor 
members  of  the  Confederation.  The  gold  pieces  of  32,  16,  8,  and  4  francs, 
1800,  for  general  circulation,  came  from  this  mint.  An  dcu  of  Louis  XVI., 
1792,  is  countermarked  with  40  batzen  for  Berne  ;  the  same  course  was 
taken  for  other  cantons. 

Beromiinster,  formerly  in  the  grand-duchy  of  Baden,  now  in  the 
Swiss  canton  of  Aargau,  an  ancient  abbey,  which  appears  to  have  struck 
money  within  its  precincts.  See  Michaelsgulden  in  Cat.  of  Denom. 

Besalu,  Navarre,  a  place  of  coinage,  of  which  no  monuments  are 
known,  but  of  which  in  1072  Bernard,  Comte  de  Besalu,  gave  a  tithe  of 
the  profits  to  the  church  of  Sainte-Marie.  Gold,  as  well  as  silver,  is 

Besan^on  (Bisuntium  Civi.,  Vesontium,  or  Crisopolis\  chiefly  an 
archiepiscopal  and  municipal  mint,  but  also  a  place  of  coinage  for  the 
house  of  Burgundy  in  the  persons  of  Philip  le  Bel  and  of  Jean  de  Chalon, 
Seigneur  d'Arlay,  Governor  of  the  county  of  Burgundy,  Mayor  and  Viscount 
of  B.  (1291-1315).  The  civic  currency  seems  to  have  commenced  in  1534 
under  Charles  V.,  whose  name,  titles,  and  portrait  occur  on  pieces  about 
1535  and  as  late  as  1665.  A  denier  of  Jean  de  Chalon  has  Johs.  De 
Cabulon  [Rev.]  Dns.  De  Arlato.  The  archiepiscopal  money  dates  from 
the  gth  c.  to  the  i6th,  and  the  original  mint  was  situated  at  the  Nigra 
Porta.  The  right  was  limited  to  the  city,  but  the  See  claimed  the 
monopoly  for  the  diocese  ;  and  we  find  the  Archduchess  Margaret  in 
1507  paying  an  indemnity  for  a  breach  of  this  title.  The  power  to  strike 
money  in  all  metals  was  conferred  in  1357.  The  types  of  B.  were  copied 
at  Messerano  in  Italy. 

Besnt!,  Loire  Inferieure,  a  very  ancient  site,  and  perhaps  the  Besniaco, 
which  occurs  on  a  Merovingian  triens,  recently  found  near  Roche-sur- 

Bethune,  France,  Pas  de  Calais,  formerly  part  of  Flanders,  the  seat  of 
a  limited  coinage  by  the  seigneurs,  originally  advocates  or  lay  adminis- 
trators of  the  abbey  of  Saint  Waast,  near  Arras,  of  the  small  billon  pieces 
called  mailles,  with  the  distinctive  marks  of  Betv,  Betune,  or  Betunia. 
Mathilde,  heiress  of  Bethune,  married  Gui,  Count  of  Flanders,  in  1249. 

Beziers,  Dept.  of  Herault,  the  Roman  Biterrce  Septimanorum.  A 
Visigothic  mint,  and  a  very  ancient  place  of  coinage  of  the  Vicomtes  de 
B.,  subsequently  by  marriage  of  the  V.  de  Carcassonne,  as  well  as  an 
episcopal  mint.  This  was  also  one  of  the  places  of  coinage  of  the 
Constable  of  Montmorency,  Henri,  Seigneur  de  Damville,  in  1586.  He 
struck  here  pieces  of  6  blanques,  but  employed  it  only  during  a  few 
months,  shutting  it  on  the  agreement  of  the  mint  at  Montpellier  to  pay 
him  1 5,000  ecus. 

Bicht,  Holland,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  mites  of  Jan  van  der 
Douck,  1 5th  c.,  reading  Johns  Vander  Dock,  and  Moneta  Nova  Bich. 

Bielfeld,  Lippe,  Rhenish  Prussia,  with  Biickeburg  and  Oldendorf,  was 
the  place  of  coinage  of  the  early  Counts  of  Schauenburg- Lippe,  i6th-i7th 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  81 

c.  The  Counts  continued  to  strike  money  down  to  the  end  of  the  i8th  c. 
A  \  thaler  of  1761  reads  Wilhelmus  Dei  Graf.  Reg1  in  Schaumb.  on 
obv.,  and  on  rev.  Nobilissim  Dom  :  ac.  Com  :  in  Lipp.  <&•»  St.  Also  a 
mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Munster,  the  Counts  of  Ravensberg,  and  the  Dukes 
of  Juliers,  etc.,  I4th-i6th  c.  Bilevelde. 

Biella,  Piedmont,  a  Savoyard  mint,  1640-42. 

Bingen,  Hesse-Darmstadt,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Archbishops  of 
Mayence  or  Maintz  in  the  I4th  and  i$th  c. 

Blenod-les-Toul,  Dept.  of  Meurthe,  France,  the  place  of  origin  of  a 
very  rare  denier  of  Jean  d'Arzilieres,  Bishop  of  Toul  (1309-20),  described 
in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  ion.  It  is  a  copy  of  a  sterling  of  John  I., 
Duke  of  Brabant. 

Blois,  a  mint  of  Eudes  and  Charles  the  Simple,  and  after  their  time 
of  imitations  of  the  royal  types  by  the  early  Counts  of  Blois.  Subse- 
quently the  latter  struck  deniers  with  a  degenerate  portrait,  having  before 
it  a  small  wolfs  head,  blez  signifying  a  wolf,  and  with  Blesis  or  Blesianvs 
Castro.  The  county  of  Blois  was  sold  in  1361  with  that  of  Dunois  to  the 
Duke  of  Orleans.  But  as  far  back  as  1328  Charles  II.  de  Valois,  nephew 
of  Philip  le  Bel,  purchased  of  Gui  I.  de  Chatillon,  Count  of  B.,  the  right 
of  coinage  at  B.,  and  probably  within  the  lordship,  for  15,000  livres 

Blomberg,  Lippe,  a  mint  of  Bernhardt  II.,  Count  of  Lippe,  1229-65  ; 
there  is  an  esterling  with  Blomenberic;  and  we  meet  with  billon  pieces 
of  the  i  yth  c. 

Bockholt,  Prussia,  a  mint,  probably  of  a  limited  character,  and  mainly 
for  copper  money.  The  stiiber  and  the  pfenning  were  current.  A  piece 
of  105  pf.  was  struck  in  1762,  and  in  1690  had  appeared  the  2oth  part  of 
a  reichsthaler  in  copper. 

Bois-le-Duc,  or  s'  Hertogenbosch,  the  seat  of  a  royal  and  civic  coin- 
age, probably  of  limited  extent,  from  the  i6th  c.  We  have  the  //Vzr</and 
the  gigot,  both  in  copper,  and  with  the  arms  of  the  town.  A  well- 
executed  Hard  of  Philip  II.,  1581,  and  a  quarter  patagon  of  Albert  and 
Isabella,  1617,  as  well  as  the  Hard  of  various  dates  with  their  titles,  are 
assignable  hither.  It  is  not  unlikely  that  the  early  forgery  of  guenars, 
found  at  Vucht  in  the  neighbourhood,  was  perpetrated  at  Bois-le-Duc. 

Boitzenburgi  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Schwerin  in  the  I3th  c.,  and  of 
the  Dukes  of  Mecklenburgh  in  the  I7th-i8th  c. 

Bologna,  the  seat  of  republican  coinage  subject  to  the  imperial 
authority  (i2th-i4th  c.),  subsequently  of  the  money  issued  by  the  Pepoli 
family  (1337-50),  by  Giovanni  Visconti,  Archbishop  of  Milan  (1350-54),  of 
the  popes  from  1360  to  1401,  of  the  Bentivoglii  from  1401  to  1402,  of  the 
popes  from  1403  to  1409,  of  a  republican  government  from  1416  to  1419, 
of  the  popes  from  1431  to  1878,  with  the  exception  of  a  short  interval  in 
1797  and  1848.  There  is  a  silver  scudo,  a  piece  of  2  carlini,  etc.,  of  the 
former  date,  and  3  baiocchi  of  the  Roman  republic  of  the  latter.  The 
most  remarkable  coin  in  the  whole  succession  of  pieces  minted  here  is  the 
zecchino  of  1323,  with  papal  emblems  and  the  full-length  figure  of  St. 
Peter.  It  was  the  earliest  apostolic  or  Roman  coin  which  appeared  at 
Bologna.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  374.  It  sold  for  130  lire.  We  must 
also  particularly  note  in  the  Bolognese  series,  besides  the  Pepoli  and 
Bentivoglio  coins,  the  triple  scudo  of  gold  of  Clement  VII.  (1523-34),  by 
Domenicani  of  Bologna,  dated  1529,  and  struck  during  the  famine  ;  the 
silver  scudo  of  Gregory  XIII.  (1572-85),  Anno  VIII.,  being  the  first 
piece  of  the  kind  struck,  and  the  set  of  gold,  silver,  and  copper,  issued  by 


82  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Vettore  Emmanuele  as  King  of  Italy,  1860  ;  the  20,  10,  and  5  lire  in 
gold  ;  the  lira  and  2  lire  in  silver  ;  the  40  and  20  centesimi  in  copper  with 
a  silver  centre;  and  the  soldo  in  copper  (dated  1861).  An  early  peculi- 
arity of  the  coins,  which  was  followed  elsewhere,  is  the  separation  of  the 
last  letter  of  the  name  Bononia  from  the  rest,  and  its  assignment  to  the 
centre  of  the  piece;  we  see  it  in  a  danaro  of  the  nth  c.,  with  the  name 
of  the  Emperor  Henry  V.  (i  106-25)  on  obv.  and  Bononi  A.  on  rev.  Comp. 

Bolsivcrd,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  West  Friesland,  1038-90.  There 
is  a  double  groat  struck  here,  with  the  date  1478.  Sch.,  Cat.  vii.  239. 

Jjommel,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy  as  Dukes  of 
Gueldres,  I5th  c.  Also  one  for  a  local  coinage,  and  for  money  struck 
during  a  siege  by  the  Spaniards,  1599  (a  J  gulden,  a  stuiver  or  sol,  and 
a  dute  or  doit).  The  piece  exists  in  silver  and  tin,  both  on  a  square 
flan  ;  the  second  is  in  silver — mint  mark,  a  pomegranate  ;  and  the  last 
in  copper.  There  are  two  varieties  of  a  piece  of  2  stuivers  and  a  ^ 

Bandar oi,  near  Pithiviers,  a  seigneurie  ceded  by  Philip  le  Bel  to  Hugues 
de  Bonville  in  exchange  for  Chapelle-la-Reine,  with  the  right  of  coinage. 

Bonn,  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia  (Bo.\  and  possibly 
the  Bona  which  appears  on  the  reverse  of  a  denier  of  the  Emperor  Henry 
II.,  1002-24.  Some  coins  bear  Beata  Verona  Vinces.  Also  a  seat  of 
coinage  of  some  of  the  earlier  Bishops  of  Cologne,  I4th  c.  During  the 
siege  by  Ernst  of  Bavaria  and  the  Spaniards  in  1583,  a  thaler,  with  the 
i  and  j,  bearing  the  arms  of  the  See  of  Cologne,  was  issued. 

Borbeck,  Rhenish  Prussia,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Abbey  of  Essen 
(1459-89).  Comp.  Essen. 

Bordeaux,  one  of  the  chief  centres  of  the  Visigothic  kingdom  and  of 
the  independent  duchy  of  Gascony.  It  was  a  mint  at  least  from  the  8th- 
c.  The  most  ancient  pieces  appear  to  be  those  bearing  Leutario  and 
Burdegal;  their  attribution  is  uncertain.  Others  read  Lodoicus,  sup- 
posed to  indicate  Louis  IV.  or  the  Young,  936-54.  B.  was  a  prominent 
seat  of  the  Anglo-Gallic  coinage,  as  well  as  of  the  Kings  of  France  as 
Dukes  of  Aquitaine,  and  an  occasional  one  of  the  later  French  monarchs. 
In  1186,  Richard  Coeurde  Lion  gave  to  the  chapter  of  St.  Andre  at  Bor- 
deaux a  third  of  the  revenue  of  his  mint  there ;  the  right  was  bought  by 
the  Crown  only  in  1709. 

Borgo  di  San  Scpolcro  or  Sabourg,  near  San  Remo,  the  apparent  place 
of  origin  of  certain  money  of  the  I7th  c.,  struck  here  by  the  authority  of 
the  Abbot  of  Saint  Honorat  de  Lerins,  on  the  coast  of  Provence,  pursuant 
to  a  grant  of  the  sovereignty  of  Borgo  by  the  Comte  de  Ventimiglia  as  far 
back  as  954.  There  may  have  been  other  and  earlier  examples;  but  only 
pieces  of  1669  and  1671  appear  to  be  known,  with  Monast.  Lerincnse. 
P\rinceps\  Sepvl.  and  svb  innbra  sedi,  etc.  The  coinage  was  suppressed 
in  1686. 

Borgonuowo  della  Roccfietta,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Spinola  family, 

Borgo  San  Stefano,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Doria  family,  1668. 

Borgo-Taro,  Parma,  a  mint  of  the  princely  family  of  Landi,  i6th  c. 
There  are  quattrini  in  copper  of  Federico,  the  fifth  prince,  with  D.  Fed. 
Land.  V.  Tari.  Comp.  Bardi  and  Coinpiano. 

Borne,  Overijssel,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  I4th  c.  with  Dns.  Born. 
or  H.  van  Borne. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  83 

Bornstat,&  seigniorial  fief  united  to  Saxony  in  1290.  Probably  the, 
or  a,  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Mansfeldt  a  Bornstat,  1 6th- 1 8th  c.  Circa  1510- 
circd  1670.  There  are  bracteates  and  deniers  with  Brene  or  Bwenen, 
and  later  pieces  of  3  pfennigen  with  B. 

Bortheim,  near  Reckheim,  Belgium,  a  supposed  mint  of  the  Som- 
breffe  family,  Seigneurs  of  Reckheim,  I4th-i5th  c.  Moneta.  Nova.  DC. 

Bouillon,  Basse-Lorraine,  a  mint  of  Godefroi  IV.,  Duke  of  B.-L., 
1043-48.  Some  at  least  of  his  deniers  bear  the  name  of  his  consort 
Beatrix.  Associated  with  this  town  and  duchy  is  the  name  of  the  famous 
Godefroi  de  Bouillon,  to  whom  coins  have  been  attributed  in  the  Basse- 
Lorraine  series.  Apparently  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Liege  in  the  i6th- 
I7th  c.  See  Cat.  Schulman,  vii.  Nos.  552-55  ;  and  Cat.  Robert,  1886, 
Nos.  207-25,  388,  390.  It  is  doubtful  whether  the  Dues  de  Bouillon 
struck  money  here.  The  possession  of  the  chateau  was  subject  to  many 
changes.  The  duchy  itself  and  all  the  proprietary  rights  have  long  been 
absorbed  in  the  grand -duchy  of  Luxemburgh.  From  1792  to  1816 
Philippe  d'Auvergne,  Captain  R.N.,  bore  the  title,  and  in  1815  struck  a 
piece  of  5  francs  with  Philippe  D'Attvergne  Due  Souverain  de  Boti- 
illon,  and  his  portrait.  On  the  edge  is  inscribed  Domine  Salvvin  Fac 

Boulogne,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Carlovingian  Princes  down  to 
Lothaire,  and  a  seigniorial  mint  of  a  branch  of  the  Counts  of  Flanders, 
i  ith-i3th  c.  The  domain  changed  hands  two  or  three  times,  passing  into 
the  families  of  Dammartin  and  Auvergne.  Besides  this  place  of  coinage 
the  Counts  had  a  mint  at  Lens-en-Artois,  to  which  are  referred  deniers  of 
Eustache  I.  (1046-49)  and  Eustache  II.  (1049-95)  with  Lesni  Castel,  or 
Lesnensis.  One  of  the  Counts  of  B.  preserved  his  title  after  his  accession 
to  the  throne  of  Portugal  as  Alfonso  III.  in  1248.  Urbs.  Bolonie,  Bo- 
lungne,  Boninge,  etc.  Deniers  only. 

Bourges,  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve,  1840-75,  of  whom  there  is  a 
denier  with  Bitvricas  on  rev.,  and  of  the  Vicomtes  de  B.  down  to  not, 
when  the  fief  was  sold  to  the  Crown  for  60,000  sols  d'or.  The  Vicomtes 
seem  to  have  struck  no  money  in  their  own  name,  but  to  have  issued  the 
Carlovingian  types  in  that  of  the  King. 

Bouvigne,  Namur,  a  seat  of  coinage  of  Guillaume  I.,  Count  of  N., 


Bouiiviller,  Alsace,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Hanau  for  their  Alsa- 
tian domains. 

Bozzolo,  Venetian  Lombardy,  16  m.  W.S.W.  of  Mantua,  a  mint  of  the 
Gonzaga  family,  Princes  of  Bozzolo  (i5th-i6th  c.)  and  Dukes  of  Sabbi- 
onetta.  See  Cat.  Rossi,  4593,  and  comp.  Sabbionetta  and  San  Martina 
deir  Argine. 

Bracara,  or  Braga,  Galicia,  a  mint  of  the  Suevic  Goths,  411-30, 
457-584.  Br.  or  Civitas  Braga. 

Brackel,  or  Brakel,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  the  seat  of  an  urban  coinage 
by  a  concession  of  the  Bishop  of  Paderborn,  I4th  c.  Moneta  in  Br.,  rev. 
Brakele.  Civitas. 

Brandenberg,  Saxony,  a  feudal  mint  in  the  I3th  c.  Bracteates  with 
a  double-headed  eagle  and  a  bat. 

Brandenburg  Mints :  Augermtinde,  Baerwalde,  Beeskow,  Berlin, 
Bernau,  Brandenburgh,  Cologne,  Cottbus,  Crossen,  Ciistrin  (ceded  by 
Poland  to  the  Order  of  Livonia,  1259),  Driesen  (previously  to  1317  a 
Polish  mint),  Drossen,  Frankfort -am -Oder,  Freienwalde,  Fiirstenwalde, 

84  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Guben,  Havelberg,  Koenigsberg-in-Neumark,  Koepnik,  Kyritz,  Landsberg- 
am-Warte,  Lebus,  Luckau,  Lychen  (1302),  Mittenwalde,  Morin  (i4th  c.), 
Miincheberg  (1369),  Neustadt-Eberswalde(i369),  Perleberg-am-Stepenitz, 
Prenzlow,  Rathenow-am-Havel,  Alt-Ruppin,  Neu-Ruppin,  Schwedt,  Som- 
merfeld,  Sorau,  Spandow,  Sparr,  Spremberg,  Strassburg  or  Brodnitzo, 
Wrietzen,  Zossen. 

Brandenburgh,  now  part  of  Prussia,  formerly  an  independent  mar- 
graviat,  of  which  part  of  Prussia  was  an  appanage  :  an  episcopal  mint  in 
the  nth  c.  and  an  urban  one  in  the.  I4th.  Chiefly  for  low  values  and 
billon  money.  The  town  entered  into  a  convention  with  Berlin  as  early 
as  1322.  The  more  important  period  commenced  about  1500.  The  mar- 
graves had  altogether  from  time  to  time  about  40  mints.  In  1722  a  large 
coinage  of  copper  groschen  for  B.  took  place  in  England,  probably  at 
Birmingham.  There  is  an  undated  kipper  scchsgroscher  of  Georg 
Wilhelm  (1619-40)  belonging  here.  A  piece  of  18  groschen  of  Friedrich 
Wilhelm,  1604-8,  describes  him  as  Supremus  Du.v  in  Prussia.  This 
was  17  years  before  the  erection  of  Prussia  into  a  kingdom.  We  ought 
to  draw  attention  to  the  curious  early  dated  groschen  of  this  State  from 
1500  to  1550.  One  of  Joachim  has  Anno  Domini,  150x3;  and  a  second 
of  1506  Mone1.  Nova  Argenta.  An'.  1506. 

Brandenburgh-Anspach.     See  Anspach. 

Brassac,  Puy-de-D6me,  a  supposed  place  of  coinage  of  Pierre  I.  or  II. 
de  Brosse  (1287-1356),  by  reason  of  an  obole  of  the  Clermont  type,  with 
Petrus  de  Brocia  and  Brasau. 

Braunau,  the  source,  during  the  siege  by  the  Austrians,  1743,  °f  a 
thaler,  of  a  piece  of  7  sols,  and  of  tin  money  of  i,  3,  15,  and  30 
kreutzer,  with  Brannav  and  the  arms  of  Saxony. 

Breda,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  siege-money  in  1579  and  1625:  in 
the  former  case  of  a  piece  of  two  florins  on  a  square  flan,  and  of  one  of 
20  stuivers,  both  in  silver  ;  in  the  latter  of  pieces  of  60,  40,  and  20  stuivers 
silver,  and  2  and  i  stuivers  in  copper. 

Brekerfcld,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  de  la  Marck. 

Bremen,  the  seat  of  a  civic  and  episcopal  coinage,  including  bracteates 
to  a  comparatively  late  date.  A  double  grosch  of  Henry  of  Schwar- 
zenburg,  1463-96,  reads  Mon.  Nova  Bremesis. 

Brescello,  or  Bersello,  Govt.  of  Reggio,  a  mint  of  the  Este  family, 
Dukes  of  Reggio,  i6th  c.  There  is  a  rare  scudo  without  date,  with 
Omnis  nobilitas  A  Deo  Est,  and  on  rev.  the  effigy  and  name  of  St. 

Brescia,  the  place  of  origin  of  imperial  money,  i  Ith-I2th  c. ;  of  autono- 
mous coinage,  I3th-i4th  c.  ;  of  the  currency  struck  in  the  name  of  the 
Malatesta  family,  I5th  c.  In  the  early  years  of  that  c.  the  city  and 
territory  were  acquired  by  Venice  ;  but  no  special  coinage  was  provided 
by  the  republic. 

Breslau  (Wratislav),  Silesia,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  S.  from  the  I3th 
to  the  1 4th  c.,  and  of  the  Kings  of  Hungary,  the  prince-bishops,  and  the 
town  down  to  the  I7th  or  i8th.  The  Kings  of  Prussia  employed  it  after 
1750.  There  is  a  long  series  of  episcopal  pieces  in  gold  and  silver, 
including  a  ducat  of  1592,  with  the  titles  of  the  bishop  and  emperor,  and  a 
3-ducat  piece  of  1632,  in  which  the  bishop  is  styled  Prince  of  Sweden. 
During  the  Thirty  Years'  War  (1622-48)  small  uniface  copper  coins  and 
larger  money  in  the  same  metal  were  issued  for  local  use  :  the  former 
are  dated  1621  and  1622,  the  latter  sometimes  have  1645  stamped  in  ; 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  85 

and  all  bear  W.  for  Wratislav.  The  silver  three-thaler  of  1621,  and  the 
~1\  groschen  of  1645,  both  money  of  necessity,  were  perhaps  struck  here. 

Brieg.     See  Leignitz-Brieg. 

Briesach,  doubtless  the  place  of  mintage  of  two  varieties  of  square 
silver  pieces  of  40  batzen  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Swedes,  1633. 

Briton,  or  Brillon,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Archbp.  of 
Cologne.  Briglon  Civ  it  as. 

Brindisi,  a  mint  of  the  Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia  and  Kings  of  Sicily, 
iith-i2th  c.,  and  of  the  Emperors  of  Germany  (i 2th- 1 3th  c.).  Silver, 
billon,  and  copper  were  struck  here.  Among  the  last  were  the  follaro 
and  its  divisions. 

Brioude,  Haute -Loire,  an  unimportant  mint  in  the  loth-nth  c. 
Deniers  with  Brivites  or  Bitirites. 

Brixen,  Austria,  a  seat  of  episcopal  coinage  from  the  loth  c.,  and  of 
that  of  the  Duke  of  Kaernthen  or  Carinthia.  The  Emperor  Charles  IV. 
authorised  Barnabo  Visconti  of  Milan  to  strike  money  here.  Arms  —  a 
lamb.  The  coinage  lasted  down  to  the  end  of  the  last  c. 

Broech,  Limburg,  Brabant,  probably  the  seat  of  a  limited  coinage  of 
the  feudal  lords,  of  whom  there  was  a  rather  long  succession. 

Bromberg,  or  Bydgost,  a  Polish  mint,  1650.     Bidgostiens. 

Brosse-Huriel,  Bourbonnais,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage,  I3th- 
I4th  c.,  principally  copied  from  the  types  of  Chartres,  Dreux,  Limoges, 
and  Brittany.  De  Uriaco,  Brucie,  Dns.  Hur.  or  Hurce.,  Vicccomes 
Brucie,  etc.  These  coins  were  struck  both  at  Brosse  and  at  Huriel. 
See  Brassac. 

Bruges  (Bruggia),  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve,  of  Charles  the  Simple, 
of  the  Counts  of  Flanders  from  the  I2th  c.,  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  of 
Charles  V.  of  Germany,  etc.,  down  to  the  i8th  c.  There  is  a  schelling  of 
Maria  Theresa,  1750,  struck  here  :  m.m.  a  lis  or  a  small  lion. 

Briigg,  or  Bruck,  cant,  of  Aargau,  a  place  of  coinage  in  the  1 3th  c.  No 
coins  known. 

Brtmswick,  the  seat  of  urban  coinage  from   1345,  although  the  brae- 

Brunswick  :  J  thaler,  palm-tree  type. 

teates  with  a  lion  may  very  well  be  prior  to  the  grant  of  Duke  Magnus  in 
that  year.  The  earliest  thalers  belong  to  the  close  of  the  I5th  c.  There 
is  a  rare  one  of  1636  with  Mone.  Nova.  Reip.  Bnmsvicensis.  Seejutius- 
locser  in  Cat.  of  Denom.  Brunswick  may  be  regarded  as  the  general 
mint  of  the  plentiful  coinage  of  the  branch  of  B.  Wolfenbiittel,  although 
some  of  the  Dukes  have  employed  Wolfenbiittel  itself. 

Brunswick  Mints  (minor)  :  Bevern,  Blankenburg,  Catlenburg, 
Dannenberg,  Gandersheim,  Gittelde,  Grubenhagen,  Harburg,  Henrich- 
stadt,  Helmstadt,  Herzberg,  Hitzacker,  Lauterberg,  Moisburg,  Salzder- 
helden,  Scharnebeck,  Walkenried,  Weende,  Winsen. 

86  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Brussels,  an  early  Brabantine  mint  (m.m.  a  bridge  or  tower,  afterward 
an  angel's  head)  and  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Dukes  of  Brabant  and 
the  successive  rulers  of  this  part  of  the  Low  Countries.  See  Cat.  Robert, 
1886,  No.  134,  for  a  notice  of  an  early  denier  struck  here  in  the  name  of 
the  chapter  of  St.  Gudule.  There  is  a  variety  of  siege-pieces  during  the 
i6th  and  iyth  c.  ;  some  of  those  in  gold  are  doubtful  ;  and  one  of  1579  is 
usually  suspected.  B.  was  perhaps  the  mint  of  the  interesting  series  of 
revolutionary  money  struck  for  the  eleven  revolted  provinces  in  1790,  con- 
sisting of  the  14  (and  probably,  though  we  have  not  seen  it,  7)  florins  in 
gold,  and  in  silver  3  florins,  i  florin  (of  two  types),  10  sols  (do.),  and  in 
copper  the  Hard  and  double  Hard.  The  engraver  is  said  to  have  been 
Van  Berckel.  From  1816  to  1831,  prior  to  the  partition  of  the  Nether- 
lands, Brussels  was  one  of  the  mints  of  Willem  I.  of  the  house  of  Orange- 

Bucharest,  Wallachia,  probably  one  of  the  seats  of  coinage  of  the 
hospodars  and  Kings  of  Roumania. 

Biickeburg,  the  capital  of  Schaumburg-Lippe,  and  probably  the  seat 
of  its  coinage. 

Buda,  or  Buda-Pesth,  metropolis  of  Hungary,  a  seat  of  the  Hungarian 
coinage  during  the  independence  of  this  part  of  the  Austrian  dominions. 
Its  earliest  productions  were  coins  on  the  Byzantine  model,  and  very  early 
pieces  in  copper  exist.  The  German  and  Austrian  emperors  have 
always  issued  special  money  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  type  for  Hungary. 
In  Overijssel,  in  the  Low  Countries,  the  type  of  the  gold  ducat  with  the 
name  of  S.  Vladislaus  and  the  Virgin  and  Child  was  adopted  at  an  early 
period  with  a  very  slight  or  even  no  alteration. 

Bunde  (PLimburg),  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  I5th  c.,  where  billon 
pieces,  bearing  a  shield  crowned  with  a  branch,  and  reading  lohans  De 
Bvnde,  or  lohs.  de  Broegh,  were  struck.  Comp.  Broech. 

Burgdorf,  canton  of  Berne.     Bv.  or  Bvrgdorf.     See  Kyburg. 

Burg  Friedberg,  Hesse -Darmstadt,  a  feudal  burgraviat,  and  after- 
wards viscounty,  which  had  a  concession  from  Charles  V.  in  1541  to 
strike  money  in  gold  and  silver.  The  albus  was  current  herein  1591, 
Johan  Eberhard  being  then  viscount.  The  coinage  continued  inter- 
mittently till  1804. 

Burgos,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Castile  and  Leon,  I3th-i4th  c.  There 
are  cornadi  of  John  of  Gaunt  as  King  of  C.  and  L.,  with  lohannis  Rex 
on  obv.  and  a  bust,  and  on  rev.  Castele.  E.  Lcgionis.  B. 

Busca,  Sardinia,  the  source  of  coins  of  the  Marchese  Manfredi 
Lancia,  1299. 

Caderousse,  Vaucluse,  the  place  where,  if  at  all,  gold  and  silver  money 
would  probably  have  been  struck  by  the  Vicomtes  de  Cadenet,  according 
to  a  homage  by  Agnes,  Vicomtesse  de  C.,  to  the  Countess  of  Provence 
in  1245,  when  the  former  claims  the  right  of  such  coinage. 

Cadiz,  a  Spanish  mint.     C.  crowned. 

Cagliari,  Sardinia,  a  mint  of  the  Spanish  Kings  of  Sicily,  and  of  Spain 
and  Sardinia,  of  Charles  VI.  of  Germany,  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Savoy, 
down  to  1721  ;  subsequently  of  the  Kings  of  Sardinia  down  to  1812,  when 
it  appears  to  have  been  closed.  There  is  also  a  grosso  of  the  Gherardesca 
family,  I3th  c.,  struck  here. 

Cahors,  formerly  cap.  of  Cahourcin  or  Haut  Quercy,  now  Dept.  of 
Lot,  a  very  ancient  episcopal  mint,  of  which  at  more  than  one  period, 
12 1 2,  1224,  etc.,  the  bishop  temporarily  ceded  the  right  to  the  town  for 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  87 

the  silver  currency  for  a  pecuniary  consideration,  and  the  deniers  and 
oboles  bear,  in  lieu  of  Episcopus  Caturcensis,  Civitas  Caturci.  The 
earliest  coins  appear  to  be  of  Bishop  Geraud  about  1090  ;  one  of  his 
deniers  bears  :  Geraldus  Eps.  and  Caturcius.  The  payment  to  the  See  in 
1224  for  the  municipal  privilege  of  striking  the  silver  for  six  years  was  600 
sols,  the  bishop  evidently  retaining  the  billon,  from  which  the  maximum 
profit  was  derived. 

Calais,  an  Anglo-Gallic  mint,  1347-1450.  But  no  money  of  Richard 
II.  and  Henry  IV.  seems  to  be  known.  Edward  III.,  after  the  fall  of 
C.  in  1347,  by  ordinances  of  1348-49  appointed  a  director  of  his  mint,  but 
finally  left  it  to  the  discretion  of  the  commandant  to  strike  what  pieces 
and  types  seemed  most  convenient  to  the  wants  of  the  locality  and  the 
taste  of  the  inhabitants,  his  friends  and  subjects.  In  1371  an  arrange- 
ment was  made  to  coin  gold  nobles  =  6  sols  8  deniers,  45  to  the  li-vre 
according  to  the  standard  of  the  Tower  of  London  ;  \  and  \  nobles  =  40 
and  20  esterlins  ;  grds  =  4  esterlins  ;  \  gros,  esterlins  (1200  to  the  livre\ 
mailles  or  \  esterlins,  and  ferlings  or  \  esterlins.  A  gros  of  Edward  III. 
describes  him  as  Comes  Merket  or  Comte  de  la  Marche.  Villa  Calesie 
or  Calisie. 

Calcar,  CleVes,  a  mint  of  the  early  dukes. 

Calmar,  an  early  Swedish,  mint.     Kalmrni. 

Cambrai,  a  seigniorial,  capitular,  and  episcopal  mint,  and  subse- 
quently one  of  the  successive  foreign  rulers  of  Brabant.  There  is  an 
esterling  of  Willem  van  Hainault,  1292-96,  and  a  series  of  later  pieces  in 
all  metals  down  to  the  I7th  c.  of  the  bishop  and  chapter.  During  the 
siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1581,  the  town  struck  a  gulden  or  daalder,  and 
pieces  of  I,  2,  5,  and  10  patards  ;  and  in  1595,  during  a  second  siege,  i,  2, 
5,  10,  and  20  patards,  etc.  The  2o-patard  piece  of  1595,  on  a  square  flan, 
is  inscribed  Henrtco  Protectori  in  gratitude  to  Henry  IV.  of  France.  See 
Saint-Gery.  Castri  in  Cameracesio,  C  A  M  R  in  the  cantons  of  a  cross, 
Moneta  Capilvli,  etc.  There  is  a  remarkable  double  inouton  d'or  struck 
by  the  chapter,  sede  vacante,  between  1368  and  1378. 

Camerino,  States  of  the  Church,  formerly  an  independent  common- 
wealth (i4th-i5th  c.)  and  (i5th-i6th  c.)  a  sovereign  fief  of  the  Da  Varano 
family,  which  coined  money  here  in  all  the  three  metals.  A  gold  zecchino 
of  Gio.  Maria  da  Varano  (1521-27)  sold  at  the  Rossi  sale,  1880,  No.  729, 
for  750  lire.  The  property  passed  to  the  Church  in  1538,  and  shortly 
after  was  erected  into  a  duchy  by  the  Farnese  family.  There  is  a  grosso 
belonging  here  of  Ottavio  Farnese  (1547-78)  with  Octavivs  F.  Camer. 
Dvx.  It  became  a  papal  mint  again  in  1670.  Cammereno,  Camerina, 
Camertivm.  Dvx. 

Campen,  a  mint  at  which  local  currency  and  convention-money  were 
struck  from  the  I5th  c.  to  the  I7th.  See  Convention-money  in  Catalogue 
of  Denominations.  Siege-money  was  struck  here  in  1578;  42,  21,  loi 
stuivers,  etc.  ;  and  again  in  1672,  when  the  town  was  invested  by  the 
Archbishop  of  Cologne  and  the  Bishop  of  Munster. 

Campi,  Naples,  a  seat  of  the  feudal  family  of  Centurione-Scotti  e  Serra, 
1654-69,  who  struck  money  in  their  own  name. 

Campobasso,  Naples,  apparently  a  place  of  seigniorial  coinage  in  the 
1 5th  c.  There  is  a  tornese  in  billon  of  Nicolo  di  Monforte  (1450-62)  with 
Nicola  Com.,  and  on  rev.  Campibassi. 

Candia,  a  temporary  mint  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem 
between  their  abandonment  of  Rhodes  and  settlement  at  Malta.  Also 
the  seat  of  a  Venetian  currency  during  the  occupation  of  the  island  by  the 

88  The  Coins  of  Europe 

republic.  But  the  Venetian  rule  was  very  imperfect  and  desultory,  and 
was  chiefly  limited  to  the  ports  and  the  settlement  at  Colonia  Venetorum. 
The  republic  struck  pieces  of  60,  30,  and  1 5  tornesi,  soldini,  soldi,  gazzette, 
and  during  1650  siege-money  in  bronze  or  copper  of  5  and  10  lire.  One 
piece  bears  the  name  of  the  Venetian  governor,  Grimani.  These  latter 
are  very  rare. 

Capua,  a  mint  of  the  Norman  Princes  of  Apulia.  Civitas  Capvana. 
The  place  of  origin  of  a  small  copper  piece  of  Anfusus,  father  or  son,  circd 
A.D.  836,  with  An.  P.  Ri.  [Anfusus  Princeps\  in  the  angles  of  the  division 
on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  a  horseman. 

Carcassonne,  Dept.  of  Aude,  a  countship  established  by  Charlemagne, 
and  in  872  under  the  government  of  the  Counts  of  Toulouse.  The 
earliest  coins  belong  to  the  nth  c.,  and  are  of  the  Tolosan  type.  Also 
an  episcopal  mint,  and  one  occasionally  employed  by  the  Bishop  of 
Girone.  In  1067  the  domain  and  the  monetary  rights  were  sold  to  the 
Count  of  Barcelona  for  1 100  ounces  of  gold  ;  but  the  new  seigneur  con- 
ferred on  the  former  lord  the  title  of  Viscount  and  feudal  possession  of 
all  but  the  town  and  its  precincts.  In  a  document  of  1125-26  the  locality 
at  Beziers  where  the  money  was  struck  is  described  as  "  turris  mone- 
taria  vetus."  The  mint  appears  to  have  been  abandoned  at  that  time,  and 
to  have  been  reopened  about  1 1 50,  in  which  year  mention  occurs  of  the 
money  of  B.  being  current  throughout  the  lordship  of  Agde. 

Carin,  Austrian  Illyria,  and  the  place  which  gave  its  name  to 
Carinthia,  a  mint  of  the  early  seigneurs  of  Stein  or  Steyn.  A  coin  of 
Arnould,  I4th  c.,  has  Dns.  Stein,  and  Karinie  for  the  mint. 

Carlovingian  Mints.  In  the  Edict  of  Pitres,  864,  the  following  mints 
are  all  that  occur  :  The  Palace  (see  Moneta  palatina  in  Cat.  of  Denom.), 
Quentovic  near  Etaples,  Rouen,  Reims,  Sens,  Paris,  Orleans,  Chalons- 
sur-Saone,  Melle,  and  Narbonne.  Quentovic  is  here  mentioned  as 
already  an  ancient  place  of  coinage.  The  number  greatly  increased  at  a 
subsequent  date,  and  comprised  under  successive  reigns  down  to  the 
Bourbon  era,  when  the  system  became  more  centralised,  nearly  every 
place  of  importance  in  the  kingdom  or  empire,  and  many  at  present  of 
no  note,  if  they  have  not  in  a  few  cases  disappeared  or  baffled  identi- 
fication. Among  the  seats  of  coinage  of  Pepin  le  Bref  and  his  successors 
to  the  close  of  the  loth  c.  may  be  cited  :  Aries,  Besancon,  Cambrai, 
Chartres,  Chalons-sur-Saone,  Le  Mans,  Mayence,  Meaux,  Maestricht, 
Narbonne,  Paris,  Quentovic,  Reims,  Soissons,  Strasburgh,  Troyes, 
Verdun,  Clermont-Ferrand,  Lyons,  Aix-la-Chapelle,  Avranches,  Angou- 
leme,  Avignon,  Beneventum,  Bingen,  Bonn,  Durstede,  Dinant,  Florence, 
Lucca,  Limoges,  Laon,  Treviso,  Uze"s,  Pisa,  Parma,  Rome,  Rennes,  Tours, 
Barcelona,  Bourges,  Bordeaux,  Chur,  Marseilles,  etc. 

Cannagnola,  Piedmont,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Bishops  of  Lausanne 
at  an  early  period,  and  a  mint  of  the  Marquises  of  Saluzzo,  I5th-i6th  c. 
Money  was  struck  here  in  all  metals.  One  of  the  gems  of  the  Rossi  collec- 
tion (Cat.  1880,  No.  771)  was  a  gold  lo-scudi  piece  from  the  Montenuovo 
cabinet  with  Lvdovicvs  Marchio  et  Margarita  de  Fois.  M.S.  and  the 
portraits  of  both  facing  each  other.  This  coin  fetched  2300  lire.  Mar- 
guerita  herself  struck  in  1516  a  silver  scudo  or  medaglia  with  her  por- 
trait and  the  legend  Margarita  de  Fvxo  Marchionisa  Salvciar,  Qr'c. 

Carpentras,  15  m.  N.E.  of  Avignon,  a  mint  of  the  popes  during  the 
suspension  of  coinage  at  Rome.  There  is  money  in  all  metals  between 
1294  and  1342. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  89 

Carrega,  Naples,  a  concession  granted  to  the  Doria  family  of  Genoa  ; 
but  no  coins  are  known. 

Casale,  a  mint  of  the  lords  of  Casale  of  the  Palaeologos  family  (1380- 
1464),  of  the  Marquises  of  Monteferrato  (1464-1533),  of  the  Emperor 
Charles  V.  (1533-36),  and  of  the  Gonzage,  Dukes  of  Mantua  (1540-1697). 
Some  very  rare  and  important  examples  in  gold,  and  several  pieces  interest- 
ing for  the  costumes,  proceeded  from  this  mint.  In  1628  a  piece  of  12  reales 
was  struck  during  the  siege  by  Gongales,  and  in  1629-30,  during  that  by 
Ambrogio  Spinola,  pieces  of  ^,  i,  5,  10,  and  20  florins,  some  being  of  more 
than  one  type.  A  quattrino  of  1706,  struck  at  Casale,  has  on  obv.  the 
type  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with  the  curious  legend  Divae  Virginis 

Cassel,  a  mint  of  the  Counts,  afterward  Landgraves,  of  Hesse-Cassel. 
The  earliest  pieces  have  Comes,  the  later,  Landgravi  Hassie.  Money  in 
all  metals  was  struck  here  after  1 503,  when  the  right  was  obtained  from 
the  Emperor  to  strike  gold.  Count  Philip  (1509-67)  entered  into  the 
monetary  alliance  of  the  Rhenish  provinces,  and  placed  on  his  coinage 
the  arms  of  Mayence,  Treves,  Cologne,  the  Palatinate,  and  Hesse. 

Castelbon,  Navarre,  a  place  of  coinage  authorised  in  favour  of  the 
Vicomte  de  C.  in  1374  by  the  Duke  of  Anjou,  the  money  to  be  of  the 
royal  standard  and  similar  to  that  of  Lescun.  Not  known. 

Castel  Durante.     See  Urbino. 

Castelnau,  near  Montpellier,  the  seat  of  a  mint  established  by  two 
ordinances  of  James  I.  of  Arragon  (1213-76)  in  1273,  for  the  coinage  of 
deniers  and  oboles  of  fine  silver,  each  d.  to  be  =  12  d.  of  Melgueil,  and 
each  ob.  to  be  =  6  ob.  of  M.  The  regulations  were  ratified  by  his  son 
and  successor  in  1277. 

Castelnuovo-di-Garfagnana,  Barga,  Italy,  the  probable  place  of  coin- 
age of  a  special  grossetto  struck  in  1606  by  Cesare  d'Este,  Duke  of 
Modena,  in  commemoration  of  his  recovery  of  the  town  and  territory. 
The  piece  has  on  rev.  St  Peter  standing  and  Prin.  Garfignanae. 

Castelsardo,  formerly  Castel-Arragonese,  Sardinia,  a  seigniorial  fief  of 
the  Doria  family,  1436-48. 

Castiglione  dei  Gatti,  States  of  the  Church,  a  feudal  seat  of  the  Pepoli 
family,  who  struck  money  elsewhere  and  perhaps  also  here. 

Castiglione  del  Lago,  States  of  the  Church,  a  mint  of  Ferdinand  II., 
Grand-Duke  of  Tuscany,  1620-70.  On  a  piece  of  1643  occurs  Cats. 

Castiglione  delle  Stimere,  Lombardy,  a  mint  of  the  Gonzaga  family 
(1580-1723).  Coins  in  all  metals  were  struck  here. 

Castro,  States  of  the  Church,  a  mint  of  the  Farnese  family  as  Dukes 
of  Castro  (1545-47).  There  is  a  gold  zecchino  of  Pier  Luigi  Farnese  with 
P.  Loisivs  F.  Dvx  Cast.,  and  other  pieces  in  all  metals. 

Cattaro,  Dalmatia,  a  mediaeval  mint  of  the  kingdom  of  Servia 
posterior  to  the  incorporation  in  the  nth  c.  of  Bosnia  and  great  part 
of  Dalmatia.  S.  Tryphon,  Cthren  or  Catarensi.  St.  Tryphon  was  the 
patron  of  C.,  and  early  coins  of  Bosnia  with  his  name  and  that  of  Cattaro 
were  doubtless  struck  here  for  that  province  after  its  subjugation  by 
Servia.  A  probable  place  of  coinage  of  the  colonial  series  struck  for 
Dalmatia  by  the  Venetians  from  the  I4th  to  the  I7th  c.  The  grossetto 
and  \  grossetto,  the  quattrino,  the  follaro,  etc.,  were  current  in  the  pro- 
vince. There  are  also  a  franc  and  5 -franc  piece  of  base  metal  coined 
here  by  the  French  defenders  during  the  war  (1812-13). 

Celles-sur-Cher,  the   seat  of  a   seigniorial   coinage,    uth-i4th   c.,  in 

go  The  Coins  of  Europe 

common  with  Mehun-sur-Yevre.  Types  similar  to  those  of  Blois  and 
Chartres.  The  coinage  bears  evidence  of  the  monetary  unity. 

Chalon-sitr-Saone,  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve  (864),  of  the  Counts  or 
Dukes  of  Burgundy,  of  Hugues  IV.,  Duke  of  Burgundy  (1218-78),  and  of 
the  feudal  counts,  ioth-i3th  c.  The  fief  was  united  to  Burgundy  in  1237. 
Cabilo  Civis.  A  m.m.  of  the  early  Dukes  of  Burgundy  was  a  B. 

Chalons-siir-Marne,  a  place  of  Austrasian  coinage,  and  subsequently 
an  episcopal  mint,  established  by  a  concession  from  Charles  le  Chauve 
in  865,  the  year  after  the  Edict  of  Pitres,  through  the  good  offices  of  his 
queen,  Irmintrude.  The  act  was  confirmed  in  877  and  (by  a  papal  bull) 
in  1107.  The  productions  of  this  mint,  the  low  values  only,  were  current 
not  only  within  the  diocese  but  elsewhere,  by  reason  of  their  superiority 
of  quality.  In  1131  the  Bishop  of  Verdun  directed  on  this  express  account 
the  sole  currency  of  the  Chalons  coinage  in  his  own  jurisdiction  for  fifteen 
years,  possibly  receiving  consideration  from  his  brother  prelate.  Ca., 
Cathalavni,  Catalavnis,  or  Catalani. 

Chambe'ry,  Savoy,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  S.  from  the  I3th  c. 

Charenton,  Bourbonnais,  a  seigniorial  fief,  1 2th- 1 3th  c.,  amalgamated 
with  Sancerre.  Deniers  copied  from  the  Nevers,  Besan^on,  La  Marche, 
and  Viennois  types.  Ciarentonis,  D.  Char.  Dns.  Carenton,  etc.  After 
the  union  of  Sancerre,  the  coins  read  Charet.  [on  rev.]  I\ohannes\  C\pmes\ 
DC  Sancerre.  Another,  of  Etienne  III.,  1280,  has  Ste.  de  Cancere,  and 
on  rev.  De  Charento  Mon. 

Charleville,  Ardennes,  a  mint  of  the  seigneurs  of  Chateau-Renaud  in 
the  1 7th  c.  Charlev.  or  Carolopoli  Cus. 

Chartres,  the  seat  of  an  early  coinage  with  the  regal  title  on  obv.  and 
the  name  of  the  city  on  rev.  A  denier  of  this  type  bears  Carlvs  Rex  and 
Carnotis  Civitas,  with  the  temple  as  an  adjunct.  Thibaut  I.  Le  Tricheur, 
Count  of  Blois,  Chartres,  and  Tours,  and  his  successors,  appropriated  the 
emoluments  of  the  mint,  and  struck  deniers  of  a  Carlovingian  character 
similar  to  the  early  Tours  type  with  the  rude,  bust  and  pieces  resembling 
the  baronial  coinage  of  Blois,  with  Curtis  Cii'itas.  The  independent 
series  must  have  concluded  with  Charles  II.  de  Valois,  1325-46, 
second  of  the  royal  line  of  counts,  who  signed  himself  K.  Kom,  and  who 
surrendered  his  rights  to  the  Crown  in  or  about  1346.  As  early  as  1305 
Charles  had  been  consulted  by  Philip  le  Bel,  his  uncle,  on  the  subject  of 
a  correction  of  abuses  in  the  currency  ;  but  it  appears  that  he  was  one  of 
the  offenders.  Comp.  Blots. 

Chateaubelin,  Dept.  of  Jura,  a  mint  about  1341-50  of  Jean  de  Chalon, 
Comte  d'Auxerre  and  de  Tonnerre,  who  also  struck  money  at  Orgelet, 
another  place  within  the  Burgundian  frontier  and  the  See  of  Vienne. 
Billon  or  monnaie  noire  only.  Comp.  Orgelet. 

Chateaudun,  near  Blois,  a  place  of  seigniorial  coinage,  at  first  probably 
in  association  with  the  Counts  of  Blois,  on  whom  the  Viscounts  of  C.  were 
dependent.  Dunis  Castll:,  Dunio  Stili,  or  Castri  Duni.  One  of  the 
heiresses  of  C.,  Alix  de  Clermont-Neelle,  married  Guillaume,  second  son 
of  the  Count  of  Flanders,  but  retained  the  monetary  right  in  her  own 
hands  ;  for  a  document  of  1315  speaks  of  "la  monnoie  de  Chastiau-Dun 
qui  est  a  ma  dame  de  Neelle."  It  is  doubtful  whether  the  independent 
currency  survived  the  escheat  of  the  viscounty  to  the  Crown  about 

Chateau-Landon,  Seine-et-Marne,  a  mint  of  Philip  I.  and  Louis  VI., 
Kings  of  France  (1060-1137). 

Chateaumeillant,  Dept.  of  Cher,  France,  the  seat  of  an  early  seigniorial 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  91 

coinage  of  the  Sully  family,  Iith-i6th  c.  Melhiares,  Mel.  Castro,  Castri 
Mella,  Castri  Militum,  Castro  Mil,  etc.  Comp.  Henrichemont. 

Chatcaii-Renaud,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  branch  of  the  Bourbon  family 
seated  here  in  the  I7th  c.  In  1629  C.  was  exchanged  with  the  Crown  for 

Chateauroux,  Berri,  a  seigniorial,  and  presumably  at  a  prior  period  an 
abbatial,  mint,  which  was  well  established  in  1213,  and  in  which  the 
Abbey  of  Bourg-Dieu  de  Deols  had  a  traditional  pecuniary  interest, 
perhaps  representing  a  commuted  annuity,  at  that  date.  It  was  closed 
in  1316  in  consequence  of  disagreements  between  the  lord  and  his  vassals 
respecting  an  alteration,  probably  a  debasement,  of  the  money. 

Chateldon,  Puy-de-D6me,  the  supposed  source  of  certain  deniers  with 
Castellvm  Don.  and  Lvdovicvs  Vivit  or  Philippics  Rex.  \  3th  c. 

Chatelet.     See  Vauvillers. 

Chatel-sur-Moselle,  Vosges,  the  place  of  origin  of  an  episcopal  coinage 
of  the  1 3th  c.,  and  of  (presumably)  two  or  three  pieces  (deniers  and  oboles) 
of  Henri,  Comte  de  Vaudemont,  a  scion  of  the  house  of  Lorraine.  See 
Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1710.  The  Lorraine  types  were  followed  here. 

Chatenoi,  Lorraine,  between  Neufchateau  and  Mirecourt,  a  mint  of 
Ferri  III.,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  1251-1303. 

Chieti,  Naples,  a  mint  of  Alfonso  I.  of  Arragon,  King  of  Naples 
(1443-58),  and  of  Charles  VIII.  of  France  (1495).  Tne  latter  struck  two 
types  of  the  cavallo  here.  One  has  Krolvs  Di.  G.R.  Fr.  Si.,  and  on  rev. 
Teatina  Ciintas. 

Chinon,  Touraine,  a  mint  of  Thibaut,  Count  of  Tours,  c.  938-^.  1040 ;  his 
successors  received  an  indemnity  or  annual  allowance  in  lieu  of  the 
profits.  This  annuity  successively  devolved  on  the  Kings  of  England 
(during  their  temporary  rule)  and  France,  until  it  was  extinguished. 

Chiusi,  Tuscany,  a  seat  of  autonomous  coinage,  i4th  c. 

Chivasso,  Piedmont,  the  mint  of  Saluzzo  and  of  the  Marches!  di 
Monteferrato  (1305-1400)  prior  to  its  removal  to  Casale. 

Christiania  or  Christiansborg,  the  capital  of  Norway,  and  the  place  of 
coinage  of  the  Kings  of  Norway  and  of  Denmark.  A  gold  piece  struck 
there  to  commemorate  the  death  of  Frederic  IV.  and  the  accession  of 
Christian  VI.  has  on  obv.  the  crowned  cypher  of  the  two  monarchs  with 
D  •  G  •  Rex  •  Dan  •  Nor  •  Van  •  Go  • ,  and  on  rev.  a  view  of  the  city  and 
Christiansborg  I  •  Guinea  •  D  •  XII  •  Octo  •  1 730. 

Chur,  Switzerland,  a  Carlovingian  mint :  one  for  episcopal  coinage 
from  the  loth  c.,  and  subsequently  for  that  of  the  township.  In  1608  the 
feudal  lord  of  Schauenstein-Ehrenfels  acquired  the  privilege  of  striking  at 
this  place  by  virtue  of  his  lands  at  Haldenstein  and  Lichtenstein.  There 
is  a  very  curious  and  rare  gold  florin  of  1622  with  Man.  No.  Avr.  C.  la. 
Cvrre  ("  Moneta  nova  aurea  civitatis  Japodum  Curias  Rethensis  ;;)  and 
the  titles  of  Ferdinand  II.  There  is  a  grosch  of  Thomas  de  Planta  with 
the  Virgin  and  Child,  and  on  rev.  a  quartered  shield  with  Moneta  Epi. 

Cilly,  Austria,  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Counts  of  Cilly,  princes  of 
the  empire,  from  1436,  and  of  the  Counts  of  Hardegg-Glatz,  a  branch  of 
the  same  stock,  from  1507.  The  money  of  the  latter  reads  Com.  In 
Hardecc.  Glotz.  Et  In  Machland. 

Ciney,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Lie"ge,  i  ith  c.     Ce-vm's. 

Cisterna,  Naples,  a  place  where  the  prince,  Giac.  del  Pozzo,  received 
from  the  Holy  See  in  1660  the  authority  to  strike  money. 

Civita  Vecchia,  one  of  the  numerous  mints  of  Pius  VI.  in  1796-97 

92  The  Coins  of  Europe 

during  the  revolutionary  interval.  His  Holiness  struck  here  the  madon- 
nina  and  sampietrino  (5  and  i\  baiocchi). 

Clermont-Ferrand,  Auvergne,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia,  of 
Charles  the  Simple,  of  the  Counts  of  Auvergne,  and  from  1044  of  the 
cathedral  and  chapter  of  Clermont.  Down  to  1360  each  bishop  on  his 
election  swore  to  make  no  change  in  the  money  without  the  consent  of 
the  chapter.  We  only  hear  of  deniers  and  mailles.  The  m.  was  =  3  d. 
Ar.,  Arverna,  or  Urbs.  Averna.  After  the  transfer  to  the  Church  in  1044 
the  head  and  name  of  the  Virgin  appeared  on  the  money. 

Cleves,  capital  of  the  ancient  duchy  of  the  same  name,  and  the  seat  of 
one  of  the  mints,  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  There  is  a  6-kreutzer  piece  of  Frederic 
II.  of  Prussia,  1757,  struck  here. 

Cluny,  an  abbatial  mint,  perhaps  from  the  loth,  but  certainly  from  the 
nth  c.  But  the  abbots  appear  to  have  struck  money  at  an  early  period 
at  Saint  Jean  d'Angely  and'elsewhere,  and  it  has  been  supposed  that  they 
also  did  so  at  Saint  Gengoux,  a  mint  established  by  Louis  VII.  in  1166, 
and  suppressed  by  Philip  le  Hardi  in  1281.  Cluniaco  Cenobio. 

Coblentz,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishops  of  Trvees  (i4th-i7th  c.).  There  is 
also  a  denier  of  Bruno  II.,  Archbishop  of  Cologne,  1131-37,  struck  here. 
Conflventia,  Covelncnsis,  Covcnensis. 

Coburg,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Henneberg  in  the  I3th  c.,  of  the 
Margraves  of  Brandenburgh  (i4th  c.),  of  the  Margraves  of  Misnia,  and 
of  the  Dukes  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,  sprung  from  the  Ernestine  branch 
of  the  ducal  house  of  Saxony.  There  are  small  bracteates  belonging  to 
this  town  with  the  device  of  a  negro's  or  Moor's  head. 

Coconato,  a  place  indicated  on  certain  coins  of  the  Counts  of  Radicate. 
A  copper  quattrino  of  the  i6th  c.  has  on  obv.  in  field  Coco. 

Coerbeck,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Cologne,  1237-61. 

Coesfeld,  Westphalia,  the  apparent  place  of  origin  of  certain  copper 
pieces  of  4,  8,  and  12  pfenningen  for  local  currency.  They  bear  a  bull's 

Coevorden,  Overijssel,  a  signiory  or  Chatellenic  in  the  I4th  c.  It  was 
originally  a  separate  lordship,  but  was  united  with  Selwerd  by  the 
marriage  of  Herman  von  Coevorde  to  Ida,  daughter  and  heiress  of 
Hendrik,  Seigneur  of  Selwerd.  A  groot  of  this  chatellan  of  the  I4th  c. 
(1340-50)  reads  Moneta  Selwordensis.  But  the  title  to  Coevorde  was 
vested  at  a  shortly  subsequent  period  in  Raynald  III.,  Duke  of  Gueldres, 
of  whom  there  is  a  groot  of  the  same  type  as  the  one  just  mentioned  with 
Moneta  Kovordensis  Renold  Dni  Kovorden.  Com  p.  Selwerd. 

Coimbra,  Spain,  a  Visigothic  mint,  and  one  of  the  early  Kings  of 
Portugal.  Eminio. 

Colberg,  Pomerania,  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  French  in  1807, 
paper  pieces  of  2,  4,  and  8  groschen. 

Colmar,  Alsace,  a  mint  established  by  a  concession  of  the  Emperor 
Charles  IV.  in  1376,  and  in  operation  till  1674.  There  is  a  rare  thaler  of 
1527.  The  figure  of  St.  Martin  and  the  morgenstern,  or  town-mace, 
occur  on  most  of  the  coins.  A  municipal  mint  in  the  I7th  c. 

Cologne  or  Coin,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia  (Col.  V.},  of  the 
Emperor  Louis  IV.  or  the  Young,  899-911,  and  of  Otto  I.,  936-73.  It 
continued  to  be  an  important  imperial  mint  down  to  the  nth  c.,  and  an 
ecclesiastical  one  to  a  much  later  date.  The  Florentine  gold  type  was 
copied  here.  There  was  also  a  considerable  civic  currency  in  silver  and 
copper.  The  albus  and  the  stick  were  denominations  in  those  two  metals. 
There  is  a  piece  of  viii.  Albus  Colnisch,  1635.  There  are  at  least  two 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  93 

varieties  of  the  silver  piece  of  1730  with  Signvm  Senatoris.  At  the  Rein- 
mann  sale,  1891-92,  Part  ii.,  No.  6424,  a  doppelthaler  klippe  of  Cologne 
without  date,  of  the  Ursula  type,  fetched  1350  marks. 

Cclos-  Var,  or  Clausenburg,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  inde- 
pendent waiwodes.  C.  V. 

Como,  an  autonomous  and  imperial  mint,  1 2th- 1 4th  c.  Also  a  place 
of  coinage  of  the  Rusca  and  Visconti  families.  There  is  a  danaro  of 
Azzo  Visconti  (1335-39)  struck  here  with  Azo  Vicecom.  on  obv.,  and 
on  rev.  Cvmanvs.  Other  pieces  bear  Cvmis  or  Cvmarvm. 

Compiano,  Parma,  a  mint  of  the  Landi,  Princes  of  Bardi,  etc.,  i6th  c. 
Closed  in  1630. 

Compiegne,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  denier  of  Louis  VI.  (1108-37)  with 
Cinnpiene.  Doubtless  there  was  a  mint  at  the  castle  ;  and  it  may  have 
been  one  of  the  sources  of  the  Carlovingian  money  from  Charles  le 
Chauve,  including  the  pieces  with  Conpendio  palatio,  and  that  formerly 
ascribed  to  Corbeny  in  the  Laonais.  See  Poey  D'Avant,  in,  349, 


Cdftflans,  Moselle,  the  name  found  on  certain  anonymous  episcopal 
coins  of  the  I3th  c. 

Coni  or  Cuneuin,  Sardinia,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  very  rare  siege- 
piece  in  gold,  struck  in  1641  by  the  Duke  of  Savoy,  with  Civitas  Cvnei 
S.  Obsessa. 

Constantinople,  a  mint  of  the  Eastern  Empire,  4th-i3th,  I3th-i5th  c., 
possibly  of  the  Latin  emperors  of  Constantinople,  1204-60,  and  of  the 
Grand  Signiors  or  Sultans  of  Turkey.  Its  known  products  scarcely  fall 
within  the  scope  of  the  present  undertaking.  No  coins  which  can  be  con- 
fidently ascribed  to  Baldwin  I.  and  his  successors  exist. 

Constanz,  grand-duchy  of  Baden,  the  place  of  origin  of  the  greater 
part  of  the  coinage  of  the  prince-bishops  down  to  the  present  century. 
But  compare  Cat.  Cisternes,  1892,  Part  i.,  No.  2055.  The  most  ancient 
money  is  that  of  Bishop  Ruthard  (1018-22).  Constansia  or  Constanciens. 

Copenhagen,  the  mint  of  the  rulers  of  Denmark.  There  is  a  piece  of 
6  pfenningen  (German  currency)  struck  here  in  1524.  Hafnie.  Copen- 
hagen, during  the  siege  by  the  Swedes  in  1659,  struck  with  the  cypher 
of  Frederic  III.  of  Denmark  pieces  of  6  and  20  ducats  in  gold  and  4 
marks  in  silver. 

Corbeil,  Seine-et-Oise,  a  very  ancient  place  and  seat  of  coinage. 
There  is  a  denier  of  Bouchard  I.,  son  of  Foulques  le  Bon,  Count  of 
Anjou,  struck  here,  with  Bvchardvs  Co,  and  the  name  of  Raoul,  King  of 
France,  923-56. 

Corbeny,  Laonais.     See  Compicgne. 

Corbie,  Dept.  of  Somme,  an  abbatial  mint  of  some  importance  from 
the  nth  to  the  I3th  c.  At  one  period  the  abbots  placed  the  name  of  the 
sovereign  on  their  money,  as  Hodo  Rex  F.,  and  on  rev.  Set  Petri  Mot. 
[money  of  St.  Peter]  ;  but  they  subsequently  abandoned  the  practice. 
In  1185  Philip  Augustus  recognised  the  free  currency  of  this  coinage 
subject  to  the  abbey  not  interfering  with  the  regal  money.  Cenob.  Corbeie, 
Abbas  Corbeie,  etc.  The  only  document  relative  to  this  institution, 
founded  in  662  by  Clotaire,  is  the  one  of  1085  regulating  the  mint. 

Cordova,  a  mint  of  the  Caliphs  of  Damascus  and  Cordova,  ist  and 
2nd  c.  A.D.,  and  of  the  Visigothic  Kings  (Corduba  Patricia).  Some  of  the 
money  of  the  former  carries  evidence  of  having  been  struck  in  Africa  (at 
Tunis,  Fez,  etc.)  or  in  Minorca. 

Cotfu,  doubtless  a  mint  of  the  Latin  Princes  of  Achaia,   Lords  of 

94  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Corfu.      A  coin  of  Philip   of  Tarentum,    1307-13,   has  on    rev.   Corfoi 

Corinth,  a  mint  of  the  Princes  of  Achaia  (1205-1404),  established 
there  after  the  Fourth  Crusade.  There  are  small  silver  pieces  of  the 
denier  and  obole  module  bearing  Corintinn  or  Corinti. 

Cornavin,  near  Geneva,  a  Savoyard  mint,  1448-1530. 

Correggio,  near  Modena,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  feudal  counts 
and  princes  down  to  the  lyth  c.  (1550-1630).  Co.  Cor.  or  Corrigii. 

Corte.  the  capital  of  the  island  of  Corsica,  the  place  of  origin  of 
certain  coins  in  silver  and  bronze  of  Theodore,  King  of  Corsica,  1736,  and 
of  General  Pasquale  Paoli,  president  of  the  republic  established  here  from 
1755  to  1769.  The  former  struck  a  silver  scudo  and  pieces  of  5  and  2 
soldi  in  copper,  as  well  as  siege-pieces  of  20  soldi  in  silver,  bearing 
the  cap  of  liberty  on  the  point  of  a  sword  and  the  word  Libertas.  The 
latter  had  20  and  10  soldi  in  silver  and  4  and  2  in  copper. 

Cortemiglia,  Sardinia,  a  mint  of  the  Del  Carretto  family,  feudal  lords 
in  the  I4th  c.  They  struck  the  gold  fiorino  and  the  grosso  and  imperiate 
in  silver.  A  member  of  this  house,  Fabrizio  del  Carretto,  was  Grand 
Master  of  the  Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  at  Rhodes  (1513-21). 

Corunna,  a  Portuguese  mint.     Cr-v. 

Corvey,  Prussia,  in  the  regency  of  Minden,  the  seat  of  an  abbatial 
mint  in  the  1 5th- 1 8th  c.  A  thaler  with  the  portrait  of  St.  Vitus  is  cited 
by  Sch.,  xii.  840,  and  a  grosch  of  Theodor  von  Berninghausen,  1613,  ibid. 
xx.  1127.  There  is  a  pfenning  of  1704,  in  which  the  abbot  describes 
himself  as  a  prince  of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire.  Corbeia,  Corbir.  But 
comp.  Horohausen. 

Cosfeld.     See  Coesfeltt. 

Coucy-le-Chateau,  Dept.  of  Aisne,  a  seigniorial  fief  in  the  loth-nth  c., 
and  in  the  I3th  (1242-50)  in  the  occupation  of  the  celebrated  Kaoul  de 
Coucy,  who  struck  deniers  with  Radulfus  and  a  cross  on  obv.,  and 
Cociacus  on  rev. 

Cracow,  Western  Galicia,  the  place  of  coinage  of  certain  denarii 
during  the  dissensions  in  Poland,  1 3th- 1 4th  c.,  with  the  head  of  a  prince 
on  obv.,  and  three  figures  on  rev.  supposed  to  represent  the  reigning 
duke  and  his  brothers.  It  was  also  a  mint  of  Casimir  the  Great,  1333-70, 
and  of  the  limited  coinage  of  the  former  republic.  It  is  said  that  there 
are  silver  pieces  struck  here  in  1829  with  the  bust  of  Napoleon  II.  as 
King  of  Poland. 

Creina,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Benzone  family,  1 5th  c.  There  is  a 
silver  soldino  of  Giorgio  Benzone,  1405-14,  with  Georgivs  Benzonvs 
on  obv.  and  a  shield  of  arms,  and  on  rev.  Dominvs  Cremc  Et  C.  [etc.]. 
At  the  Remedi  sale,  1884,  a  specimen  sold  for  100  lire. 

Cremona,  a  republican  mint  (nth-i4th  c.)  with  the  name  of  St. 
Imerius  or  the  Emperor,  subsequently  of  the  Visconti  and  Fondulo 
families,  and  of  the  house  of  Sforza-Visconti,  Dukes  of  Milan  (i4th-i5th 
c.).  There  is  a  siege-piece  in  copper  of  1526,  during  an  investiture  by 
Charles  V.,  with  Fortitvdo  mea  in  Brae,  (an  arm  holding  up  a  ball),  and 
on  rev.  the  figure  of  St.  Imerius  and  S.  Imerivs  Epis. 

Cremsier,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Olmiitz,  i6th-i9th  c. 

Crespy,  or  Crepy,  near  Troyes,  the  source  of  an  early  denier,  loth  or 
nth  c.,  probably  of  a  Count  of  Champagne,  with  Trecassi  Civi.  on  obv., 
and  the  monogram  of  Charles  and  Critpeis  Citao  on  rev.,  and  the  seat  of 
the  coinage  of  Philippe  d'Alsace,  Count  of  Valois  jure  tixoris,  Matthieu 
d'Alsace,  etc.  (1156-1320).  The  moneyer  Simon,  who  also  worked  at 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  95 

Amiens,  and  perhaps  at  Roye,  put  his  name  on  the  coins  about  1160. 
Crespi  or  Crispetum.  Gui  de  Chatillon  seems  to  have  struck  money  here 
in  1320  in  common  with  his  uncle,  and  both  incurred  in  that  year  the 
censure  of  the  Parliament  for  their  neglect  of  the  standard. 

Crest,  Dept.  of  Drome,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Valentinois  and  Diois, 
a  fief  distinct  from  the  temporalities  of  the  See  of  Die,  and  united  on 
several  occasions  to  the  Crown,  finally  in  1793,  when  it  was  declared 
part  of  the  national  domain.  The  money  is  of  the  Poitevin  type.  Com. 
Valent.  Et  DCS.,  etc. 

Creuznach,  Westphalia,  the  place  of  origin  of  deniers  of  Johann  II., 
Count  of  Sponheim  (1295-1340),  with  Mo.  Nova.  Crvcenac. 

Crevacuore,  Piedmont,  a  mint  of  the  Fieschi  family,  Signori  of  Mes- 
serano  (i5th-i6th  c.).  Comp.  Messerano. 

Crevecoeur,  N.  Brabant,  a  mint  of  the  Heeren  or  seigneurs  of  that 
place  in  the  I5th  c. 

Cronstadt,  Transylvania,  the  place  of  mintage  of  a  thaler  during  the 
siege  of  1660.  On  the  reverse  occurs  :  De  Profundis  ad  te  clamamus, 
Doniine.  Serva  nos,  quiaperimus. 

Croppcnstadt,  Prussian  Saxony,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Blankenburg 
in  the  I3th  c. 

Cuen^a,  a  mint  of  the  Moorish  Princes. 

Cugnon,  or  Chassepierre-Cugnon,  at  present  a  village  in  Luxemburgh, 
but  in  the  iyth  c.  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Lowenstein-Wertheim  (1611- 
97).  There  are  only  doubles  tournois.  It  has  been  suspected  that  this 
was  at  an  earlier  date  the  source  of  numismatic  forgeries.  There  is 
an  ecu  of  Jean-Theodor,  1623,  and  a  thaler  of  Euchaire  Casimir,  1697, 
with  a  singular  array  of  titles.  See  Schulman,  ix.  447,  578. 

Cuilemborg,  Gueldres,  probably  the  mint  of  the  lords  of  that  fief  in 
the  i6th  c.  The  original  seat  and  title  were  derived  from  Pallant,  and 

Cuilemborg  :  5  penningen,  1591. 

the  later  representatives  of  the  family  describe  themselves  as  of  that 
place.  Some  very  remarkable  copper  coins  emanated  hence  about  1590 
— pieces  of  5,  4,  3,  2,  i,  and  \  penningen  ;  there  is  also  silver  currency. 
A  gold  gulden  of  s'  Heerenberg,  1577,  quarters  on  the  shield  the  arms  of 
Berg  (or  s'  Heerenberg),  Egmond,  Moeurs-Sawerden,  and  Cuilemborg. 

Culm,  a  mint  of  the  ancient  duchy  of  Massow,  Pommern,  and  of  the 
Grand  Masters  of  the  Teutonic  Order. 

Culmbach,  Bavaria,  or  Upper  Franconia,  the  place  of  origin  of  copper 
money  struck  by  the  Burgraf  of  Niirnberg  by  authority  of  the  Emperor 
Charles  IV.  in  1361,  and  of  money  of  necessity  struck  by  Albert,  Margraf 
of  Brandenburgh-Culmbach,  1552-53,  in  gold  and  silver,  during  the 

96  The  Coins  of  Europe 

pacification    of    Passau.      The    pieces    bear   A\lbert\   M\argraf~\   z\u\ 

Curange,  or  Cttrengen,  near  Hasselt,  a  mint  of  the  prince-bishops  of 
Liege,  I5th  c.  A  copper  Hard  of  Louis  de  Bourbon,  1456-82,  who  on 
one  of  his  coins  calls  himself  Leo  Dux,  was  struck  there. 

Daalhcm,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Brabant  in  the  I3th  c. 

Damme,  near  Bruges,  a  temporary  mint  of  Gui  de  Dampierre,  Count 
of  Flanders,  in  1299,  during  the  French  occupation  of  Bruges. 

Damvillers,  a  mint  of  John  of  Luxemburgh,  King  of  Bohemia,  1342, 
and  of  Charles  IV.  as  Count  of  Luxemburgh,  1346-53. 

Danish  Mints.     See  Blanchet,  ii.  312,  313. 

Dantzic,  a  principal  mint  of  the  independent  Kings  of  Poland  and  of 
the  Teutonic  Order.  There  is  a  fine  series  of  the  gold  and  silver  coinage 
of  the  former,  and  schillings  and  ducats  of  the  latter.  The  urban  coinage 
consisted  of  base  schillings  and  copper  solidi.  During  the  siege  by  the 
Prince  of  Transylvania  in  1577,  besides  silver  and  several  foreign  coins 
countermarked  with  the  city  arms,  a  gold  ducat  appeared  with  the 
standing  figure  of  the  Saviour,  and  Defende  Nos  Chrt 'ste  Salvator  on  obv., 
and  on  rev.  Moneta  Nova  Civitatis  Gedanensis.  There  is  a  grosch  of 
1812  with  Dansiger  Kupfer  Muenze. 

Darmstadt,  a  mint  of  the  rulers  of  Hesse-Darmstadt,  commencing 
with  Charlemagne,  of  whom  there  was  a  denier  in  the  Luni  find. 

Daventer,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht,  and  of  the  autonomous 
or  foreign  rulers  of  Overijssel,  ioth-i6th  c.  There  is  a  gold  denier  of 
Conrad  of  Swabia,  bp.  1076-99,  and  a  silver  one  of  the  same  type.  There 
is  a  variety  of  the  denier  struck  in  the  episcopal  series,  sede  vacante,  by 
the  Provost  of  Daventer,  who  managed  the  temporalities  till  the  new 
prelate  was  appointed.  In  1197  Theodor  Dirk  was  P.  In  the  imperial 
series  we  have  met  with  nothing  prior  to  Otto  I.  936-73  ;  these  coins  are 
imitations  of  the  Cologne  deniers,  with  S.  Davnt.  la.  in  retrograde 
lettering,  and  a  cross  cantoned  with  pellets.  In  1578  money  of  necessity 

Groot  of  Jan  van  Arkel,  Bishop  of  Utrecht.     1341-64. 

— a  daalder  and  a  \  d.  in  silver,  and  4,  2,  i,  and  £  stuivers  in  copper — was 
struck  at  D. ;  and  again  in  1672,  during  the  siege  by  the  Bp.  of  Munster 
and  the  French,  square  silver  pieces  were  issued.  The  1578  series  is 
countermarked  with  an  eagle.  There  is  a  rare  liard  of  Philip  II.  struck 
at  D.  with  P.  in  the  centre  of  obverse. 

Dax,  Dept.  of  Landes,  formerly  an  Anglo -Gallic  mint,  and  one  of 
those  employed  by  Edward  III.  as  Duke  of  Aquitaine.  In  1380,  Edward 
conceded  the  right  of  striking  money  here  in  all  metals  to  his  son,  John 
of  Gaunt ;  but  no  specimens  seem  to  survive.  Comp.  Bayonne. 

Dendermonde.     See  Termonde. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  97 

Deals,  Dept.  of  Indre,  a  mint  of  Philip  II.,  Augustus  (1080-1 123),  who 
probably  used  the  Abbey  of  Bourg-Dieu  for  the  purpose  subsequently  to 
his  acquisition  of  Deols  in  1188.  Compare  Chateauroux. 

Derpt,  or  Dorbat,  Livonia,  an  early  Russian  mint,  and  a  place  of 
episcopal  coinage,  1 4th- 1 6th  c.  Darp  or  Thar  bat. 

Desana,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Tizzoni  family,  Vicars  of  the  Empire, 
from  the  beginning  of  the  i6th  c.  to  1641.  A  cornabo  of  Ludovico  II.,  1510- 
25,  reads  Lvdovic.  Ticio :  Co:  De  :  Impe :  VI.  In  1510  the  territory 
appears  to  have  been  occupied  by  Pietro  Berard,  who  struck  a  silver  piece 
here  with  his  title  Comes  Deciane.  This  personage  held  possession  till 

Detmold,  Lippe,  a  mint  of  the  Counts,  1604,  1619-20,  1700-1803.  The 
earliest  pieces  (pfenningen)  have  Ditmal. 

Deutz,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishops  of  Cologne,  i6th  c.  There  is  a 
denier  of  the  administrator  of  the  See  under  Heinrich  von  Falkenstein 

Die.     See  Valence. 

Dieppe,  a  temporary  mint  of  Henry  IV.  during  the  civil  disturbances 
connected  with  the  League,  1586  :  m.m.  13. 

Dierdorf,  Rhenish  provinces,  a  mint  of  the  Count  of  Wied-Runkel, 
1758,  with  his  crowned  cypher,  and  Graf.  Zv.  Wied.  Rvnkel-Isenbvrg 
Vnd  Criechingen. 

Dieren,  s'  Heerenberg,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Juliers,  Cleves,  and 
Berg,  I4th  c.  At  a  later  period  coins  were  struck  here  for  the  Seigneurs 
of  s'  Heerenberg,  with  the  mint-mark  BB.,  or  Dominus  Serge,  or  Moneta 
Bergensis.  There  is  a  long  series  of  this  family  of  numismatic  examples, 
some  from  this,  and  others  from  the  mints  at  Hedel,  Gendringen,  Berg  or 
Mons,  Stevensweerd,  etc.  In  Schulman's  Cat,  No.  xxiv.  1352-79,  occurred 
a  remarkable  assemblage  of  the  ancient  currency  of  this  line,  commencing 
with  Adam  III.,  1331-54,  Baron  von  s'  Heerenberg,  and  comprising  two 
exceedingly  rare  pieces  :  (i)  a  gold  ducat  of  Oswald  II.,  1511-46,  with  a 
shield  quartering  the  arms  of  s'  Heerenberg,  Moeurs-Saawerden,  and 
Cuilemborg,  and  struck  at  Mons  ;  (2)  a  daalder  in  piefort,  said  to  be 
unique,  with  Sanct.  Oswald  Rex,  and  Nvmvs.  Argen.  30  Stvfe.  The 
current  value  is  on  other  pieces.  Was  this  the  place  of  origin  of  a  sup- 
posed unique  gold  gulden  of  1577,  minutely  described  by  Schulman, 
xv.  295  ? 

Diessenhofen,  Switzerland,  cant,  of  Thurgau,  an  urban  mint  from  1309, 
and  also  one  of  the  Counts  of  Kyburg. 

Dietrichstein,  Austria,  a  seat  of  the  coinage  issued  by  the  Counts  of 
Weichelstaet,  Hollenburg,  and  Nikolsburg,  from  i5th  or  i6th  c.  Silver 
and  billon.  There  is  a  thaler  of  Carl  Ludwig,  1766. 

Dieiilouard,  Dept.  of  Meurthe,  France,  near  Nancy,  a  mint  of  the 
Emperors  and  of  the  Bishops  of  Toul.  Ds.  Lovvart. 

Dijon,  cap.  of  the  ancient  duchy  of  Burgundy,  and  the  seat  of  a  mint, 
which  belonged  successively  to  the  Merovingian  Princes,  the  Abbey  of 
St.  Etienne,  the  Dukes,  and  the  Abbey  of  St.  Benigne  de  Dijon.  The 
Dukes,  however,  gradually  made  themselves  independent  of  the  latter, 
and  established  places  of  coinage  at  Auxonne  and  elsewhere.  The 
symbol  of  four  croziers  laid,  two  and  two,  back  to  back,  on  some  of  the 
coins  of  D.  is  attributed  to  the  monks  of  St.  Benigne.  Divionensis,  or 
Diviona.  Dijon  was  for  a  short  time  an  Anglo-Gallic  mint. 

Dillingen,  Bavaria,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  D.,  who  also  struck 
money  at  Uneride.  The  See  of  Augsburgh  also_employed  it  for  conven- 


98  The  Coins  of  Europe 

tion-money  between  himself  and  the  town,  and  in  1395  schillings  and 
pfenningen  were  struck  here  in  consequence  of  a  monetary  treaty  between 
the  Bishop,  the  Duke  of  Austria,  the  Count  of  Wiirtemberg,  and  the 
Counts  of  Oettingen. 

Dinan,  Brittany,  a  mint  of  Charles  de  Blois,  about  1341,  during  his 
contest  for  the  duchy,  and  of  John  IV.  and  V.,  Dukes  of  B.,  1364- 

Dinant,  Namur,  doubtless  a  place  of  local  coinage,  as  well  as  an 
occasional  one  of  the  Emperors  of  the  West. 

Disentis,  Grisons,  an  abbatial  mint,  1466-1729.     Ab.  Diser. 

Dixmude,  or  Dixmuyden,  Belgium,  the  seat  of  an  early  coinage  of 
mailles  with  Dixm. 

Doeblau,  Reuss,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  grosch  with  Mon.  Nov. 
Rvthenica  Dol.  1 7th  c. 

Doemitz,  Mecklenburgh,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Schwerin,  destroyed 
in  1689  by  the  Duke  of  Brunswick-Celle,  on  account  of  the  coinage  of 
money  of  poor  or  false  standard. 

Dogliani,  Piedmont,  a  mint  of  the  Marchesi  of  Saluzzo,  I4th  c. 

Dokkum  (Docenga),  W.  Friesland,  a  Merovingian  mint,  and  after- 
ward one  used  by  the  Counts  of  W.  Friesland  in  the  nth  c. 

Dole,  Dept.  of  Jura,  a  mint  in  the  diocese  of  Besanc.on,  employed 
by  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  I4th  c.  Dola.  At  the  end  of  the  i5th, 
and  beginning  of  the  i6th  c.  it  was  in  the  occupation  for  monetary 
purposes  of  the  Emperor  Maximilian  and  the  Archduke  Philip.  There 
are  pieces  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain,  1589,  struck  here  as  Count  of 

Dome,  a  mint  of  Philip  le  Hardi,  who  acquired  the  place  by  purchase 
in  1 280  for  strategical  purposes  in  connection  with  Dordogne.  The  mint 
was  at  the  Mont  de  Dome  or  castle,  and  was  still  in  existence  in  1438, 
when  the  French  recovered  the  position  from  the  English,  and  was 
employed  by  Charles  VII. 

Donauwbrth,  Bavaria,  the  seat  of  an  early  coinage.  A  silver  brac- 
teate  belonging  to  this  town  is  cited  by  Schulman,  xi.  628  ;  and  there  is 
a  thaler  of  1545  with  the  bust  of  Charles  V. 

Donnas,  Sardinian  States,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy,  1338- 

Dordrecht,  or  Dort,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Holland  in  the  i3th  c., 
and  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy  as  Counts  of  Holland  in  the  i5th.  It 
was  at  a  later  period  one  of  the  regular  mints  for  the  Dutch  Indies, 
and  also  struck  money  for  the  Batavian  Republic  (1795-1804):  m.m. 
a  rose. 

Dorsten,  Prussia,  reg.  of  Munster,  a  mint  of  the  Archbp.  of 
Cologne,  1 7th  c.  Hellers  in  copper,  with  Nvmvs.  Dvrst.  or  Cvsvs. 

Dortmund,  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  emperors  and  town  from  the 
loth  c. ;  and  later,  of  the  See  of  Cologne.  Dortmond  Mon.  Nova  Tre- 
monien.  There  are  deniers  of  Otho  III.,  and  of  Louis  of  Bavaria,  1314- 
47,  belonging  to  this  place — of  course,  with  many  others. 

Douai,  in  Artois,  a  communal  and  seigniorial  mint  from  the  nth  to 
the  1 4th  c.  The  distinguishing  type  of  the  branch  found  on  the  early 
money  may  serve  to  associate  with  this  place  certain  pieces  in  the  Gaulish 
series  similarly  marked.  Gui  de  Dampierre,  Count  of  Flanders,  1280- 
1302-3,  struck  here  an  esterlin  with  Moneta  Dovvay,  and  another  with 
Dvac.  We  learn  that  the  municipality  exercised  at  an  early  date  a  not 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  99 

unnecessary  surveillance  over  the  money  struck  by  the  Chatelain.  See 
Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  72. 

Dreux,  Eure-et-Loir,  a  mint  of  Philip  I.  and  Louis  VI.  of  France,  and 
of  a  seigniorial  coinage  of  the  Counts  of  D.,  1137-1365,  which  followed 
the  regal  types.  One  piece  of  Odo  or  Eudes  II.,  Count  of  Chartres,  etc., 
1004-37,  is  an  imitation  of  the  money  then  current  in  his  other  Countship 
of  Chartres. 

Driburg,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  seigniorial  mint,  I3th  c.,  and  one  of  the 
Bishops  of  Paderborn.  Ibvrch  Civitas. 

Drontheim  (Nidaros,  Throndhjeni],  an  early  Norwegian  mint,  where 
the  Archbishop  had  a  right  of  coinage  in  1220.  There  are  coins  of 
several  of  these  prelates,  I5th-i6th  c.,  with  their  names  and  titles,  coupled 
with  those  of  the  King. 

Duisburg,  or  Doesborgh,  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Emperor  Conrad  II., 

Dulmen,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  the  source  of  copper  coins  from  1590  to 
1625,  with  a  trefoil  cross.  There  is  a  piece  of  6  pfenningen  with  Stadt 
Dulmen,  1622. 

Dun-sur-Meuse  (Dvnvm},  diocese  of  Verdun,  the  mint  where,  in  or 
about  1354,  the  date  of  his  concession  from  the  Emperor  Charles  IV.,  the 
Sieur  d'Aspremont  is  supposed  to  have  struck  money  in  gold  and  silver 
according  to  the  terms  of  instructions  delivered  to  his  moneyer,  Lambert 
de  Namur.  No  remains  are  at  present  known.  A  mint  of  the  early 
Bishops  of  Verdun.  See  Verdun. 

Durbuy,  Luxemburgh,  a  mint  of  Henry  IV.,  Count  of  Luxemburgh, 
1280-88.  Dvrbvcesis. 

Durstede,  Doorsted,  or  Wijk-bij-Dtirstede,  Utrecht  (Latin  Dorestatus], 
a  somewhat  prolific  Merovingian  and  Carlovingian  mint  during  a  period 
extending  from  the  6th- 1 2th  c.  The  examples  belonging  to  the  earlier 
era  vary  considerably  in  style  and  execution,  and  some  were,  no  doubt, 
clumsy  imitations.  A  denier  of  Charlemagne  with  Carlvs  Rex  and  Set 
Martini  Monet  a,  found  here,  has  been  attributed  to  Tours.  The 
moneyers  of  Durstede,  like  those  of  Belgium  at  a  later  date,  seem  to 
have  worked  at  other  places  in  the  same  province,  and  to  have  gone  on 
circuit.  The  names  of  Adalbertus  and  Madelinus  have  come  down  to 
us.  The  coins  of  this  place  are  of  very  unequal  merit,  and  some  may 
be  counterfeits  by  unskilful  workmen. 

Diisseldorf,  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Berg  in  the  I7th  c. 

Ebstorf,  or  Ebsdorf,  near  Liineburg,  one  of  the  earliest  mints  of  the 
Dukes  of  Saxony,  loth-nth  c.,  if  indeed  it  was  not  actually  the  first. 
Probably  the  most  ancient  examples  have  yet  to  be  identified. 

Ebusus,  or  Ivi$a,  one  of  the  Baleares,  the  name  found  on  a  special 
Spanish  currency  from  Charles  I.  (V.  of  Germany)  to  Charles  II.  (1520- 
1 700)  with  Vniv.  Ebvsi  Dns. 

Eenaeme,  Belgium,  the  seat  of  a  small  coinage  of  deniers  in  the  i2th  c., 
with  Egamio. 

Eger,  or  Egra,  Bohemia,  the  source  of  a  tin  kreutzer  of  1743,  during 
the  operations  of  the  siege. 

Eggenberg,  or  Egenburg,  Lower  Austria,  the  seat  of  an  independent 
lordship  in  the  I7th  c.,  though  now  possessing  a  very  small  population 
and  no  importance.  The  money  of  the  Counts  of  Egenburg  and  Gratz, 
Princes  of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire,  was  struck  here  or  at  Gratz  in  the 
1 7th  c.  (1623-86).  There  are  some  rare  thalers  in  the  series. 

ioo  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Eichstadt,  Bavaria,  an  episcopal  mint  down  to  1796.     A  thaler  of 

Joseph  von  Steebenburg,  Bishop  in  that  year,  is  said  to  have  been  made 
out  of  the  church  plate,  and  to  be  the  last  money  struck. 

EH,  Lorraine,  a  mint  of  Thierry,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  984-1024. 

Einbeck,  or  Eimbeck,  Hanover,  the  probable  place  of  issue  of  a  marien- 
groschen  of  1551  (No.  5395  of  Knyphausen),  of  a  groschen  of  1670,  and 
of  an  undated  stadtpfenning. 

Eisenach,  Saxe- Weimar,  a  mint  of  the  Landgraves  of  Thuringen. 
The  early  bracteates  (i2th  c.)  represent  the  landgraf  on  horseback,  with 
sword,  buckler,  and  standard.  At  a  later  period  a  place  of  coinage  for 
the  grand-duchy  of  Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach.  Ysena. 

Eisenstadt,  Hungary,  the  probable  place  of  origin  of  a  thaler  and 
gulden  of  Nicolaus  von  Esterhdzy,  1770.  The  former  has  the  legend 
Nicol.  S.R.I.  Princ.  Eszterhazy  de  Galantha  Pcrp.  Com.  in  Frak.,  and 
a  portrait. 

Ekaterinenburgh,  a  Russian  mint  under  Catherine  II. 

Elbing,  once  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Poland,  now  part  of  Western 
Prussia,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  Teutonic  Order,  1 3th- 1 5th  c.,  and 
of  a  Polish  mint  from  the  i6th-i8th  c.  A  grosch  of  1535  is  cited  by 
Sch.,  xiv.  635.  In  1628  and  1657  the  Swedes  coined  money  here  :  (i)  a 
thaler  with  the  titles  of  Gustavus  Adolphus  ;  and  (2)  an  ort=i8  Polish 
groschen.  Elbing  struck  copper  solidi  in  the  i8th  c. 

Elburg,  Holland,  formerly  the  seat  of  an  ecclesiastical  coinage.  On 
a  dute  of  161 8  there  is  :  obv.  a  gate  flanked  by  two  towers,  a  dog  lying  at 
the  gate  ;  rev.  Moneta  Eccles;  Elborg  8.  Another  variety  has  Ecclesue 

Elgg,  Switzerland  or  Helvetia,  canton  of  Zurich,  a  Swiss  mint  under 
the  Merovingian  princes.  Augia  Sacra. 

Elincourt,  a  chateau  and  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Saint-Pol,  and  of  the 
house  of  Luxemburgh-Ligny,  I3th-i5th  c.  The  earliest  coinage  of  E. 
was  executed  on  French  territory,  and  imitated  the  types,  and  it  was  in 
order  to  be  beyond  the  royal  French  jurisdiction  that  in  1300  the  C.  of 
Saint-Pol  established  a  mint  at  Elincourt.  But  money  was  also  struck 
at  Arleux,  and  in  1306  he  employed  a  Lucchese  moneyer  named 
Tadolin  to  strike  deniers  and  mailles,  which  might  run  concurrently 
with  the  regal  coinage  of  the  higher  values  and  in  the  more  precious 
metal.  In  1337  we  see  that  the  Count  engaged  to  abstain  from  melting 
the  money  of  the  King,  and  to  differentiate  his  own  cross  and  pile — on 
both  sides.  The  later  Counts  of  Ligny,  of  Saint-Pol,  and  of  the  house 
of  Luxemburgh,  had  gold  money,  which  followed  the  French  types  and 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  101 

Elsloo,  Brabant,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Schoonvorst,  in  the  I4th- 
I5th  c.  The  types  of  the  Counts  of  Flanders,  Dukes  of  Burgundy, 
were  copied  here.  The  coins  of  Konrad  II.,  who  died  in  1457,  read 
Kons.  De  Sconvoerst,  or  Konradvs  de  Elslae,  etc. 

Embdcn,  Hanover,  a  mediaeval  mint  and  the  seat  of  a  civic  coinage  in 
silver  and  copper  in  the  I7th  c.  There  is  a  rare  seigniorial  denier  of 
Count  Hermann,  with  Heriman  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Amvtthon.  Also, 
one  of  the  mints  of  the  Counts  of  East  Friesland. 

Embrun,  Provence,  Dept.  of  Hautes-Alpes,  the  mint  of  the  Counts  of 
Seyne,  1 2th- 1 3th  c.,  of  a  branch  of  the  house  of  Forcalquier,  and  of  the 
Archbishops,  1135-1510.  The  coins,  deniers  and  oboles  only,  have 
Comes  Ed'ne,  or  Edne,  and  the  ecclesiastical  series,  of  which  only  two 
appear  to  be  known,  Archieps.  or  Pastor  Ebredunensis. 

Emerita,  Portugal,  a  mint  of  the  Suevic  Goths,  430-57,  removed  at 
the  former  date  from  Bracara  in  Spain,  and  at  the  latter  restored  to  B. 
on  the  loss  of  Lusitania  by  that  race. 

Emmerich,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Cleves,  I4th-i7th  c. 

Encre,  or  Incre,  a  seigniorial  fief  in  the  Pas  de  Calais,  given  in  1115 
to  Charles,  son  of  Cnut  II.,  King  of  Denmark,  by  his  cousin-german,  the 
Count  of  Flanders.  There  is  a  denier  which  reads  Moneta  Caroli,  and 
on  rev.  Incrensis.  Charles  D 'Encre,  or  Karolus  de  Anchord,  became 
Count  of  Flanders  in  1119.  Prior  to  his  accession  he  perhaps,  rather 
than  his  father,  struck  coins  at  Quentovic,  q.v. 

Enkhuisen,  N.  Holland,  probably  the  source  of  certain  pieces  struck 
in  the  I7th  c.  Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  99,  100.  A  ducaton  in  silver  was  coined  at 
E.  during  the  siege  by  the  French  in  1675.  This  was  atone  time  a  place 
of  great  importance  and  wealth. 

Ensisheim,  Upper  Alsace,  a  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Landgraves,  1 584- 
1632,  where  the  steel  roller  was  employed  in  the  production  of  the 

Epinal,  Vosges,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops,  perhaps  in  alliance  with  the 
town,  of  the  monastery  of  St.  Genric,  and  of  Simon,  Duke  of  Lorraine, 
1115-39,  during  his  temporary  possession  of  it. 

Erfurt,  or  Erperfiirt,  Thuringia,  the  principal  town  in  what  was  once 
known  as  Saxe-Thuringen,  of  which  the  Saxe-Thuringenwald  preserves 
the  recollection.  It  was  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  Archbp.  of 
Mayence  and  the  Landgraves  of  Thuringen,  1 4th- 1 8th  c.  We  have 
bracteates  of  Archbp.  Heinrich  (1142-53)  and  a  grosch  of  Landgraf 
Wilhelm  I.,  about  1407.  The  Burgraves  of  Kirchberg  used  this  mint  on 
the  relinquishment  of  that  at  Capellendorf.  There  is  a  commemorative 
thaler  of  the  Swedish  victory  near  Leipsic  in  1631  belonging  here.  The 
arms  are  a  wheel,  and  some  of  the  coins  have  E. 

Erkelenz,  Rhenish  Prussia,  apparently  the  place  of  origin  of  a  groot 
or  gros  of  William  I.,  Duke  of  Gueldres  and  Juliers,  1393-1402,  noticed 
by  Sch.,  xv.  182. 

Essen,  Westphalia  or  Rhenish  Prussia,  the  seat  of  an  abbey  of  women 
in  the  i6th-i7th  c.  A  few  specimens  of  the  special  coinage  issued  by  the 
Lady  Abbess  have  been  transmitted  to  us.  There  is  a  piece  of  8 
fettmanchen  with  the  name  of  Anna  Salome,  Countess  of  Salm,  abbess, 
1657,  and  a  \  thaler,  1671.  In  May  1892,  in  a  find  near  Vilvorde, 
Belgium,  occurred  a  grossus  of  Sophia  von  Gleichen. 

Esslingen,  Wiirtemburg,  a  mint  of  the  Hohenstaufen  dynasty  in  the 
nth  c. 

Etain,  Dept.  of  Meuse,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Bar  in  the  I4th  c. 

iO2  The  Coins  of  Europe 

'  We  find  it  named  as  one  of  the  places  where  the  quasi-international 
money  of  1 342  was  to  be  struck  under  a  treaty  for  three  months  between 
Henry  IV.,  Count  of  B.,  and  John  of  Luxemburgh,  King  of  Bohemia,  the 
respective  coinages  to  run  pari  passu  in  the  territories  of  each  other. 
These  conventions  were  not  unusual  in  L.  and  elsewhere.  Comp.  Luxem- 
burgh and  Namur. 

Etampes,  France,  a  Capetian  mint  under  Philippe  I.,  Louis  VI.,  and 
Louis  VII.  (1060-1180).  Deniers  and  oboles  only. 

Eversberg,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Arnsberg. 

Evora,  Spain,  a  Visigothic  mint.     Elvora. 

Evora,  or  Ebora,  Portugal,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Portugal  after  1640. 
Kpatacca  of  John  IV.,  1640-56,  was  struck  there. 

Evreux,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  money  (gros,  blanques,  sols 
coronnats,  deniers,  and  doubles  parisis)  struck  about  1350  by  Philippe  de 
Longueville,  brother  of  Charles  le  Mauvais,  during  the  captivity  of  the 
latter.  Phvs.  Navarre  and  Comes  Ebroicensis. 

Eyndhoven,  an  early  Brabantine  seigniorial  mint.     Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  356. 

Fabriano,  Papal  States,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  quattrino  with  De 
Fabriano  and  the  name  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  on  rev.  Also  of  two 
quattrini  struck  in  the  names  of  Giulio  de  Medici  and  Leo  X.  The 
former,  of  which  there  are  two  varieties,  reads  Ivl.  Car.  Medices.  He 
governed  here  under  the  control  of  Leo. 

faenza,  Italy,  formerly  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Astorgio-Manfredi,  1448- 
1501,  and  a  place  of  independent  coinage.  A  very  early  quattrino  of 
copper,  described  in  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  1071,  has  a  falcon  with  out- 
spread wings,  and  on  rev.  a  head  of  St.  Peter  and  S.  Petrvs. 

Fagnolle,  Namur,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage  of  ducats,  1770, 
with  the  name  and  titles  of  the  Prince  de  Ligny.  They  bear  C.  Fagno- 

Falkenstetn,  Pruss.  Saxony,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  in  the  I2th  c. 
There  are  bracteates  with  Bvrhart  and  with  Eve  and  the  serpent. 

Fano,  in  the  Papal  States,  a  place  of  .coinage  of  the  autonomous 
republic,  of  Pandolfo  Malatesta  (1384-1427;,  and  of  the  Popes  down  to 
the  1 7th  c. 

Fauquemont,  or  Valkenberg,  Brabant,  probably  the  place  of  mintage 
of  Philip  le  Hardi  in  1396-99  during  his  temporary  occupation  of  the  town. 
Sch.,  ix.  357.  Also  a  seigniorial  mint.  A  double  gros  of  Frederic  van 
Moeurs  has  Moneta  Nova  ValkV. 

Fauquenbergues,  Pas  de  Calais,  a  feudal  seat  of  the  Chatelains  of  St. 
Omer,  of  whom  the  only  known  coinage  belongs  to  Eleonore,  wife  of 
Rasse  de  Gavre,  1290-1326.  On  one  denier  this  lady  styles  herself 
Countess  of  F.,  and  on  another  Chatelaine  of  St.  Omer  and  Lady  of  F. 
It  is  the  same  personage  whom  we  see  on  a  maille  figured  in  the  Ordi- 
nance of  1315,  holding  a  trefoil  and  a  falcon.  Fauquenberge,  or  Faucon- 

Fellre,  Ven.  Lombardy,  a  place  where  the  Bishops  received  in  1140 
and  1 179  authority  to  coin  ;  but  no  money  is  known. 

Feodosia,  or  Kaffa,  a  Russian  mint  under  Catherine  II. 

Ferrara,  the  mint  of  the  republic  under  imperial  authority,  of  the 
ducal  house  of  Este,  I5th-i7th  c.,  and  of  the  Popes. 

Ferrero,  in  the  pontifical  States,  a  seat  at  successive  epochs  of 
seigniorial,  republican,  and  papal  coinage  (1220-1799).  Only  the  lower 
values  were  struck  here.  A  bolognino  of  Luigi  Migliorati  (1425-28)  with 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  103 

D.L.  De  Melior-Atis  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Vb.  Firman,  and  a  danaro 
of  Francesco  Sforza  (1434-46)  with  Co.  F.  Viceco.  belong  here. 

Ferte-Chauderon,  Nivernais,  a  place  which  is  repeatedly  stated  to 
have  possessed  the  right  of  coinage  in  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.,  under  the  Counts 
of  Nevers.  No  specimen  known. 

Finale,  Sardinian  States,  a  mint  of  the  Carretto  family. 

Fivelgo,  Holland,  on  the  R.  Fivel,  the  name  found  on  one  of  the 
numberless  imitations  of  the  gros  tournois,  with  Tvronvs  Civis.  and 
Moneta  Fivloge. 

Flemish  Mints.  Besides  those  more  particularly  specified  we  may 
enumerate  :  Aire  (a  lion  passant  and  Ariensis\  Axel,  Bondues  (Bvnt- 
bve),  Bourbourg  (Brovborg\  Cassel,  and  Eenaeme  (Egamto  or 

Flensburg,  Schleswig,  the  place  of  a  local  coinage,  I4th  c.,  with 
Moneta  Holsascie.  Low  values  only — penningen  and  wit-penningen. 

Florence,  a  Carlovingian  mint  under  Charlemagne  as  King  of  the 
Franks  and  Lombards,  and  a  seat  of  republican  coinage,  first  under  the 
ordinary  form  and  subsequently  under  gonfalonieri  of  the  Medici  and 
other  families  (1200-1315).  The  earliest  gonfaloniere  appears  to  have 
been  Baldo  Ridolfi  in  1304.  The  Medici  do  not  occur  till  1483,  when 
Giorgio  de  Medici  was  standard-bearer.  This  was  the  original  birth- 
place of  the  fiorino  both  in  gold  and  silver,  the  latter  having  followed  the 
less  precious  metal  about  1250.  There  is  the  moiety  of  it,  which  is  far  rarer 
than  the  whole,  and  a  variety  of  types.  Each  gonfaloniere  placed  his  own 
arms  on  the  piece  coined  during  his  term  of  office.  Of  the  silver  florin 
there  is  a  rare  type  sometimes  known  as  the  grosso  della  volpe.  Another, 
struck  in  1307,  received  the  name  of  popolino.  It  is  the  piece  of  which 
Boccaccio  speaks  in  his  third  novel  as  having  been  gilt  by  some  one,  who 
had  to  pay  a  fine  of  500  gold  florins,  and  tried  to  pass  off  this  spurious 
one.  From  about  1530  to  1859,  Florence,  with  Leghorn  and  Pisa,  pro- 
duced the  coinages  of  the  Dukes  and  Grand:Dukes  of  Tuscany,  of  the 
houses  of  Medici  and  Lorraine,  and  that  of  the  short-lived  kingdom  of 
Etruria.  There  are  in  this  group  many  examples  of  fine  work  by 
Benvenuto  Cellini,  and  others.  The  gold  coins,  except  the  ordinary 
florin,  are  rare.  There  is  a  rare  piece  of  4  grossi=  a  double  julio, 
struck  of  a  type  similar  to  the  ordinary  grosso  with  the  longer  legend. 
Remedi  Cat,  1884,  No.  1282,  15  lire.  During  the  French  occupation  of 
Lorraine,  the  Duke  Nicole- Francois  struck  coins  at  Florence  with 
Moneta  Nova  Florent.  Cusa.,  1635. 

Florennes,  Prov.  of  Namur,  a  place  of  coinage  of  Gaucher  de 
Chatillon,  Count  of  Porcien. 

Flushing,  Zeeland,  perhaps  the  place  of  origin  of  the  money  struck  to 
commemorate  the  installation  of  Maurice  of  Nassau,  1590,  as  Marquis  of 
Flushing  or  Vlissingen. 

Fontenay-Le-Comte,  or  Figeac,  a  mint  of  Edward  I.  of  England  as 
Duke  of  Aquitaine. 

Forcalquier,  or  Sisteron,  Basses-Alpes,  formerly  part  of  the  county 
and  kingdom  of  Provence,  the  seat  of  a  municipal  mint,  whose  products 
circulated  concurrently  with  the  money  of  the  Counts  of  Provence  in  the 
1 2th  c. 

Fosdino-uo,  Modena,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Malaspina-Centurioni 
family,  iyth  c. 

Fosses,  in  the  prov.  of  Lidge,  a  seat  of  coinage  granted  in  974  by  Otto 
II.  to  Notger,  Bishop  of  Lie"ge  (972-1008). 

IO4  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Fossombrone,  Urbino,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Da  Montefeltro  family, 
1 5th  c.  De  Foros-Embronio.  Com  p.  Urbino. 

Fougtres,  a  mint  of  John  V.,  Duke  of  Brittany,  1399-1442. 

Franchimont,  Namur,  a  mint  of  the  prince-bishops  of  Liege,  iyth  c. 

Franco  -  Spanish  Mints  during  French  occupation  of  Cataluna, 
Lorraine,  etc.  (1640-59) :  Agramon,  Arbeca,  Balaguer,  Banolas,  Barcelona, 
Bellpuig  (Villa  Pvlcrip),  Berga,  Besalu,  Bisbal,  Caldas,  Cardona, 
Cervera,  Figueras,  Gerona,  Granollers,  Igualada,  Lerida,  Manresa, 
Matara,  Oliana,  Olot,  Puigcerda  (Podicerita],  Reus,  Rosas,  Solsona 
(Coelsona),  Tagamanent,  Tarragona,  Tarrasa,  Tarrega,  Tortosa,  Vails, 
Vich  (Civitas  Vicen.},  Villafranca  del  Panades. 

Franeker,  W.  Friesland,  near  Leeuwarden,  the  reputed  place  of  origin 
of  coins  reading  Frankere  and  Frankeren. 

Frankenberg,  Hesse-Cassel,  a  mint  employed  in  the  I3th  c.  by  Sophia, 
Duchess  of  Brabant,  and  her  son  Henry. 

Frankenthal,  the  source  in  1623,  during  the  siege  by  the  General 
Verdugo,  of  money  of  necessity  :  i  and  4  thalers  ;  i,  2,  and  4  florins  ;  7 
and  15  batzen. 

Frankfort-on-Main,  a  royal  or  imperial  mint  as  early  as  the  nth  c. 
But  in  1425  the  city  began  to  acquire  monetary  rights  with  certain 
limitations.  In  1428  it  received  the  imperial  authority  to  strike  its  own 
money.  The  earliest  pieces  display  a  castle  with  three  towers  and  the 
word  Fera-Fort.  F.  remained  the  seat  of  an  autonomous  or  semi- 
autonomous  coinage  in  all  metals  on  an  extensive  scale  down  to  1863. 
Some  of  the  pieces  contain  views  of  the  city,  and  a  series  of  thalers  and 
double  thalers  of  1860-63  have  either  a  prospect  of  Frankfort  or  figures 
(bust  or  full-length)  of  a  lady,  probably  intended  for  a  goddess  of  liberty, 
but  once  said  to  be  a  portrait  of  the  engraver's  mistress.  After  all,  both 
statements  may  be  correct.  The  convention-thaler  of  Friedberg,  1804, 
was  struck  here. 

Frank  fort-on-the-Oder,  an  occasional  place  of  coinage. 

Franquemont,  near  Goumois,  Burgundy,  a  chateau  built  in  1305,  and 
situated  in  what  was  known  down  to  1789  as  Franche-Montagne.  In 
1437  the  domain  passed  to  Nicolas  de  Gilley,  Seigneur  de  Marnoz,  for 
300  tcus  au  soleil,  and  in  1588  the  place  was  erected  into  a  barony  by 
Charles  V.  of  Germany  in  favour  of  another  N.  de  Gilley,  who  temporarily 
struck  money  with  N.  Gillei  Numisma  in  imitation  of  the  imperial  and 
regal  types  (1540-54). 

Fraustadt,  or  Wschoiva,  Posen,  a  Polish  mint  in  the  1 4th- 1 5th  and 
1 6th- 1 7th  c.  Stanislas  Jagellon  (1386-1434)  employed  it.  There  is  a 
copper  uniface  denier,  1609,  belonging  here.  It  seems  also  to  have 
been  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Freiengen,  the  seat  of  an  independent  bishopric.  There  is  a  rare 
thaler  of  1709  with  the  portrait  of  the  Bishop. 

French  Mints  under  the  Capetian  dynasty,  I4th  c.  In  1306  the  regal 
places  of  coinage  were  only  eight  in  number,  shewing  an  enormous  reduc- 
tion since  the  improvement  or  change  in  the  monetary  system,  but  also 
the  result  of  a  redistribution  of  territory  and  of  the  rise  of  a  large  feudal 
currency.  The  mints  above  referred  to  were — Paris,  Rouen,  Troyes, 
Tournai,  Toulouse,  Saint-Pourcain,  Montpellier,  and  Montreuil-Bonnin 
( Monsteriolu  tn) . 

French  Mints  under  the  Valois  dynasty,  1328-1400.  The  number  of 
mints  was  now  vastly  increased,  and  the  quality  of  the  money  of  lower 
values  equally  debased.  As  far  back  as  the  time  of  Philip  le  Bel  (1285- 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  105 

1314)  the  people  had  bestowed  on  their  sovereign  the  byname  of  Le 
faux  monnoyeur. 

French  Mints  under  the  regency  of  the  Ditke  of  Bedford  (1422-  53)  : 
Amiens,  Arras,  Auxerre,  Chalons,  Dijon,  Macon,  Le  Mans,  Nevers,  Paris, 
Rouen,  Saint- Lo,  Saint-Quentin,  and  Troyes. 

French  Mints  under  the  Bourbons.  The  number  remained  much  the 
same  under  Henry  IV.  and  Louis  XIII.  Louis  XIV.  added  to  the  places 
of  coinage,  but  in  1772  Louis  XV.  suppressed  thirteen. 

French  Mints  tinder  Charles  X.,  Cardinal  de  Bourbon,  1589-98  : 
Paris,  Rouen,  Lyons,  Bayonne,  Riom,  Dijon,  Troyes,  Amiens,  Bourges, 
Nantes,  and  Dinan.  At  the  two  last-named  places  the  Due  de  Mercoeur 
struck  money  in  the  name  of  Charles,  eight  years  after  his  death,  in  1590. 
The  coins  are  not  very  uncommon,  though  nearly  always  poor. 

French  Mints  under  the  First  Republic,  etc.  The  R.  at  first  closed 
several,  but  reopened  some.  Napoleon  created  new  ones,  both  within 
and  outside  the  normal  French  frontier,  which  were  suppressed  in 
1814.  In  1848  there  were  only  three — Paris,  Bordeaux,  and  Strasburgh. 
In  1853  and  1857  Lille,  Lyons,  Marseilles,  and  Rouen  were  temporarily 
reopened  to  carry  out  more  expeditiously  the  new  copper  currency. 

Freyberg,  capital  of  the  Erzgebirge  mining  district,  a  mint  of  the 
Ernestine  branch  of  the  Dukes  of  Saxony. 

Fribourg,  Baden  [Switzerland],  a  mint  established  in  1120  under 
imperial  authority.  There  is  money  of  the  Counts  of  F.  and  of  the  town 
from  the  I4th  c.  Fribvrg  Brisgavd  or  in  Bris. 

Friedberg.     See  Burg-Friedberg. 

Friedland,  a  mint  of  Albertus  von  Waldstein  or  Wallenstein,  1626-34. 
Comp.  Giistrotu.  Wallenstein  describes  himself  on  his  thalers  as  Duke 
of  Mecklenburgh,  Friedland,  and  Sagan,  and  Count  of  Rostock  and 

Friesach,  Diocese  of  Salzburg,  a  common  mint  of  the  See  and  of  the 
Dukes  of  Carinthia. 

Frinco,  Piedmont,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Mazzetti  family,  i6th  c. 
There  is  a  copper  sesino  with  (on  rev.)  Mon.  Ord.  M.  DD.,  and  Minerva 
seated  to  1. 

Froberg,  Alsace,  the  mint  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  F.-Montjoye, 
whose  chateau,  built  in  the  I3th  c.,  was  destroyed  in  1635.  Here  were 
doubtless  struck  the  few  pieces  of  money  which  have  occurred  with 
Frober  or  Frobe.  One  coin  reads  Mo.  No.  Frobe  1554,  and  on  rev. 
Ferdinan.  Re.,  and  is  supposed  to  be  a  specimen  of  the  currency  decried  in 
that  year  in  common  with  that  of  Vauvillers  and  Franquemont. 

Fugger,  Suabia.     See  Augsburgh. 

Fulda,  Hesse-Cassel,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  ancient  abbots  from 
the  nth  c.,  and  of  the  abbot -bishops  down  to  1796.  Adalbert  III. 
(d.  1814)  coined  from  the  church  plate  in  1796,  during  the  French  occupa- 
tion, thalers  of  two  types  and  a  £  thaler  ;  one  of  the  former  has  a  fine 
portrait.  The  See  was  secularised  in  1802,  and  the  sovereign  and  terri- 
torial rights  became  vested  in  Hesse-Cassel.  There  is  a  \  thaler  of 
1828  before  us,  in  which  the  Duke  is  described  as  Landgraf  of  Hesse 
and  Grand-Duke  of  Fulda. 

Fuligno,  or  Foligno,  Spoleto,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Trinci  family, 
1 5th  c.,  and  probably  their  mint,  as  it  was  of  the  popes  from  Eugenius  IV. 
to  Pius  VI.  De.  Fvligineo,  or  Fvligneo.  A  quattrino  was  struck  here, 
or  at  least  bears  the  name  of  the  place,  during  the  ephemeral  Roman 
Republic  (1798-99). 

io6  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Fumes,  W.  Flanders,  a  mint  of  Maximilian,  Arch-Duke  of  Austria  and 
Count  of  Flanders,  transferred  from  Bruges  in  1489. 

Furstenburg,  Germany,  now  divided  between  Baden,  Wiirtemburg, 
etc.  ;  the  presumed  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  independent  princes  down 
to  1806. 

Gadebusch,  Mecklenburgh-Schwerin,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Mecklen- 
burgh,  1542-1622. 

Gacsbeek,  Brabant,  prov.  of  Lennick-Saint-Martin,  one  of  the  mints  of 
the  Dukes  of  Brabant ;  and  it  may  be  the  place  indicated  under  the  form 
of  Quaecbccke  on  money  of  Arnould  D'Orey,  Lord  of  Rummen  (1331-64). 

Gaeta,  Naples,  an  autonomous  mint  in  the  nth-i2th  c.,  and  sub- 
sequently one  of  the  Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia,  I2th-i4th  c.  Civitas 
Gaieta.  It  was  subsequently  a  temporary  place  of  coinage  of  Pius  IX. 
during  the  Roman  Revolution  of  1848-49.  We  have  met  with  the 
zecchino  and  scudo  (in  two  varieties)  struck  in  copper,  25  and  12^  soldi, 
20  baiocchi  in  silver,  and  3,  2,  and  I  baiocchi  in  copper.  G.  crowned 
with  the  holy  gate,  tiara,  and  keys. 

Gangelt,  Prussia,  in  the  regency  of  Achen,  the  place  of  coinage  of  a 
groschen  of  Thierry  von  Heinsberg. 

Gap,  Hautes-Alpes,  an  episcopal  mint,  iith-i3th  c.  Vapiensis,  or 

Gaveren  and  Elsloo,  Belgium,  names  mentioned  on  coins  of  the  I4th- 
1 5th  c.,  struck  by  Adrian,  Seigneur  of  G.  and  E.  Some  read  Adrianvs 
De  Gaveren  Do. 

Gazzoldo,  or  Gazuolo,  12  m.  W.N.W.  of  Mantua,  the  apparent  place 
of  coinage  of  a  quattrino  of  Pope  Sixtus  V.  (1585-90),  with  portrait  to  1. 
on  obv.,  and  Sixtus.  V.  P.  Ma.,  and  on  rev.  St.  Francis  kneeling  to  1., 
and  Co.  Gazzo.  In  Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  No.  1436,  notice  is  given  of  a 
sesino  of  the  Ippolito  family  (1591),  with  a  figure  of  St.  Francis  kneeling 
to  1.  on  rev. 

Gembloux,  Belgium,  Prov.  of  Namur,  the  seat  of  an  abbey.  There 
are  early  deniers. 

Gendringcn,  Berg,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  or  Counts  of  B.,  I4th- 
I7th  c. 

Geneva,  Genf,  a  Merovingian  mint,  a  place  of  coinage  for  the  bishops, 
uth-i5th  c.,  for  the  counts,  and  for  the  city  and  canton.  The  earliest 
episcopal  money  is  of  1017.  A  denier  of  Bp.  Friedrich  (1031-73)  reads 
on  obv.  Geneva  Civitas,  and  on  rev.  Frederics.  Eps.  The  seigniorial 
money  was  struck  at  Annecy  in  and  after  1356  ;  it  usually  reads  Comes 
Gebennensis.  There  was  a  regular  issue  of  small  gold  pieces  from  the 
middle  of  the  i6th  c.  and  of  pistoles  in  the  i8th,  and  of  silver  and  billon 
money  down  to  the  establishment  of  an  uniform  system  a  [few  years  ago. 
Like  some  of  the  other  cantons,  it  produced  in  the  last  and  present 
century  large  pieces  both  in  gold  and  silver —the  triple  pistole  of  1771 
and  the  lo-franc  piece  in  silver  of  1851.  There  are  copper  pieces  struck 
here  in  1590  during  the  war  with  Savoy,  reading  Monnaie  pour  les 
soldats  de  Geneve;  12,  6,  and  i  sols. 

Genoa,  an  imperial  mint  under  the  Hohenstaufen  dynasty,  and  the 
place  of  coinage  of  the  bishops  and  the  republic.  Some  of  the  earliest 
types  of  the  danaro  are  of  small  module.  From  the  I2th  c.,  while  under 
imperial  suzerainty,  Genoa  produced  a  copious  and  sumptuous  succession 
of  money  in  gold  and  silver.  The  former  coinage  consisted  of  the 
genovino  d'oro,  its  divisions  and  its  multiples,  which  in  the  I7th  c. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  107 

reached  the  maximum  of  20  gen.  The  doge  Campofregoso  (144?) 
struck  a  piece  of  10  gold  scudi.  From  the  I5th  to  the  i8th  c.  various 
types  of  the  scudo  or  scuto,  and  of  pieces  of  2  and  4,  appeared.  A  large 
gold  piece  of  96  lire  was  issued  in  1803.  The  Rossi  Catalogue  appears' 
to  ascribe  all  the  gold  genovini  with  the  name  of  Conrad  to  the  I2th  c., 
whereas  many  certainly  are  200  or  300  years  later.  There  was  also  a 
profusion  of  money  in  silver,  billon,  and  copper;  and  there  are  six  periods 
of  interruption  of  the  autonomous  coinage — during  the  occupation  by 
Charles  VI.  of  France  (1396-1406),  by  the  Dukes  of  Milan  (1421-36, 
1464-66,  1488-94),  by  Charles  VII.  of  France  (1458-61),  and  by  Louis  XII. 
of  France  (1500-12).  The  French  introduced  some  peculiar  types,  as 
we  have  noted  elsewhere.  Louis  XII.  had  a  scudo  d'oro  borrowed  from 
the  French  ecu  an  soldi.  During  the  revolutionary  or  transitional  period 
(1797-1814)  there  is  a  coinage  of  pieces  of  12  lire  in  gold,  of  a  scudo  of 
8  lire,  with  the  half,  and  of  10  soldi  in  silver,  of  a  franc  and  \  franc  with 
the  name  of  Napoleon  I.,  1813,  and  of  4  and  2  soldi  in  billon,  4  danari 
in  copper,  etc.  (1797). 

Gera,  Reuss,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Abbesses,  I3th  c.  (bracteates), 
of  the  Bailli  of  Weida  (i4th  c.),  etc.  Gerana. 

Gerdingen,  Limbourg,  Brabant,  an  early  seigniorial  mint,  probably 
only  for  strictly  local  coinage  of  copper  or  billon.  Joanna,  Lady  of  Stein 
and  Gerdingen,  struck  money  here  down  to  1450. 

Gernrode  or  Garrelsweer,  W.  Friesland,  a  mint  of  Egbert  II.,  Count 
of  W.  F.,  1068-90.  Geruiewrc  or  Gerewere. 

Gerona,  Navarre,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  denier  of  the  Carlovingian 
period  and  type,  with  Gervnda.  But  it  appears  that  there  was  in  the 
loth-nth  c.  a  local  mint,  of  the  profits  of  which  the  bishop  was  entitled 
to  a  third. 

Gertrudenberg,  N.  Holland,  near  Breda,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Counts 
of  Holland,  I4th  c.  A  \  groot  of  Willem  IV.  (1337-45)  was  struck  here. 

Gesecke,  Prussia,  distr.  of  Arnsberg,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Cologne. 

Gez,  Savoy,  a  Savoyard  mint,  1581-88. 

Gheitt,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Flanders  in  the  13th  and  following 
centuries.  Schulman,  Cat.  v.,  No.  239,  cites  a  half  groat  of  Louis  of 
Crecy,  1322-46,  struck  there,  as  also  a  double  vuurijzer  of  Philip  le  Bel 
(1488-89).  On  a  clinkaert  or  chaise  of  Philip  le  Bon,  struck  here  in  1426, 
he  styles  himself  Heres  Hollandiae.  Ghent  was  a  busy  mint  during  a 
long  period.  Attention  may  be  drawn  to  the  mites  in  various  multiples 
belonging  to  the  last  quarter  of  the  i6th  c.  The  civic  pieces  usually 
have  Ganda  in  the  exergue.  The  English  rose-noble  and  its  half  were 
imitated  here.  In  a  half  of  1583  the  legend  is  Mon.  Avrea  Metropol. 
Ganda  Flan.,  and  on  the  rev.  Nisi.  Dns.  Cvstod.  Civi.  Frvstra.  See  a 
curious  reference  to  the  counterfeit  coin  (a  contemporary  forgery)  of 
Jeanne,  Countess  of  Flanders,  in  Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  386. 

Ghistelles,  W.  Flanders,  near  Ostend,  the  seat  of  a  special  coinage  for 
that  province  under  Charles  le  Bon  (1119-27),  with  his  titles  and 
Ghistl.  mo. 

Gien-in-Berri,  a  fief  belonging  to  the  See  of  Auxerre.  The  brother-in- 
law  of  Bishop  Hugues  was  the  ancestor  of  the  Sires  de  Donzy,  who  ceded 
it  in  1197  to  Philip  Augustus  for  3000  silver  marks  of  the  Troyes  standard. 
Angevin  types.  Giemis  Cas. 

Gimborn,  Westphalia,  probably  the  place  of  origin  of  two  silver  coins 
struck  by  Ludwig,  Count  of  Walmoden-Gimborn,  in  1802.  See  a  note 
in  Schulthess,  ii.  356. 

io8  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Gliickstadt,  Holstein,  formerly  a  place  of  coinage  of  this  branch  of  the 
house  of  Holstein,  and  subsequently  or  concurrently  a  Danish  mint. 
A  T1^  thaler  of  Frederic  III.  was  struck  here  in  1668.  Civitas  Glvct- 
stadiensis.  The  coinage  seems  to  have  commenced  under  Christian  IV. 
about  1620. 

Gnezen,  or  Znin,  Posen,  a  Polish  mint  in  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  It  is 
mentioned  elsewhere  that  the  Poles  about  this  time  still  employed  skins 
as  currency.  Gnesdim. 

Gnichc,  or  Gnessin,  near  Bayonne,  a  mint  of  Edward  I.  and  III.  of 
England  as  Dukes  of  Aquitaine,  and  of  John  of  Gaunt. 

Goldberg,  Silesia,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  uniface  pfennigen,  or 
rather  perhaps  3-pf.  pieces,  during  the  Thirty  Years'  War.  Two  before  us 
have  the  dates  1622  and  1623,  and  G.B.  divided  by  a  soaring  eagle. 
This  money  belongs  to  the  same  class  and  type  as  that  issued  about  this 
time  at  Breslau,  etc. 

Gorinchen,  or  Gorcum,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  copper  coin  of  John  of 
Bavaria,  Count  of  Holland,  1418-25.  The  English  rose-noble  was  first 
copied  here.  There  is  an  undated  copper  duit  of  the  Aux.  in  Nom. 
Dom.  type,  with  Gore,  in  Holl. 

Goritz,  or  Goers,  on  the  Isonzo,  Austria,  a  mint  of  the  early  Counts 
of  Goritz,  I5th-i6th  c.,  if  not  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  the  Tyrol,  I3th  c. 
Some  of  the  later  money  (1450-1500)  bears  Conies  Goricie  De  Lvonz., 
Lvonze,  or  Moneta  De  Lvonza  and  Gori.  Conies.  The  types  were 
imitated  from  those  of  Aquileia.  Charles  VI.,  Maria  Theresa,  etc.,  struck 
copper  money  for  this  province. 

Gorodetz,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Gorze,  Dept.  of  the  Moselle,  an  abbey  and  seigniorial  fief,  connected 
with  the  ducal  house  of  Lorraine,  and  in  the  persons  of  Charles  de 
Rdmoncourt,  abbe"  in  1607,  and  of  Charles  de  Lorraine,  1643,  the  source 
of  an  important  series  of  coins  in  gold  and  silver,  which  may  have 
probably  been  struck  at  Metz,  of  which  the  See  acquired  the  abbey  in 
1659.  There  is  a  testoon  of  Charles  of  Lorraine,  abbot  (1608-48).  Gorze 
was  united  to  the  French  Crown  in  1663. 

Goslar,  Hanover,  a  place  of  coinage  in  the  i6th  c.  There  is  a 
mariengroschen  of  1553.  The  coin  called  a  gosseler  may  have  owed  its 
name  to  this  place,  which  was  formerly  and  long  of  considerable 

Gotha,  during  the  blockade  by  Augustus,  Elector  of  Saxony,  struck  a 
gold  ducat  and  silver  pieces  of  I  and  2  thalers,  and  a  grosch. 

Gottingen,  Hanover,  a  mint  in  the  i6th-i7th  c.  A  mariengroschen  of 
1529  belongs  here.  A  thaler  of  1659  with  the  titles  of  Leopold  I.  on  rev., 
and  on  obv.  Moneta  Nova  Gottingensis^  sold  at  the  Reinmann  sale, 
1891-92,  Part  ii.,  6592,  for  675  marks. 

Granada,  a  mint  of  the  Almohades  (516-668)  and  of  the  Moorish 
Kings.  There  are  coins  indicating  that  they  were  struck  within  the  walls 
of  the  Alhambra,  the  seat,  as  elsewhere  in  early  times,  of  the  whole 
official  machinery.  Also  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  later  Kings  of  Spain. 
Ferdinand  VII.  struck  here  the  proclamation-money  for  the  province, 
dated  nth  September  1808,  in  gold  and  silver;  there  is  a  double  gold 
escudo  of  this  series  (m.m.  a  pomegranate)  ;  also  a  duro  (money  of  neces- 
sity), same  year.  G.  GNA. 

Grandmont,  La  Marche,  apparently  at  the  beginning  of  the  I3th  c. 
the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  Hugues,  Comte  de  la  Marche,  who  is  said  in 
1208  to  have  given  the  church  of  G.  the  duty  of  assaying  his  money. 

Catalogue  of  Eiiropean  Mints  109 

Grave,  N.  Brabant,  on  the  Maese,  the  source  of  boetdragers  struck  by 
Thierri,  son  of  Gerard,  Count  of  Homes,  about  1350,  as  guardian  of 
Jan.  IV.,  Seigneur  of  Cuyck  ;  with  Theodoricvs  Dei.  Gra.  Dns.  Parviensis 
[Seigneur  of  Pervez]. 

Greierz,  or  Gruyere,  Switzerland,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  sol  of  1552, 
struck  in  the  name  of  the  feudal  prince  and  count. 

Greifswald,  Pomerania,  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Swedes  in  1631 
pieces  in  tin  of  i,  2,  3,  and  4  florins. 

Greiz,  Reuss,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Reuss,  1621-79. 

Grenoble,  Dauphiny,  a  seat  of  municipal  and  episcopal  coinage,  and 
by  a  convention  between  Guignes  VIII.,  Comte  d'Albon,  1319-33,  of 
money  bearing  the  names  of  the  bishop  and  the  dauphin.  Granopolis,  or 

Groningen,  the  seat  of  a  very  early  coinage  for  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht 
(nth  c.),  for  the  city,  and  for  that  part  of  North  Holland  ;  the  copper 

Groningen  :  braspenning,  1593. 

money  dating  back  to  1505,  and  that  in  silver  also  bearing  the  date  in 
many  cases  as  early  as  1455.  In  the  latter  metal  there  were  the  jager, 
the  kromstaert,  the  ordinary  groot,  the  piece  of  eight  stuivers,  etc.  The 
dated  convention-money  with  East  Friesland,  1507,  was  perhaps  struck 
here.  Some  very  curious  siege-money  appeared  in  1577  with  Ordinaris 
pcnninck  Voor  de  Hofman  Hendrick  van  Leer.  There  was  more  than 
one  variety.  A  second  example  before  us  is  struck  on  one  side  only,  and 
bears  the  double-headed  eagle  surmounted  by  a  G,  and  round  it  Necessitate. 
4.  Feb.  1577.  An  oord  or  double  Hard  was  coined  here  in  1591  and  1594 
during  the  sieges  by  Maurice  of  Nassau.  In  1672,  during  the  siege  by 
the  Bishop  of  Munster,  square  pieces  of  50,  25,  \7\,  and  6j  stuivers  were 
struck.  Of  the  two  former  there  are  several  varieties,  one  of  those  of  50 
having  a  view  of  the  town  and  ramparts,  and  of  the  25  stuivers  a  portrait  of 
the  Duke  of  Holstein-Plon,  commander-in-chief  of  the  Netherland  forces. 
Gronsfeld,  probably  the  mint  of  the  Brederoden,  Seigneurs  of  Bronk- 
horst,  Barons  of  Gronsfeld,  a  leading  Brabantine  family  from  the  I4th  to 
the  1 8th  c.  There  is  a  §  thaler  of  Johann  Frantz,  1693,  with  a  shield  of 
nine  quarters.  A  daalder  or  thaler  of  Justus  Maximilian  describes  him 
as  Count  of  Bronkhorst  and  Gronsfeld,  Seigneur  of  Ebersteiri,  Batenborg, 
Alpen,  and  Honnepel.  A  J  thaler  of  William  van  Bronkhorst,  1559, 
bear  the  titles  of  Bronkhorst,  Stein,  and  Batenborg.  It  was  the  head  of 
this  house,  Hendrick  van  Brederode,  who  was  deputed  in  1566  to  convey 
to  the  Duchess  of  Parma  the  demands  of  the  Netherlands  ;  and  there  is 
this  other  very  interesting  feature  in  connection  with  the  family,  that  the 
exact  amount  is  known  for  which  their  ancestor  purchased  the  original 
signiory,  instead  of  receiving  it,  as  usual,  in  fee  from  the  Crown.  The 
Brederoden  raised  troops  at  their  own  cost  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
struggle  against  Spain,  and  formally  protested  against  the  establishment 
of  the  Inquisition  in  the  Low  Countries. 

1 1  o  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Gruitrode,  Belgium,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  billon  deniers  of  the 
1 5th  c.  struck  in  the  name  of  the  military  commandant. 

Grunthal,  a  Polish  mint  under  Augustus  III.,  1752-56.  Copper 

Guardiagrele,  Naples,  in  the  Abruzzi,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  bolo- 
gnino  of  Lladislaus,  King  of  Naples  (1391-1405),  with  Gvar.  in  the  field 
on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  S.  Leo.  Papa,  and  a  bust  of  the  pontiff. 

Guastalla,  Duchy  of  Parma,  on  the  Po,  probably  the  seat  of  coinage 
of  the  money  destined  by  the  Dukes  of  Mantua  of  the  house  of  Gonzaga 
for  currency  in  this  independent  county,  which  was,  however,  from  an 
early  period  an  appanage  of  the  dukedom. 

Gubbio,  States  of  the  Church,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Montefeltro 
family  (1404-44),  of  the  Dukes  of  Urbino  (1444-1631),  and  of  the  popes 
(1646-1798).  De.  Evgvbia.  Evgvbii.  or  Evgvbivm.  The  Holy  See 
appears  to  have  struck  only  copper  here — baiocchi  Gubbii. 

Guben,  a  Polish  mint  under  Augustus  III.,  1752-56.     Copper  groschen. 

Guebivillcr,  Alsace,  the  place  of  the  common  coinage  of  the  abbeys  of 
Murbach  and  Lure,  pursuant  to  a  concession  of  Charles  V.  of  Germany, 
March  7,  1544.  Thalers  and  florins  of  60  kreutzer,  with  the  divisions. 
Guillaume-Leopold,  Bp.  of  Strasburgh,  used  this  mint  from  1659  to  1662. 

Guerande,  a  mint  of  John  IV.,  Duke  of  Brittany,  1364-99. 

Guingamp,  Brittany,  a  temporary  mint  of  Philip  Augustus  of  France 
during  his  occupation  of  that  duchy  (May-October,  1206),  and  one  of  the 
Counts  of  Penthievre,  a  branch  of  the  ducal  house  of  B.  A  denier  of 
Alain  de  Goello,  1205-12,  reads  Alen  Comes  and  Gvimgamp. 

Giinzburg,  circle  of  Suabia,  a  mint  of  Louis  Constantin  de  Rohan, 
Bishop  of  Strasburgh,  1760-73,  and  of  the  Emperor  Leopold  II.  as  Duke 
of  Luxem burgh,  1790-92. 

Gurre,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Castel.  Gorge. 

Giistrow,  Mecklenburgh,  a  mint  of  the  undivided  duchy  in  the  1 5th- 1 7th 
c.,  and  probably  one  of  the  places  of  origin  of  the  very  interesting  series 
of  coins  in  gold  and  silver  of  Albertus  von  Waldstein,  better  known  as 
WALLENSTEIN,  from  1626  to  1632. 

Gy,  14  m.  from  Besanc,on,  a  place  of  which  a  casual  notice  occurs  at 
the  end  of  the  I4th  c.,  when  the  burgesses  of  B.  insisted  on  their  right, 
under  the  diploma  of  the  Emperor  Henry  IV.,  1190,  to  restrain  the 
archbishop  from  striking  elsewhere,  and  the  primate  sought  to  establish 
an  independent  mint  at  Gy. 

Haarlem,  the  source  of  certain  square  daalders  and  \  daalders  struck 
during  the  siege  in  1572-73.  Some  are  countermarked  with  a  lion,  three 
stars  on  a  crescent,  a  death's  head  and  a  lion,  etc. 

Haguenau,  Alsace,  a  mint  from  the  I2th  to  the  I7th  c.  The  early 
money  consists  of  deniers  with  Hage-Noive.  In  and  after  1374  gold  and 
silver  types  appeared,  and  that  with  the  rose  was  imitated  in  Italy.  There 
is  a  2-kreutzer  piece  of  the  town  with  the  titles  of  Ferdinand  II.  (1620-37). 
Cat.  Cisternes,  1892,  Part  iii.,  No.  2192. 

Halberstadt,  Prussian  Saxony,  a  place  of  coinage  of  early  bracteates 
of  the  bishops  and  the  advocates  or  lay  administrators  of  the  See  ;  there 
is  one  of  Bishop  Ulric  (1149-60).  From  the  I4th  c.  (1363)  the  mint  was 
in  the  joint  hands  of  the  town  and  the  chapter.  There  is  money,  all  of 
the  lower  values,  from  the  I2th  to  the  i7th  c.  We  may  note  a  grosch 
of  1 540  of  the  St.  Stephen  type. 

Halen,  a  Brabantine  mint  of  the  i4th  c.     Some  of  the  pieces  struck 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 1 1 

here  have  Moneta  Hallensis.  It  was  a  place  of  coinage  of  John  III., 
Duke  of  Brabant,  1312-55. 

Hall,  Wiirtemburg,  an  imperial  mint  down  to  1385,  and  also  a  place 
of  coinage  for  urban  pfennigen  in  the  I3th  c.  There  are  dated  pieces 
from  1515.  Three  pfennigen  =  i  kreutzer.  The  arms  are  a  hand  and 
a  cross.  There  was  a  coinage  down  to  1798.  Sivebisch  Hal,  or  Hallac 

Halle,  Prussian  Saxony,  an  occasional  place  of  coinage  of  the  Emperors 
of  Germany  in  the  i8th  c. 

Hallenberg,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Paderborn, 
1 3th  c.  Deniers  with  Civitas  Halnbrig,  or  Halnbrgnsis. 

Hamaland-Wigman,  a  Danish  feudal  countship  in  the  Middle  Ages. 
A  denier  belonging  to  it  is  cited  by  Sch.,  xi.  898.  The  coin  termed  a 
iviegman  was  probably  christened  from  the  place  or  signiory. 

Hamburgh,  a  seat  of  the  archbishops,  who  in  the  loth-nth  c.  struck 
money  by  imperial  authority  at  Bremen,  Stadun,  Gerleviswert,  and  else- 
where. The  urban  coinage  nominally  dates  from  the  permission  given 
by  the  Duke  of  Holstein  in  1325,  although  the  attribution  of  certain 
bracteates  of  the  previous  century  to  this  place,  bearing  the  gateway  and 
towers,  is  doubtless  correct.  In  1305  there  was  a  convention  with  Lubeck 
for  the  coinage  of  pfennigen.  The  right  of  coining  gold  was  received  in 
1435.  The  albus,  the  schilling,  and  thaler,  and  their  fractions  and  multi- 
ples in  billon  or  silver,  and  the  ducat  in  gold,  were  current,  as  well  as  a 
copper  series,  from  1574  to  1605.  Some  of  the  pieces  bearing  the  name 
of  the  town  have  the  arms  of  the  Von  Hovel  family  either  with  or  without 
those  of  the  municipality,  and  this  circumstance  may  account  for  the 

Schilling  of  Hamburgh. 

presence  of  the  castle.  There  is  a  rare  ducat  of  1497  and  a  double  schilling 
of  1524  with  the  Virgin  and  Child  type — one  abandoned  in  1572. 

Hamm,  Westphalia,  the  seat  of  a  small  local  coinage  in  copper  during 
the  i7th  and  i8th  c.  A  piece  of  6  pfenningen,  1614,  is  the  earliest  which 
we  have  seen. 

Hanau-Miinzenberg,  Hesse-Cassel,  a  mint  of  the  independent  Counts 
from  the  i6th  c.  down  to  about  1730.  A  \  thaler  of  1624  is  in  Sch.,  xiv. 
472,  also  a  kreutzer  of  1669,  No.  473. 

Hanover,  or  Aldstadt,  the  seat  of  a  mint  in  the  I3th  c.  There  are 
bracteates  with  the  lion  of  the  Counts  of  Lauenrode  and  the  counts 
palatine  of  the  Rhine.  Hanover  struck  convention-money  in  1481-82 
and  1501  in  concert  with  the  Dukes  of  Brunswick- Luneburg,  the  Bishop 
of  Hildesheim,  and  several  towns.  Hanovers.  The  usual  marks  are  a 
trefoil,  and  a  trefoil  with  three  annulets  or  eyelets.  There  are  marien- 
groschen  of  1552. 

Hanover  (Electorate]  Mints :  Alfeld,  Altenau,  St.  Andreasberg, 
St.  Antonius,  Bardewick,  Bassum,  Bodenwerder,  Bruchhausen,  Bursfeld, 
Buxtehude,  Celle,  Clausthal,  Dassel,  Diepholz,  Duderstadt,  Elbingerode, 
Eldazsen,  Estebriigge,  Freudenberg,  Gerode,  Halseliinne,  Hoya,  St. 

1 1 2  7Yie  Coins  of  Europe 

Jacob,  Lauenrode,  Meppen,  Miinden,  Miindburg,  Neustadt  (near  Ruben- 
berg),  Nienburg,  Osterode,  Otterndorf,  Peim,  Reinhausen,  Richenberg, 
Stade,  Steuerwald,  Verden,  Wienhausen,  Woelpe,  Wunstorf. 

Hapsal,  or  Gapsal,  Esthonia,  a  mint  of  Schleswig-Holstein  and  the 
See  of  Oesel,  I4th-i6th  c.  Hapsal. 

Harderwijk,  Gueldres,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Gueldres, 
and  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht,  1 4th- 1 6th  c.  There  is  a  £  groot  of 
Arnould  van  Homes,  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  1371-79,  with  Hdeivig.  A 
thaler  or  gulden  of  Willem  II.,  Duke  of  Gueldres,  1538-43,  describes  him 
as  Duke  of  Juliers,  Gueldres,  CleVes,  and  Berg,  Count  of  Mark,  Zutphen, 
and  Ravensberg,  and  Seigneur  of  Ravenstein.  There  is  an  interesting 
denier  of  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Edward  II.  of  England,  and  guardian 
of  her  son,  Raynald  IV.,  Duke  of  Gueldres,  with  the  English  leopard, 
belonging  here.  Later,  this  place  was  a  mint  of  the  Batavian  Republic 
and  for  the  Dutch  East  Indies. 

Hasselt,  N.  Brabant,  near  Lille,  a  mint  of  the  mediaeval  Seigneurs  of 
Laon  and  of  the  Bishops  of  Lidge,  and  a  place  of  feudal  and  general 
coinage  from  the  I2th  or  I3th  to  the  i6th  or  i7th  c.  Copper  money  was 
struck  here. 

Hasselt,  Overijssel,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht  and  of  the 
Spanish  rulers  of  the  Netherlands.  There  is  a  i  philippus  of  1563  and 
similar  pieces  down  to  1 593  struck  here  in  the  latter  series. 

Hattingen,  a  town  in  the  dukedom  of  Cldves  and  county  of  Mark, 
near  the  Roer,  only  known  at  present  from  coins  struck  there.  It 
was  the  mint  of  Engelbert  I.  and  II.,  Counts  de  la  Marck,  I4th  c. 
A  small  piece  of  Adolf,  Count  of  Cleves,  1417-48,  reads  on  rev.  Moneta 

Hatton-Chatel,  Verdun,  a  mint  of  the  early  Bishops  of  Verdun. 
Hadoniscastrv.  See  Verdun. 

Hedel,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Berg  or  s'  Heerenberg,  in  the  i6th  c. 

Heinsberg,  Brabant,  the  seat  of  an  independent  lordship  and  duchy 
from  the  1 3th- 1 5th  c.,  and  the  source,  no  doubt,  of  a  considerable  series 
of  billon  and  silver  bearing  the  name.  Comp.  Gangelt. 

Helmershausen,  Saxe- Weimar,  an  early  mint  of  the  Bishops  of 
Paderborn  and  the  Archbp.  of  Cologne. 

Hcndrickcn,  Loos,  Flanders,  a  mint  of  Jean,  Comte  de  Loos,  1256-80. 

Henneberg,  Saxe-Meiningen,  the  probable  place  of  origin  of  some  of 
the  coins  of  the  Counts  of  Henneberg.  But  comp.  Ilmenau. 

Henrichemont,  previously  called  Boisbelle,  Dept.  of  Cher,  France,  the 
princely  fief  of  Maximilien  de  Bethune,  Due  de  Sully,  the  Minister  of 
Henry  IV.  of  France,  after  whom  it  was  named.  The  principality  con- 
sisted of  several  properties,  which  had  been  independent  and  autonomous 
from  the  Middle  Ages,  and  struck  money — Chateaumeillant,  Borne, 
Boisbelle,  Orval,  etc.  The  right  of  Sully  was  recognised  by  Louis  XIV. 
in  1644.  In  1654  the  Duke  had  a  mint  with  a  regular  staff. 

Heresburg,  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  Corvei  or  Corvey,  Prussia,  loth- 
I2th  c. 

Herford,  Westphalia,  an  early  seat  of  local  coinage  and  of  convention- 
money  between  the  Abbess  and  the  town.  There  is  a  mariengroschen 
without  date  with  Man.  Domi.  Et  Cii'i.  Herv.  :  and  a  piece  of  12 
pfennigen,  1 670,  reads  Stadt  Herford. 

Hermanstadt,  a  special  mint  of  the  Prince  of  Transylvania,  while  the 
town  was  beleaguered  by  the  Turks  in  161 1.  A  piece,  denominated  Grossus 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 1 3 

Regni  TransyL,  in  silver,  was  struck  here,  as  well  as  one  of  5  groschen, 
in  1613  ;  both  money  of  necessity. 

Hersfeld,  or  Hirschfeld,  Hesse-Cassel,  on  the  Fulda,  formerly  the  seat 
of  an  abbey,  which  in  the  1 2th- 1 3th  c.  issued  bracteates.  There  is  one  of 
the  Bishop  Johann,  1200-15,  with  the  abbot  seated. 

Herstal,  or  Heristal,  near  Liege,  a  Brabantine  mint  in  the  Middle 
Ages  and  down  to  1324.  Pepin  le  Gros,  grandson  of  the  founder  of  the 
Carlovingian  family,  was  known  as  Pepin  van  Heristal.  Comp.  Sch., 
xv.  1076-77.  The  money  of  the  feudal  lords  of  Herstal  was  struck  here. 
Henry  I.  calls  himself  both  Dominus  and  Comes. 

Hertogen-rode,  Rhenish  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Limburg 
(i3th  c.),  of  Renaud  or  Reynald,  Duke  of  Gueldres,  under  a  charter  from 
the  Emperor  Rodolph  of  Hapsburg  in  1282,  where  it  is  described  as 
Rode,  and  subsequently,  on  the  incorporation  of  Limburg  with  his 
dominions  in  1288,  of  John  I.,  Duke  of  Brabant  (1272-94).  The  Duke 
of  Gueldres  above  mentioned  transferred  his  coinage  from  Limburg. 
The  place  was  otherwise  known  as  Rolditc  (Rode-le-Duc). 

Hesse -Darmstadt  Mints  (minor)  :  Alsfeld,  Assenheim,  Biedenkopf, 
Biidingen,  Burg-Milchling,  Biitzbach,  Dieburg,  Erbach,  Griinberg, 
Hatzfeld,  Herbstein,  Isenburg,  Lichtenborg,  Lorsch  (abbey),  Neustadt, 
Nidda,  Niederolm,  Niederwesel,  Offenbach,  Ranstett,  Rhens,  Raedelheim, 
Rothenberg,  Seligenstatt,  Siedel,  Wetterau,  Wimpfen. 

Hessian  Mints  (minor)  :  Eschwege,  Frankenberg,  Fritzlar,  Geln- 
hausen,  Geismar,  Minzenberg,  Neustedt,  Oldendorf,  Breitungen, 
Rauschenberg,  Vacha,  Volkmersen,  Wolfhagen. 

Heukelom,  Vianen,  the  name  of  a  seigniorial  fief  in  the  Low  Countries 
in  the  Middle  Ages.  A  denier  of  Jan  van  Arkel,  described  as  unique, 
occurs  in  Sch.,  xi.  819.  Possibly  it  was  struck  in  the  locality.  Comp. 

Heusdcn,  Brabant,  a  supposed  mint  of  the  Heeren  of  H.  in  the  I2th  c. 
See  an  interesting  note  in  Schulman,  xiv.  305. 

Hildburghausen,  Central  Germany,  the  presumed  mint  of  the  Dukes 
of  Saxe-Hildburghausen  down  to  the  union  with  Saxe-Meiningen. 

Hildesheim,  Hanover,  formerly  and  at  two  successive  epochs  a  place 
of  considerable  importance  and  a  seat  of  coinage.  A  siege -piece  in 

copper    of    1658    belongs    to    this    town.      A    grosch    of    1699    reads 
Hildeshei :  Stadt ;  Geldt.     The  money  of  the  Bishops  was  struck  here  in 


1 1 4  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  1 7th  and  i8th  c.  There  was  also  a  civic  coinage.  A  mariengroschen 
of  1544  is  mentioned  by  Sch.,  xx.  1183,  as  not  known  to  Knyphausen. 
Probably  the  most  remarkable  piece  minted  here,  as  it  doubtless  was, 
was  the  four  ducats  in  gold  with  the  remarkable  portrait  of  Charles  V., 

Hjorring,  Jutland,  a  Danish  mint  in  the  I2th  c.     Heringa. 

Hochst,  "Hesse-Darmstadt,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  Archbishops  of 

Hoerdt,  Has  Rhin,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  de  la  Marck  and  of  the  Dukes 
of  Cldves,  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  Man.  Nov.  Hverde. 

Hohenlohc,  Honlve,  Wiirtemberg,  the  seat  of  an  ancient  principality 
in  Middle  Franconia,  of  which  the  name  occurs  on  a  numerous  and 
interesting  series  of  silver  and  copper  coins,  but  of  which  the  princes  had 
mints  at  no  fewer  than  eleven  places  from  the  I4th  to  the  igth  c.  : 
Neuenstein,  Weickersheim,  Forchtenberg,  Gnadenthal,  Langenburg, 
Kirchheim,  Meinhard,  Waldenburg,  Unter-Steinbach,  Schillingsfiirst,  and 

Hohnstein,  Meissen,  Saxony,  the  probable  source  of  a  thaler  of  1570 
with  the  name  of  the  feudal  lord.  Sch.,  xv.  1967. 

Holstein  Mints:  Itzehoe,  Neustadt,  Oldesloe,  Ploen  (1731),  Ranzau 
(1650-68),  Rendsburg,  Steinbach  (1600-20). 

Hamburg,  Hesse,  a  mint  of  Sophia,  Duchess  of  Brabant  and 
Countess  of  Hesse,  and  of  her  son  Henry,  i3th  c.  (Moneta  in  Hon.},  of 
the  counts  palatine,  of  the  Duke  of  Zweibriicken  (1464),  and  of  the 
landgraviat.  The  coinage  was  not  numerous. 

Haarn,  N.  Holland,  on  the  Zuyder  Zee,  a  busy  mint  in  the  i7th  and 
1 8th  c.,  principally  for  the  coinage  of  money  destined  for  the  Dutch  East 

Horde,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  Dukes  of  Cleves,  i5th  c. 

Horn,  Lippe,  a  mint  of  the  Counts,  I3th-I4th  c. 

Homes.     See  IVecrt  and  Wellcm. 

Horohausen,  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  Corvey  in  Minden, 
ioth-i2th  c.  The  Emperors  granted  the  abbey  the  right  of  coinage  here 
as  well  as  at  Meppen  and  Hernburg. 

Horsens,  Jutland,  a  Danish  mint,  I2th  c.     Hors. 

Hotter,  Prussia,  in  the  regency  of  Minden,  a  seat  of  coinage  in  the 
i6th  c.  A  mariengroschen  of  1552  was  struck  there. 

Huhlhitizcn,  Gelderland.     See  Toul. 

Huissen,  near  Arnheim,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  Dukes  of  CleVes,  I7th  c. 

Hungarian  Mints  (minor)  :  Enyedinum,  Felsoebanya,  Goelnitz, 
Kaschau,  Pecs,  Rosnau,  Szomolnok,  Telkibanya,  Ujbanya,  Vissegrad, 

Hungen,  Hesse-Darmstadt,  a  mint  of  the  elder  branch  of  the  house 
of  Solms,  which  struck  money  here,  as  did  the  younger  at  Lich,  Laubach, 
and  Roedlingen,  i6th-i8th  c.  A  grosch  of  Ernst  II.,  1613,  is  cited  by 
Schulman,  xiv.  539. 

Huriel.     See  Brossc. 

Huy,  or  Hoye,  Belgium,  a  mint  of  the  prince-bishops  of  Liege  in  the 
1 2th  and  I3th  c.  The  mint-mark  a  lion.  It  was  also  an  imperial  mint. 

Ichora,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Ilmenau,  Saxe-Meiningen,  a  mining  district  within  the  ancient  feudal 
county  of  Henneberg.  There  is  a  mining  thaler  of  1693  struck  here,  as 
well  as  other  pieces. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 1 5 

Imola,  Forli,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Riario  family  pursuant  to  a 
papal  grant  of  1477.  The  right  extended  to  any  place  within  the  county 

Incisa,  Tuscany,  the  place  apparently  intended  on  an  imperiale  of 
the  I4th  c.  with  Marchionv.  Acise  on  obv.  There  is  a  second  place  of 
the  same  name  in  the  Sardinian  States  of  Terra-firma. 

Innspriick,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  and  Arch -Dukes  of  Austria,  I5th- 
i6th  c. 

Ionian  Isles.  See  Scio.  The  Venetian  money  struck  for  Corfu,  etc., 
was  probably  coined  at  home,  and  the  same  remark  applies  to  the 
English  currency. 

Iserlohn,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  de  la  Marck,  I3th- 
i4th  c.  Deniers  bear  Iserhlon  Civits. 

Isny,  Wurtemburg,  the  seat  of  a  local  coinage  in  the  i6th  c.  There  is 
a  batz  struck  here  in  1516.  Isne,  or  Isny.  At  the  Reinmann  sale,  Part 
ii.,  Nos.  6774-75,  two  Isny  thalers  of  1538  and  1554  sold  for  600  and  505 
marks.  See  them  described  at  large  in  Schulthess,  ii.  550,  551. 

Issoudun,  Berri,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Deols,  of  Philip  Augustus, 
and  from  1188  to  1195  of  Richard  Coeur-de-Lion  of  England.  Exoldvn 
Castro,  or  Exoldvni. 

Iverdun,  canton  of  Vaud,  a  Swiss  mint  under  the  Merovingian 
princes.  Ebmdunum. 

Iviqa.     See  Ebusus. 

Ivoy,  now  Carignan,  Ardennes,  a  mint,  1 3th- 1 4th  c.,  of  the  Counts  of 
Cluny.  Moneta  Nova  Yve,  or  Yvodin,  or  Monnaie  D  Ivoix. 

Ivrea,  Piedmont,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  republican  obolo  of  the  I4th 
c.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  1691. 

Jaca,  or  Jacca,  Arragon,  an  ancient  town  and  the  seat  of  a  mint. 

Jaegerndorf,  Austria,  a  mint  of  Matthias  Corvinus,  King  of  Hungary, 
and  of  the  Margraves  of  Brandenburg.  Moneta  Carnoviensis. 

Jassy,  Moldavia,  probably  one  of  the  seats  of  coinage  of  Roumania. 

Javouls,  near  Mende,  Dept.  of  Lozere,  a  Merovingian  and  episcopal 
mint.  The  See  was  transferred  at  the  end  of  the  loth  c.  to  Mende  in 

Jena,  or  lena,  Prussian  Saxony,  a  seat  of  coinage  for  early  bracteates 
and  pfennigen  with  a  lion's  head  or  a  bunch  of  grapes,  1 3th- 1 5th  c. 

Jever,  Oldenburgh,  a  mint  of  the  feudal  lords  in  the  nth  c.,  and  one 
of  the  Counts  of  Oldenburgh  and  East  Friesland,  1 5th- 1 6th  and  I7th  c. 
At  a  later  period  the  Princes  of  Anhalt-Zerbst  and  the  Czars  of  Russia 
employed  it. 

Joachimsthal,  a  mining  district  in  Bohemia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of 
Schlitz,  who  are  said  to  have  struck  here  the  Joachimsthaler,  or  piece 
with  the  standing  figure  of  that  saint,  as  early  as  1518.  The  word  thaler 
is  sometimes  derived  from  this  source. 

Jougne,  princ.  of  Orange,  a  mint  of  the  house  of  O.,  I5th  c.  A  gros 
of  Louis  de  Chalon,  1418-70,  with  Gros.  Mont.  D.  lonke,  is  referred 

Jugon,  Brittany,  a  mint  of  John  IV.,  Duke  of  B.,  1364-99. 

Jttltch,  or  Juliers,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Juliers,  subsequently  Dukes 
of  Juliers,  Cleves,  and  Berg.  Ivliac.  There  were  several  others,  men- 
tioned elsewhere.  There  are  4-stuiver  pieces  of  William  the  Rich,  Duke 
of  Juliers  and  Berg,  1583  and  1587,  with  a  swan  as  a  mint-mark.  This 

1 1 6  The  Coins  of  Eiirope 

place  struck  money  of  necessity  during  successive  sieges  in  1543,  1610, 
and  1621. 

Jupille,  Lie"ge,  Belgium,  the  place  to  which  deniers  of  the  I2th  c.  with 
Amannd  V.  are  referred. 

Kachin,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Kaschau,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  independent  waiwodes. 
C.  or  C.-M. 

Kaufbeuren,  Bavaria,  the  source  of  a  grosch  of  1535. 

Kempten,  Bavaria,  an  abbatial  mint  in  the  I3th  c.  for  bracteates,  and 
subsequently  for  thalers  and  florins  of  gold  (i6th-i7th  c.) ;  also  the  seat 
of  an  urban  mint  from  1501,  or  earlier.  In  that  year  the  town  struck 
money  for  Ulm.  The  bracteate  series  bear  Princeps  Campidvnh.,  or 
Hildegardis  Regina  ;  the  town  pieces  usually  have  Campidone. 

Kessenich,  Limburgh,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  Jan  I.  de  Wilde, 
Seigneur  of  Brunshorn,  consort  of  the  Lady  of  Kessenich.  The  money 
has  Kesse. 

Kief,  or  Kiev,  on  the  Dnieper,  the  first  known  capital  of  Muscovy,  and 
the  seat  of  the  ancient  Archbishopric  of  St.  Sophia,  was  doubtless  the 
place  of  coinage  not  only  of  certain  silver  coins  of  Byzantine  type,  but  of 
a  limited  gold  coinage  emanating  from  the  archiepiscopal  See.  Exist- 
ing specimens  of  the  money  appear  to  belong  to  the  loth  c.,  and  bear 

Grand-duchy  of  Kief:  denarius,  loth  c. 

Christian  types  and  primitive  legends.  They  closely  resemble  the 
Servian  and  Bulgarian  currency  of  the  Iith-i2th  c.  Comp.  Moscow  and 
Nijny-  Novgorod. 

Kiel,  Holstein,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  Counts  of  H.  (Moneta 
Kilensis}.  Others  were  Oldesloe  (Odesto)  Rendsburg,  Flensburg,  Neu- 
stadt,  Rangau,  Ploen,  Steinbach,  and  Itzehoe.  The  last  is  distinguished 
by  the  words,  Cimtas  Etsccho,  and  by  three  towers  ;  the  rev.  usually 
reading  Moneta  Holsacie. 

Kinroy,  Limburgh,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  Jan  II.,  Seigneur  of 

Klarcntsa,  Glarentza,  or  Chiarcnsa  (anc.  Cyllene),  in  the  Morea,  and 
probably  the  mint  of  the  Princes  of  Achaia,  of  the  Villehardouin  family, 
of  the  Kings  of  Naples,  of  the  house  of  Anjou,  etc.,  down  to  the  i6th  c. 
This  principality  was  originally  given  to  Geoffrey  de  Villehardouin  about 
1 205  at  the  partition  of  the  lower  empire  after  the  Fourth  Crusade. 

Knijphausen,  Oldenburg,  the  mint  of  the  independent  seigneurs  or 
heeren  of  that  place  down  to  the  present  century. 

Koepnik,  Brandenburgh,  a  mint  of  the  Margraviat  of  B.,  I2th  c. 

Kolpina,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Kolyma,  a  Russian  mint  under  Catherine  II. 

Konigsberg,  Prussia,  a  place  of  coinage  of  Frederic  II.  of  Prussia 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 1  7 

Kremnitz,  or  Kormocz  Banya,  Transylvania,  a  mint  of  the  early  Kings 
of  Hungary,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.,  and  of  the  Waiwodes  or  Princes  of  Transylvania 
or  Stebenburgen  in  the  I7th  c.  There  is  a  \  thaler  of  Lladislaus  I.,  1506, 
with  his  titles  and  a  shield  of  eight  quarters  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  S.  Lladis- 
laus on  horseback,  from  this  place  of  coinage. 

Kroeben,  Posen,  a  Polish  mint  in  the  I3th  c. 

Kroepelin,  Mecklenburgh  -  Schwerin,  perhaps,  with  Marlov,  the 
earliest  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  M.,  as  both  are  cited  in  an  instrument 
of  1325. 

Kroppenstadt,  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  Corvey  in  Minden,  Prussia. 

Krossen,  Poland,  apparently  the  source  of  a  grosch  of  Joachim  and 
Albrecht,  Margraves  of  Brandenburgh,  1512. 

Kuinre,  W.  Friesland,  probably  the  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Kuinre 
in  the  I3th  c.  Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  218-21  ;  xv.  749-54.  The  earliest  appear  to 
have  borne  no  name  of  ruler  or  lord,  and  have  only  Moneta  Kvenri.  On 
a  denier  of  John,  early  I4th  c.,  he  styles  himself  Miles  de  Cuinre.  There 
were  the  denier  and  gros.  We  have  not  met  with  higher  values  or  with 

Kyburg,  Canton  of  Zurich,  a  seat  of  seigniorial  coinage  from  1328. 
The  Counts  also  struck  money  with  their  arms  at  Diessenhofen,  Burg- 
dorf,  and  Wanzin. 

Laibach,  Carniola,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Carniola  or  Krain,  and  of 
the  Emperors  of  Austria  for  the  province. 

Landau,  Alsace,  issued  money  of  necessity  in  1702.  Blanchet.  Also 
during  the  siege  of  1713  pieces  of  2  florins  8  kreutzer,  the  \  and  the  \. 

Landegg,  Hesse,  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  Corvey,  in  Minden,  Prussia, 
1 3th  c. 

Landskrone,  a  Danish  mint,  i6th  c.  Lans.  Kr.  There  are  coins  of 
1525,  struck  by  Soren  Norby,  with  the  lamb  of  Gothland,  or  with  three 
lions,  and  the  reading  Severin  S.  Norby. 

Langres,  Haute -Marne,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops,  in  accord  with  the 
Carlovingian  princes  and  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  from  the  gth  to  the 
1 3th  c.  Lingonis  Urbs  or  Civitas. 

Laon,  a  Carlovingian  mint  of  early  origin,  and  probably  of  episcopal 
ownership,  although,  as  usual,  the  name  of  the  sovereign  is  added,  doubt- 
less to  impart  authority  and  weight  to  the  coinage.  Bishop  Gaudric 
(1106-12),  however,  acquired  very  bad  repute  by  suffering  his  Flemish 
mint-master  Thierri  to  bring  bad  metal  from  his  own  country,  and  place 
the  bishop's  name  and  crozier  on  pieces  of  such  low  alloy  that  nothing 
worse,  it  was  said,  had  ever  been  seen.  This  state  of  things  was  not 
peculiar  to  Gaudric  or  to  Laon.  It  was  a  general  abuse  ;  and  we  per- 
ceive that  a  normal  stratagem  on  the  part  of  minor  feudatories,  secular 
and  clerical  alike,  was  to  melt  down  the  regal  money  and  recoin  it  with 
a  plentiful  admixture  of  alloy.  Laudunensis. 

Laon,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia.     La  Clav. 

L Argentine,  Viviers,  the  name  of  the  place  where  the  Bishop  of  V. 
received  from  Philip  le  Bel,  in  1293,  permission  to  strike  money.  It  is 
described  as  a  chateau,  but,  as  elsewhere,  was  perhaps  the  tower  where 
the  mint  lay. 

Laroche,  Luxemburgh,  a  mint  of  Wenceslas  II.,  Duke  of  L.,  1383-88. 

La  Rochelle,  an  Anglo-Gallic  mint  and  one  of  Charles  VII.  of  France, 
both  before  and  after  his  accession  in  1422,  as  Duke  of  Aquitaine  ;  of 

1 1 8  The  Coins  of  E^lrope 

Charles  de  France,  brother  of  Louis  XI.,  1469-71  ;  of  Henry  III.  of 
Valois,  1576;  of  Louis  XV.,  1731-42;  and  of  the  later  French  rulers, 
m.m.  a  ship. 

La  Tour  d  Glaire,  Ardennes,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Chateau- 
Renaud  or  Renault,  in  the  I7th  c.  This  and  Charleville,  equally  with 
Bouillon,  imitated  other  types.  Both  Nicolas  Briot  and  Daniel  Goffin 
were  employed  here  and  at  Charleville,  etc.,  as  engravers. 

Lauenburg,  Pomerania,  apparently  the  place  of  origin  of  a  \  thaler 
of  Frederic  VI.  of  Denmark,  1830. 

Lausanne,  a  Merovingian  mint,  and  from  the  Qth  to  the  I4th  c.  a 
place  of  coinage  for  the  See  and  town.  Some  pieces  bear  on  obv.  Sedes 
Lavsane,  and  on  rev.  Civitas ;  others,  Bcata  Virgo.  The  former  arose 
from  the  traditional  belief  that  this  place  was  the  site  of  the  ancient 
Civitas  Equestris.  The  types  were  copied  by  the  feudal  Lords  of  Vaud. 
See  Nyon  and  Thierrens. 

Lavagna,  a  mint  of  the  Fieschi  family,  i6th  c.     Cotn.  Lavanie. 

La  Vanctte,  Barony  of  Les  Hayons,  Luxemburgh,  the  mint  in  the  I7th 
c.  of  Lambert  d'Oyenbrugge  de  Duras,  brigadier  in  the  French  army, 
1624.  A  variety  of  coins  proceeded  from  this  place,  chiefly  imitations  or 
contrefac.ons  of  Niirnberg,  Frankfort,  Hamburg,  Bouillon,  Holland,  etc.; 
and  the  engraver,  Daniel  Goffin,  was  employed  here.  A  demi-patagon 
bears  Lambertiis  De  Duras  B\ard\  Suprennis  Hayoncn.  From  the  dis- 
appearance of  what  must  have  been  a  considerable  coinage  it  may  be 
inferred  that  the  mint  was  suppressed. 

Lecce,  Naples,  a  Neapolitan  mint,  1495-99. 

Lecco,  Lombardy,  a  mint  of  a  branch  of  the  Medici,  1431.     Co.  Le-vci. 

L'Ecluse,  or  Sltiys.     See  Slu'ys. 

Lcctoure,  Dept.  of  Ger,  a  mint  of  the  Vicomtes  de  L.,  Lomagne,  and 
D'Auvilars,  who  represented  the  Comtes  d'Armagnac,  of  the  Bishops, 
and  of  Edward  III.  of  England  as  Duke  of  Aquitaine.  The  town  in 
ancient  times  was  divided  into  three  quarters:  the  Bishop's,  the  Viscount's, 
the  King's  or  Duke's.  Lactora  Civ.,  Cii'itas  Efi.  or  Santigino. 

Lceuardcn,  W.  Friesland,  a  mint  for  the  province  in  the  i6th  c. 
There  is  a  silver  piece  of  28  stuivers,  1580,  with  Mo.  No.  Ord.  Frist.  s£. 
Lcwwar.  Cvsa.,  and  a  second  of  about  the  same  date  of  the  Daventer 
type,  punched  with  L.,  probably  for  this  place.  We  do  not  know  whether 
the  2O-ducat  piece  of  1601  with  the  arms  of  W.  Friesland  on  obv.  and  the 
legend  Antiqva  Virtvte  et  Fide,  and  on  rev.  the  legend  Concordia 
Frisicc  Libertas,  with  four  shields  (for  the  four  divisions  of  the  prov.) 
united  by  a  riband,  may  not  be  assigned  here. 

Leeucn,  Gelderland,  the  reputed  source  of  a  denier  with  Lewe  and  a 
head  facing. 

Leghorn,  a  mint  of  the  Medicean  Dukes  of  Florence  or  Etrtiria. 

Lciningen,  Baden,  Alt  or  Old,  the  place  of  origin  of  some  of  the 
money  struck  and  issued  by  the  early  Counts  after  1608,  the  date  of  the 
original  monetary  concession,  though  other  towns  (Hardenberg,  Dachs- 
burg,  Westerburg,  etc.)  shared  the  coinage.  There  are  pieces  with  Lein. 
Et.  Dags.  Com.  in  Lein.  Et.  Rixing. 

Lcipsic,  Saxony,  the  place  of  origin  of  bracteates  in  the  I2th  c.,  and 
the  general  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Saxony  of  the  Ernestine  branch  from 
the  15th  c.  There  is  a  bracteate  with  Marchio.  Otto.  De.  Lipi.  Some 
pieces  have  Lipcens,  others,  S.  L.  for  Signuin  Lipsiense.  On  some  of  the 
currency  the  Dukes  of  Saxony  bear  the  title  of  Margraves  of  Misnia  or 
Meissen.  There  is  a  rare  piece  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Saxons 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 1 9 

in   1549.     The   thaler  of  Augustus    III.   of  Poland,   1754,   was   minted 

Lc  Mans.     See  Mans. 

Lemberg,  Austrian  Poland,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Poland  of  the 
Jagellon  dynasty,  I4th-i5th  c. 

Lemgo,  Lippe,  a  mint  of  the  Emperors,  of  the  Counts  of  Lippe,  and  of 
the  Bishops  of  Paderborn.  Lemgoens,  or  Lemego  Civitas.  The  deniers  of 
Cologne  were  imitated  here  with  the  mark  Colonia. 

Lens-en- Artois.     See  Boulogne. 

Leopoldstadt,  Hungary,  the  source  of  siege-money  (poltura)  during 
the  troubles  and  disorders  of  1704-7. 

Lepanto,  a  mint  of  Philip,  Prince  of  Taranto,  I4th  c. 

Le  Puy,  France,  Dept.  of  Haute-Loire,  the  place  of  coinage  of  a 
denier  with  Podiensis.  See  Cat.  Robert,  No.  2267. 

Lescun,  a  barony  in  Beam,  the  seat  of  a  local  coinage  in  or  about 
1374  ;  but  no  specimens  are  known  or  at  least  identified. 

Les  Hayons,  Luxemburgh,  Dept.  of  Noire-Fontaine.     See  La  Vanette. 

Lesina,  Dalmatia,  the  place  mentioned  on  a  Venetian  colonial  bag- 
attino  of  the  I5th  c.  with  5.  Stephanvs  Pont.  Lesinensis.  A  Venetian 
mint  in  1549. 

Leucha.     See  Toul. 

Leuchtenberg,  Bavaria,  a  landgraviat  and  doubtless  independent  mint 
in  the  i6th  c.,  but  under  imperial  sanction.  The  money  is  of  rather 
peculiar  and  archaic  type.  There  is  a  batz  of  1535  of  Johann  VI.  with 
lohan  Langra  In  Levcht. 

Leyden,  not  an  ordinary  mint;  but  in  1574  an  issue  took  place  of 
pieces  of  5,  10,  and  20  stuivers,  made  from  the  leaves  of  Books  of  Hours. 
Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  1190-91.  In  the  course  of  that  and  the  preceding  year 
several  pieces  in  silver  and  copper,  including  a  liard  of  the  hospital  of  St. 
Catherine,  were  struck. 

Liege,  the  mint  of  the  imperial  coins  of  the  Hohenstaufen  dynasty 
struck  for  Flanders  in  the  loth  and  nth  centuries,  and  one  of  the  long 
series  of  prince-bishops  down  to  the  present  century.  Comp.  Moresnet. 

Liegnitz,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Silesia  in  the  I3th  c.,  and  of  succes- 
sive rulers,  including  the  Counts  of  Brieg  and  Dukes  of  Liegnitz-Brieg, 
down  to  the  end  of  the  I7th  c.  The  writer  has  a  6-groschen  piece  struck 
by  George  Wilhelm,  1673.  The  Dukes  also  struck  at  Reichenstein. 
The  town  acquired  the  right  of  coinage  in  1425  from  the  King  of  Poland. 
There  are  uniface  hellers  or  pfennigen  in  1622  with  L. 

Ligny,  originally  a  fief  detached  from  the  county  of  Bar  in  1231  as 
the  dowry  of  Marguerite,  daughter  of  Henri  II.,  on  her  marriage  to  the 
Duke  of  Limbourg.  Coins  in  gold,  silver,  and  billon  were  struck  here 
in  considerable  proportions  in  the  I4th  c.,  including  some  of  the  money 
of  John  of  Luxemburgh,  King  of  Bohemia.  From  letters  of  indemnity  of 
1376  we  learn  that  at  that  time  the  dies  for  the  coins  struck  by  successive 
C.  of  L.  in  the  I4th  c. — agnels,  francs  a  cheval,  ecus  d'or,  nobles,  gros, 
and  deniers — were  in  the  hands  of  a  goldsmith  named  Guesclin  le  Char- 
pentier.  Moneta  De  Lineio. 

Lille,  one  of  the  Flemish  towns  which  struck  the  maille  at  a  very 
early  period  with  LI.  It  is  mentioned  as  a  place  of  coinage  under 
Baudouin  V.,  Count  of  Flanders,  1036-67.  Insvlae,  quasi  L  Isle,  occurs 
on  some  pieces.  The  ecu  de  Navarre  of  Louis  XV.,  1718,  was  from  this 
mint,  which  was  employed  both  by  that  king  and  Louis  XVI.  Pieces  of 
5,  10,  and  20  sols  in  copper  were  struck  by  the  French  governor,  M.  de 

I2O  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Boufflers,  during  the  siege  by  the  Allies  in  1708,  with  his  arms  on  the 

Limbourg,  near  Diirkheim,  Bavaria,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  curious 
denier  (Sch.,  xiv.  487)  struck  in  the  name  of  Emich,  Count  of  Leiningen 
(whose  capital  was  at  Diirkheim),  as  Advocate  of  the  Abbey  of  Limbourg. 

Limbourg,  Brabant,  the  seat  of  coinage  from  a  very  early  period  of 
the  money  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Limbourg  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Brabant. 
There  are  deniers  or  esterlings  of  John  I.,  Duke  of  Brabant,  1261-94, 
from  this  mint,  and  probably  the  money  of  his  mother  Adela,  during  her 
regency  (1261-69),  's  assignable  hither.  Linborgh  or  Limborc. 

Limoges,  a  mint  of  Dagobert  I.  (628-38),  of  Eudes,  King  of  Paris  or 
France  (887-98),  of  the  Vicomtes  de  Limoges  and  Dukes  of  Brittany  as 
V.  de  L.,  and  of  the  Valois  and  Bourbon  Kings  of  France.  There  is  a 
piece  of  30  sols  of  Louis  XVI.,  1791,  struck  here.  See  Barbarin  and 
Lemona  in  Cat.  of  Denom.  A  gold  sol  of  Dagobert  I.  with  his  bust,  one 
of  the  earliest  pieces  of  such  a  type,  was  found  at  Merton,  Surrey,  some 
years  ago,  in  the  hands  of  poor  people,  and  was  eventually  sold  to  the 
national  collection  at  Paris  for  £180.  It  had  probably  belonged  at  one 
time  to  the  daughter  of  Dagobert,  who  died  and  was  buried  at  Merton. 
There  is  a  piefort  of  Jean  III.,  Vicomte  de  Limoges,  with  Turonus 
Lemovic.  By  the  Treaty  of  Bretigny,  1360,  this  mint  was  ceded  to  the 
King  of  England,  and  in  1365  Michel  Beze  struck  for  the  Black  Prince 
various  denominations  in  silver  and  billon. 

Lindau,  Bavaria,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  in  the  nth  c.  There  are 
imperial  bracteates,  semi-bracteates,  and  deniers  down  to  the  I3th  c., 
with  the  arms  of  the  town,  the  linden-tree,  or  a  cinquefoil  of  it,  and  on 
those  of  Frederic  II.  (1220-1250)  the  Guelph  lion. 

Littnich,  Prussia,  a  civic  mint,  where  the  French  gros  tournois  was 
imitated.  Coins  bearing  the  name  occur  very  rarely. 

Lippe  ajid  Schanmburg-Lippe  Mints.     See  Blanchct,  ii.  68,  69. 

Lisbon,  the  general  place  of  coinage  of  the  later  Portuguese  money. 
Philip  II.  of  Spain  struck  coins  here  from  1580.  But  even  in  the  I7th  c., 
under  Peter  II.,  many  pieces  were  struck  at  Bahia,  Porto  Rico,  and  Rio. 
The  money  for  Brazil  down  to  1825  was  chiefly  coined  at  Rio  and  Bahia. 
LIS.  or  Lisboa. 

Lissa,  Posen,  a  mint  of  the  independent  Kings  of  Poland. 

Livcrdun,  formerly  a  fortress  belonging  to  the  Bishops  of  Toul,  now 
Dept.  of  Meurthe,  F  ranee;  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Bishops,  iith-i4th  c. 

Loano,  Sardinia,  Div.  of  Genoa,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Doria  family, 
i6th  c.  There  is  a  scudo  della galera  of  Gio.  Andrea  Doria,  Prince  and 
Count  of  Loano,  1590-1606.  We  may  also  note  a  luigino  with  the  name 
and  titles  of  Gio.  Andrea  Doria,  Prince  of  L.  1665,  with  his  portrait  and 
coat  of  arms. 

Laches,  Touraine,  the  source  of  a  denier  of  the  nth  c.  with  Locas 
Castro  on  either  side. 

Lodtve,  Herault,  the  seat  of  an  episcopal  coinage,  I2th-I4th  c.,  with 
the  name  of  a  canonised  prelate  (Fulcran)  on  most  or  all  of  the  deniers. 
The  money  was  long  current  in  the  diocese  with  that  of  Paris  and  Tours, 
belonging  to  the  royal  series. 

Lodi-in-Crema,  N.  Italy,  the  place  mentioned  on  a  danaro  bearing  on 
obv.  the  name  of  Frederic  II.  (1220-50),  and  on  rev.  Lavdensis.  There 
is  also,  belonging  to  this  place,  a  denaretto  of  Gio.  da  Vignate,  signore, 
1410-13,  with  Lavde  on  rev. 

Lodose,  an  early  Swedish  mint.     L. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  121 

Lons-le-Saulnier,  Dept.  of  Jura,  formerly  part  of  the  Duchy  of  Bur- 
gundy, an  ancient  town,  whose  fortifications  are  mentioned  as  having 
been  demolished  in  1291  ;  a  Carlovingian  and  Burgundian  mint,  and 
subsequently  one  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  See  of  Besangon.  Its 
operations,  after  some  period  of  suspension,  were  resumed  about  1120, 
and  there  are  coins  belonging  to  this  revival  with  Ledonis.  VilL;  and  in 
the  field  Be.  The  Counts  of  Macon  and  Vienne  also  struck  money 
here.  There  is  a  denier  of  Hugues  IV.,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  1218-78, 
belonging  to  this  place.  B\urgus\  Ledonis. 

Loo,  West  Flanders,  the  source  of  a  denier,  I2th  c.,  with  an  eagle  and 
Te  Lo. 

Loon,  N.  Brabant,  near  Ravenstein,  an  ancient  feudal  lordship. 
There  are  coins  of  Arnould  VIII.,  1280-1328.  Some  of  these,  at  least, 
were  most  probably  struck  at  Loon  itself.  Comp.  Hassell. 

Loos,  near  Lille,  a  French  or  Brabantine  mint  in  the  nth  c.  and 
later.  It  issued  in  the  names  of  its  local  rulers  esterlins,  doubles  tournois 
in  billon,  and  gros,  with  their  divisions.  Comp.  Hasselt. 

Loreto,  or  Loretto,  Macerata,  Italy,  the  place  mentioned  on  an  autono- 
mous danaro  of  the  i4th  c.  with  De  Lavre  Tv»i.,  and  on  rev.  Sea.  Maria. 

Louvain,  S.  Brabant,  a  place  of  great  importance  in  former  times, 
and  doubtless  that  of  coinage  of  the  deniers  connected  with  it,  as  well 
as  of  the  money  of  the  earlier  Dukes  of  Brabant.  John  III.  (1312-55) 
certainly  employed  this  mint,  as  well  as  Philip  le  Hardi  after  his 
marriage  to  the  heiress  of  Flanders. 

Liibcck,  or  Lijbeck,  N.  Germany,  a  mint  in  the  earlier  half  of  the  I3th 
c.,  by  virtue  of  the  imperial  authority  given  in  1226.  Deniers  exist  with 
the  double-headed  eagle,  the  name  of  the  Emperor,  and  that  of  the  town. 
In  1305  there  seems  to  have  been  a  monetary  convention  with  Ham- 
burgh for  the  coinage  of  pfennigen.  Gold  money,  described  in  a 
document  of  1339  as  florenus  aureus  de  Florencia,  and  on  the  pieces 
reading  Flore.  Lvbtc.,  was  struck  here  in  evident  imitation  of  the  Italian 
type.  In  1403  and  1411  there  were  conventions  with  Wismar,  Ham- 
burgh, Rostock,  Stralsund,  and  Luneburg,  for  the  fabrication  of  pfen- 
nigen for  common  use.  The  earliest  thaler  was  in  1528  ;  the  mint 
closed  in  1801.  Lvbica,  or  Lvbicens.  An  interesting  early  dated  piece 
is  a  5  mark  of  1506,  with  Qvadrans  Marce  Lvbtcem.,  1506.  There  are  | 
or  ort  thalers  of  1622,  and  \  thalers  of  1632.  We  have  for  1706  a  silver 
piece  marked  the  ig2nd  part  of  a  thaler.  The  schilling  was  the  money  of 
account;  there  are  pieces  of  16,  32,  and  48  sch.  courant. 

Lucca  [Flavia],  a  successive  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Lombard  and 
Frankish  kings,  of  the  marquisate  and  dukedom  of  Tuscany,  and  of  the 
imperial,  republican,  and  seigniorial  governments  from  the  7th  to  the  iQth 
c.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  Nos.  1718-70.  From  1342  to  1369^6  Pisani  family 
held  the  lordship.  The  rarest  money  connected  with  the  city  is  that  of  the 
Lombards,  and  of  Hugo,  Marquis  of  Tuscany,  and  of  Hugo  II.  and 
Giuditta  (Judith),  Dukes  of  Tuscany  (970-1001) ;  there  is  a  denaro  of  the 
two  latter  with  DvxTvscie  and  Ugo  in  a  monogram  on  obv.,  and  on  rev. 
Dvx  Ivdita,  and  in  the  field  L-vca.  There  are  pieces  (a  tessera  or  token 
of  silver  and  a  quattrino)  attributed  to  the  rule  of  Castruccio  de'  Cas- 
trucconi  (1316-28).  The  coins  of  the  Napoleonic  dukedom  of  Lucca 
and  Piombino  were  probably  struck  here.  On  the  earlier  types  the 
Sanctus  Vultus,  as  it  is  called,  in  varied  or  modified  form,  seems  to 
be  merely  an  idealised  portrait  of  one  of  the  emperors.  It  was  intro- 
duced in  the  I3th  c. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Lucera,  in  the  Neapolitan  territory,  9  miles  W.N.W.  from  Foggia,  an 
ancient  mint. 

Lucerne,  Switzerland,  the  place  of  coinage  for  the  canton  from  1415. 
Bracteates,  plapparts,  etc.,  in  early  times,  and  down  to  the  present  c. 

a  variety  of  money,  in- 
cluding the  pieces  of  40 
batzen  and  4  franken. 

Liide,  orLitgde,  Prus- 
sian Westphalia,  a  mint 
of  Conrad,  Archbp.  of 
Cologne,  1238. 

Ludinghausen,  Prus- 
sia, the  name  men- 
tioned in  974  in  the 
grant  of  a  mint  by 
Otho  II.  to  the  Abbot 
of  Werden.  See  Wer- 

Lund,  or  Liaiden,  an 
early  Dano  -  Swedish 
mint.  Lvd. 

Lune,  Hanover,  near 
Luneburg,a  mint  of  the 
Counts  de  la  Marck. 

Liineburg,  Bruns- 
wick, the  seat  of  a 
local  coinage  in  the 
1 6th  c.,  as  well  as  of 
the  money  of  the  Dukes 
of  Brunswick  of  the 
Liineburg  branch. 
There  is  a  doppelschil- 
ling  =  -jV  thaler  of  16 
sols,  with  the  head  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist. 
The  source,  during  the 
Thirty  Years'  War, 
1 6 1 8-48,  of  a  gold  ducat 
and  silver  thalers  of 
1622,  with  the  name  of 
Duke  Christian  and  the 
mottoes  :  Tout  avec 
Dicu,  and  Gottes  Freint 
und  Der  Paff.  Feindt. 

Luneville,  France, 
Dept.  of  Meurthe,  a 
mint  of  the  early  Dukes 
of  Lorraine.  Several 
coins  of  Matthew  II. 

Double  thaler  of  Augustus,  Duke  of  Brunswick-Liineburg,  1655.    ( 1 2 1 8-5  I )    belong   here. 


Lusignan,  Dept.  of  Vienne,  a  seat  of  coinage  in  lieu  of  Limoges,  i7th  c. 
It  was  removed  hither  in  1656-57  from  Limoges. 

Luttingen,  Palatinate,  the  place  of  origin  of  an  esterlin  or  sterling  of 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  123 

Rupert  or  Rutrecht  I.  (1353-90),  with  Monet.  Lvddem,and  the  portrait  of 
the  Count  facing.  On  the  reverse  occurs  R-vpertvs  Dvx,  and  a  shield 
of  the  Bavarian  palatinate. 

Lttxemburgh,  capital  of  the  ancient  county,  afterward  duchy  and 
grand-duchy,  and  a  mint  of  the  rulers  of  this  territory  from  the  I2th  c. 
Wenceslas  I.,  Emperor,  King  of  Bohemia,  and  Duke  of  L.  1353-83, 
entered  into  a  convention  with  'the  See  of  Treves,  as  we  see  that  other 
rulers  of  L.  had  done  elsewhere,  for  a  common  currency,  indicated  on  a 
gros  with  the  arms  of  the  two  powers  quartered,  and  the  legend 
Wincel\  Dvx  Et.  Boemvd.  Archps.  Socii.  1st.  Monete.  F'ce  Lvcebvrg.  In 
1795  a  piece  of  72  asses  was  struck  here  during  the  siege  by  the  French. 

Luzille,  a  mint  of  the  Emperor  Charles  IV.  as  Count  of  Luxem- 
burgh,  1346-53. 

Lvov,  Poland,  a  mint  of  Casimir  the  Great,  1333-70. 

Lyons,  the  seat  of  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Burgundy  and  Austrasia, 
Pepin,  Charlemagne,  Charles  de  Provence,  Charles  le  Chauve,  etc.,  of 
the  German  Emperors  (as  Kings  of  Burgundy),  and  of  the  bishops  and 
archbishops  down  to  1413,  as  well  as  of  the  Counts  of  Lyons,  who,  with 
those  of  Feurs  and  Roanne,  held  the  territory  of  the  See  in  the  loth 
c.  A  denier  of  Conrad  I.,  911-18,  was  struck  here.  The  privilege  to  the 
archbishops  dates  from  1157,  and  this  coinage  lasted  probably  until  the 
royal  mint  was  at  length  transferred,  at  the  end  of  the  I5th  c.,  hither,  pur- 
suant to  an  ordinance  of  Charles  IV.  so  far  back  as  1413-14.  Several 
specimens  of  the  money  of  the  Counts  of  Lyons  exist.  A  denier  tournois 
of  Henry  IV.,  1607,  and  a  piece  of  3  deniers  of  Louis  XVI.,  1791,  belong 
here.  There  is  money  of  necessity  of  1 793.  Comp.  Bechevilain. 

Maccagno,  Como,  a  mint  of  the  Mandelli  family,  I7th  c.  There  is  a 
gold  zecchino,  with  the  titles  of  the  Emperor  Ferdinard  II.  on  rev.,  and  on 
obv.  Mon.  N.  Ai>.  lac.  B.C.  Mac.  Com.  7'a.  Q.M.F.,  and  the  portrait  of 
Giacomo  Mandelli. 

Macerata,  States  of  the  Church,  21  miles  from  Ancona,  the  place  of 
coinage  of  the  original  feudal  lords  from  the  I3th  c.,  and  of  the  popes 
from  Boniface  IX.  to  Pius  VI.  An  early  grosso  bears  the  standing  figure 
of  St.  Julian. 

Macon,  a  mint  of  Philip  I.  of  France  (1060-1 103),  of  the  Dukes  of  Bur- 
gundy, and  of  the  Valois  dynasty  down  to  the  end  of  the  I5th  c.,  when  it 
seems  to  have  been  removed  to  Lyons,  whither  an  ordinance  of  Charles 
IV.,  1413-14,  had  already  directed  its  transfer.  Misconus,  Mutiscon,  etc. 

Madrid,  the  mint  of  the  later  Kings  of  United  Spain  down  to  the 
present  time.  The  money  struck  for  currency  in  Mexico,  South  America, 
and  other  colonial  possessions,  with  or  without  the  Pillars  of  Hercules, 
belongs  here  for  the  most  part  ;  but  many,  as  the  peso  of  Ferdinand  VII., 
1810,  coined  at  Mexico,  and  that  of  1821,  coined  at  Zacatecas,  etc., 
formed  an  exception.  M.  crowned.  Comp.  Mexico. 

Maele,  between  Bruges  and  Ghent,  now  an  insignificant  village,  but  for- 
merly a  feudal  fortress,  and  the  seat  of  Louis  of  Crecy  and  his  son  Louis  of 
Maele,  Counts  of  Flanders  (1322-84).  It  was  perhaps  here,  as  well  as  at 
Bruges,  Ghent,  or  Malines,  that  his  extensive  coinage  in  all  metals  was  struck. 

Maesijck,  Belgium,  Prov.  of  Limbourg,  14  miles  S.W.  of  Ruremonde, 
a  mint  of  the  See  of  Liege  in  the  i6th  c.  A  \  ernestus  of  Ernest  of 
Bavaria,  1582,  belongs  here. 

Maestricht,  or  Vroenhof,  one  of  the  seats  of  the  Merovingian  coinage 
under  the  moneyer  Adalbertus,  who  also  worked  at  Utrecht,  Durstede, 

124  The  Coins  of  Europe 

etc.,  and  a  principal  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht  in  the  I2th  and  of 
those  of  Liege  in  the  I4th  c.  Some  of  their  small  coins  bear  the  imperial 
name  coupled  with  their  own.  There  is  a  denier  of  Raoul  of  Zeeringhen 
and  Frederic  Barbarossa.  M.  was  also  a  mint  of  the  Flemings  and 
Spaniards  from  the  I4th  to  the  i6th  c.  A  tuin  of  John  IV.,  Duke  ot 
Brabant,  1414-27,  and  a  philipsdaalder  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain  as  King  of 
England,  1559,  belong  here.  The  Bishops,  both  of  Utrecht  and  Liege, 
struck  money  at  St.  Peter-te-Maestricht.  There  are  pieces  of  40,  24,  16, 
8,  2,  i,  and  \  stivers  issued  during  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1579, 
and  of  100  and  50  st.  in  silver  during  that  by  the  French  in  1794.  The 
higher  values  of  the  former  series  are  plated,  the  others  copper. 

Magdeburg,  Pruss.  Saxony,  a  royal  or  imperial  mint  in  the  loth  c., 
and  down  to  the  I5th,  of  the  archbishops  and  the  town  separately  or  con- 
jointly. Bracteates  and  semi-bracteates  succeeded  by  pfennigen.  The 
former  bear  the  name  of  the  town  and  the  bust  of  St.  Maurice.  This 
place  seems  to  have  been  the  cradle  of  the  dukedom  and  kingdom  of 
Saxony,  the  earliest  names  mentioned  in  connection  with  the  line  having 
been  burgraves  of  M.  in  the  loth  c.,  and  having  probably  had  an  interest 
in  the  municipal  coinage. 

Maguelonne,  Dept.  of  Herault,  a  Visigothic  town  and  the  seat  of  a 
bishopric  ;  it  was  destroyed  in  737,  and  rebuilt  in  the  i  ith  c.  The  See  was 
transferred  to  Montpellier  in  1536.  M.  is  now  a  mere  village.  A  papal 
bull  of  1266  censures  the  Bishop  for  coining  imitations  of  the  Arabic 
dirhem — silver  pieces  of  10  deniers — for  the  use  of  foreign  traders  in  the 
town  or  diocese.  The  ordinary  money  followed  the  types  of  Melgueil, 
known  as  the  inonnaie  inelgoricnne.  Comp.  Substancion-Melgueil.  The 
accompanying  denier  of  Maguelonne  (end  of  nth  c.)  bears  on  rev.  four 

ornaments  or  symbols,  usually  termed  annulets,  but  possibly  meant  for 
eyelets  or  oilets,  as  in  an  early  Latin  document,  quoted  by  Blanchet,  they 
seem  to  be  referred  to  as  oculi. 

Majorca,  a  mint  of  the  Almohades  in  Spain  (516-668),  and  of  the 
special  money  struck  by  the  Kings  of  Spain  or  of  Majorca  from  the  1 3th  to 
the  1 8th  c.  for  the  Balearic  Isles,  with  Rex  Maioricarvm.  This  or  rather 
the  capital,  Palma,  was  the  place  of  origin  of  siege-pieces  of  1821  and 
1823,  made  current  in  the  name  of  Ferdinand  VII.  for  30  sous. 

Malaga,  a  mint  of  the  Almohades  in  Spain,  516-668. 

Malines,  or  Mechlin,  one  of  the  three  mints  employed  for  his  ambitious 
and  beautiful  coinage  by  Louis  of  Maele,  Count  of  Flanders,  1346-84,  and 
a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy  as  Dukes  of  Brabant.  A 
denier  noir  of  Philip  le  Bon,  1419-67,  was  struck  here  :  also  a  double 
patard  of  1488. 

Mai mii,  a  mint  of  the  earlier  Kings  of  Denmark,  I4th  c.    Malmoiens. 

Manfredonia,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  early  Kings  of  Sicily  (i3th  c.). 
An  obolo  of  Manfred  II.  has  on  the  obv.  in  the  field  MA. 

Mannheim,  grand-duchy  of  Baden,  formerly  part  of  the  duchy  or 
kingdom  of  Bavaria.  Erected  into  a  township  in  1606.  M.  was  the  mint 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints 


of  the  grancUduchy  of  Baden  from    1803  to   1826.      We  have  a  rare 
Mannheimergulden  or  f  thaler  of  1608,  with  a  portrait  of  Friedrich  IV., 

Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine,  on  obv.  and  the  arms  on  rev.    There  is  also 
a  double  grosch  of  1792  of  the  jubilee  of  Carl  Theodor  of  Bavaria. 

Manopello,  Naples,  a  place  where  Charles  VIII.  of  France  granted  to 
Count  Pardo  Orsini,  1495,  the  right  of  coinage. 

Manosquc,  Basses -Alpes,  Mannesca  or  Mannasche,  a  mint  of  the 
ancient  Counts  of  Forcalquier,  1 2th -i  3th  c.  There  is  an  early  denier, 
evidently  attributable  here,  with  Manu  .'.  Esca  and  on  rev.  Moneta, 
perhaps  copied  from  the  type  of  Le  Puy. 

Mans,  or  Le  Mans,  cap.  of  the  ancient  province  and  countship  of 
Maine,  twice  held  by  the  Crown  of  England  ;  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve, 
if  not  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire,  subsequently  of  the  Bishops  under  royal 
authority,  and  from  the  nth  to  the  i5th  c.  of  the  Counts.  In  1425, 
Henry  VI.  of  England  struck  money  here — gold  salutes,  grandes  and 
petites  blanques,  and  deniers  tournois. 

Mansfeld,  Prussian  Saxony,  the  seat  of  the  mint  of  the  Counts  prior 
to  the  division  of  the  house  into  branches.  Bracteates  of  the  I3th  c. 
with  a  figure  on  horseback,  holding  a  standard,  which  developed  in  the 
1 6th  into  the  type  of  St.  George  and  the  Dragon.  There  is  a  grosch 
of  1574  of  this  evolutionary  character,  and  from  that  date  a  continuous 
series  of  money  in  gold  and  silver  all  bearing  the  same  symbol.  The 
early  money  exhibits,  besides  the  horseman,  the  arms  of  Mansfeld  (a 
lozenge)  and  somewhat  later  pieces  a  crowned  lion  with  Mansf. 

Mantes-sur- Seine,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  piece  struck  by  Philip  I. 
after  1081  with  Medantenne. 

Mantua,  a  place  of  coinage  of  certain  anonymous  bishops  (iath  c.), 
of  the  republic  ( I3th  c.),  with  Virgilivs  on  obv.,  and  of  the  Gonzaga  family, 

Mantua  :  Virgilius  type,  i3th  c. 

Captains,  Marquises,  and  finally  Dukes  of  M.,  down  to  the  middle  of  the 
1 8th  c.  Comp.  Casale.  The  scudo  d^oro  and  the  double  or  doppio  were 
coined  under  Guglielmo  Gonzaga  (1550-87)  and  his  successors  ;  and  there 
is  more  than  one  variety.  Ferdinando  Gonzaga  (1612-26)  struck  pieces 

126  The  Coins  of  Europe 

of  2,  4,  8,  and  12  ducats  or  scudi,  and  the  double  scudo  and  a  piece  of  40 
sesini  in  silver.  Carlo  Gonzaga  (1627-37)  introduced  the  ttngaro,  a  gold 
type  borrowed  from  the  Hungarian  series,  and  continued  the  silver 
denominations.  The  portraits  of  the  Dukes  on  the  earlier  money  are 
executed  with  great  care  and  skill.  During  the  I7th  and  i8th  c.  a 
profusion  of  soldi  and  sesini  in  copper  was  issued.  Notice  must  be  taken  of 
an  interesting  series  of  money  of  necessity  belonging  to  the  years  1629-30, 
and  consisting  of  a  scudo,  ^  scudo,  and  soldo.  Of  the  scudo  there  are 
three  or  four  varieties :  one  reading  Manlvae  below  the  feet  of  St.  Andrew 
holding  cross  and  pyx  on  obv. ;  a  second  Man.  Obsess.  ;  while  a  third  one 
differs  in  having  a  shield  on  obv.  with  Mantve  Anno  Salvtis.  1629,  and 
on  rev.  160  [soldi].  The  soldo  follows  this  type,  which  was  probably  the 
latter.  A  third  scudo  is  dated  1630.  The  cast  soldo,  which  was  issued 
during  the  siege  of  Mantua  by  Bonaparte,  was  produced  at  Milan. 

Marburgh,  Marpitrgk,  or  Marborch,  Upper  Hesse,  a  mint  of  the  See 
of  Cologne  and  of  the  city,  I3th-i6th  c.  Early  bracteates  of  Hesse  with 
the  lion  and  Marbvrch^  or  Marebvrg,  or  with  two  lambs'  heads  separated 
by  a  tower  and  Marsb-vrg,  belong  here,  as  well  as  deniers  of  Sophia, 
Duchess  of  Brabant,  with  Mareborchi,  and  of  her  son  Henry.  Marburgh 
was  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Landgraves  of  Hesse  from  the  I4th  to 
the  1 7th  c. 

Marsal,  Lorraine,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Metz,  nth  c.  There  is  a 
very  rare  silver  plaque  of  Ademar  de  Monthil  (1327-61),  a  division  of  the 
same,  and  a  piece  in  copper  with  the  same  characters  and  legend. 

Marsberg,  Westphalia,  the  presumed  place  of  coinage  of  a  grosch  of 

Marseilles  (Afassilia),  a  seat  of  coinage  for  the  silver  pieces  struck  by 
Greek  settlers  in  servile  imitation  of  the  Phocean  type,  and  successively 
a  Merovingian,  Carlovingian,  Provencal,  Arragonese,  and  French  regal 
mint.  The  Counts  of  Provence,  however,  made  considerable  use  of  the 
widely  prevalent  types  of  Otho  emanating  from  the  Pavian  mint  and  of 
the  favourite  currency  of  M  elgue  il  (monnaie  melgorienne).  Civitas  Massilie, 
Massilicnsis.  The  Spanish  masters  of  Provence  also  struck  money  at 
Saint- Remy,  Nice,  and  Tarascon. 

MarvJjols,  Dept.  of  Lozere,  a  mint  of  the  I5th  c.  (1418).  M.m.  J 
between  the  first  and  second  words  of  the  legend. 

Massa- Carrara,  Central  Italy,  an  independent  signiory  and  duchy, 
appertaining  during  some  centuries  to  the  Malaspina  and  Cibo  families. 
A  somewhat  extensive  coinage,  of  which  we  probably  possess  imperfect 
remains,  seems  to  have  taken  place  here.  Special  attention  may  be 
directed  to  two  items  in  the  Remedi  Cat.  1884,  Nos.  1750-51  :  a  double 
scudo  d'oro  of  1582  and  a  mezzo-ducatone  of  1593,  both  pieces  of  remark- 
able rarity,  and  belonging  to  the  reign  of  Alberico  Cibo  Malaspina  (1559- 
1623).  His  successor  coined  a  piece  of  eight  bolognini  in  silver.  This 
series  determined  with  Maria  Beatrice,  Duchess  of  Massa,  1792,  who 
merely  issued  soldi  and  quattrini.  The  dominion  passed  to  her  son  the 
Duke  of  Modena. 

Massa  di  Marcmma,  Tuscany,  the  place  of  origin  of  an  autonomous 
grosso  of  the  I4th  c.  with  De  Massa.  on  obv. 

Massa-Lombarda,  or  Ducale,  Polesine  of  Rovigo,  a  place  of  coinage  of 
the  Este  family,  i6th  c.  Only  the  grosso,  double  grosso,  quartino,  and 
quattrino  appear  to  have  been  struck.  The  pieces  usually  have  Masse 
Lombarde,  Lombard,  or  Lombar,  to  distinguish  them  from  the  coinages  of 
cognominal  places. 

Catalogue  of  Eiiropean  Mints  127 

Massegra,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  quattrino  with  Di  Becca  Ria  in 
three  lines  on  rev.  Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  No.  1778. 

Matelica,  Italy,  24  m.  W.S.W.  of  Macerata,  a  place  of  papal  coinage 
under  Pius  VI.  (1775-99). 

Maubeuge,  France,  Dept.  of  Nord,  formerly  part  of  the  county  of 
Hainault.  It  is  11  miles  from  Avesnes.  There  is  a  sterling  of  John  I., 
Count  of  Hainault,  1289-1314,  and  of  John  II.  D'Avesnes,  struck  here. 
It  was  one  of  their  mints. 

Mauleon,  the  name  (prior  to  1736)  for  Chatillon-sur-Sevre,  the  seat  of 
a  seigniorial  coinage  commencing  about  1215,  when  Savary  de  Mauleon, 
Seneschal  of  Poitou,  was  invested  by  Jean  Sans  Terre  [John  of  England], 
Count  of  P.,  with  the  right  of  striking  money  of  the  Poitevin  standard. 
The  family  subsequently  merged  in  that  of  Thouars. 

Mayence,  or  Maintz,  a  Carlovingian  mint  and  one  of  the  archbishops, 
who,  however,  also  struck  money  at  Amoeneberg,  Neustadt,  Treysa,  etc. 
Of  the  archiepiscopal  series  some  of  the  earlier  are  bracteates  of  superior 
work.  The  Florentine  gold  type  was  imitated  here  as  at  Cologne  ;  the 
lily  was  perhaps  acceptable  as  an  emblem  of  purity  and  from  the  direct 

Mayence  :  i  kreutzer,  i8th  c.  3  pfenningen,  1760. 

allusion  to  it  in  Scripture.  In  the  last  century  copper  pieces  from  i  to  12 
kreutzer,  circular,  oblong  and  octagon,  were  issued,  and  during  the  siege  by 
the  French  there  was  a  coinage  of  necessity  of  5,  2,  and  i  sols.  The  Em- 
peror Maximilian  1 1.  accorded  the  right  of  coinage  of  florins  to  the  Convent 
of  St.  Alban  here  in  1578,  with  an  ass  as  the  arms  and  S.  Alban.  Martyr. 

Meaux,  Champagne,  Dept.  of  Seine-et-Marne,  a  mint  of  the  Frankish 
Kings,  8th  c.  A  denier  d'or  of  Pepin  le  Bref,  struck  here,  was  sold  at 
Paris  in  1885  for  955  fr.  It  was  also  an  early  episcopal  mint,  iith-i2th 
c.,  and  at  one  time  at  least  in  concert  with  the  Counts  of  Troyes.  The 
money  seems  to  have  obtained  credit  and  a  considerable  width  of  currency, 
by  virtue  of  conventions  between  the  Bishop  and  neighbouring  potentates, 
as  far  back  as  the  commencement  of  the  loth  c.  The  treaty  of  1208  with 
the  Countess  of  Champagne  gave  the  latter  two-thirds,  and  the  Prelate 
one-third,  of  the  revenue  arising  from  the  admittance  of  the  Meaux  coin- 
age into  her  territory.  After  1225  the  type  seems  to  have  been  made 
conformable  to  that  of  the  nouveau  provinois  published  in  that  year. 
See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  376-80.  Meldis  Civitas.  The  convention- 
money  between  Meaux  and  Troyes  reads  Meldis  Civita  on  obv.,  and 
Trecasi  Civi  on  rev. 

Mccklenburgh  Mints:  Boitzenburg,  Doemitz,  Eutin,  Gadebusch, 
Gnoien,  Grevermuhlen,  Gustrow,  Kroepelin  (1325),  Malchin,  Marienche, 
Marlow,  Parchim,  Ratzeburg,  Ribnitz,  Siilze,  Tessin,  Warnemunde, 
Wittenburg  :  (M.-STRELITZ),  Friedland,  Neubrandenburg,  Neustrelitz, 

128  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Meddersheim,  Hesse-Homburg,  a  mint  of  Adolf,  Count  Palatine, 

Medcbach,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  the  place  of  coinage  of  deniers  of  the 
Archbp.  of  Cologne,  I3th  c.,  with  Civitas  Medebeka. 

Medola,  Lombardy,  ?  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Mantua,  1593-1626,  as 
Marquises  of  M.  Marchio  Medvla,  or  Medv. 

Megen,  N.  Brabant,  on  the  Maese,  the  source  of  a  denier  of  John  III., 
Duke  of  Brabant  (1359-1415),  with  loh.  Com.  Meg.  and  on  rev.  Moneta 

Megyes,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  independent  waiwodes.  M. 

Mehun-sur-Yevre.     See  Celle-sur-Cher. 

Meiningen,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Saxe-Meiningen,  I7th-i9th  c. 

Meissen,  Saxony,  a  mint  from  the  I  ith  c.  of  the  Emperors,  Margraves, 
Bishops,  and  Burgraves.  There  appear  to  be  only  bracteates  of  various 
types  with  Misni.,  and  groschen  with  Grossvs  Nows  Misnensis.  Some  of 
the  money  of  the  Margraves  of  Meissen  or  Misnia  was  struck  at  Leipsic. 
Comp.  Magdeburg. 

Meisscnheim,  Hesse-Homburg,  a  mint  of  various  princes  in  the  i5th- 
i6th  c. 

Mellc,  Poitou,  modern  Dept.  of  Deux-Sevres,  one  of  the  numerous 
Carlovingian  mints,  and  that  of  which  specimens  from  various  finds  are 
least  rare,  so  far  as  the  deniers  of  Charlemagne  are  concerned.  There  is  a 
denier  of  this  place  struck  in  gold — perhaps  the  earliest  instance  of  the 
modern  practice  and  of  what  is  termed  in  France  apiece  de  plaisir.  Pic- 
tai>i  Civis.,  and  Mctzullo  or  Metvllo.  The  discovery  of  rich  silver  mines 
in  this  vicinity  is  supposed  to  have  led  to  the  establishment  of  the  mint, 
which  was  also  employed  by  the  Counts  of  Poitou  and  by  Richard  I.  of 
England.  There  are  deniers  with  Ricardus  Rex  and  Pictaviensis  disposed 
on  rev.  in  three  lines.  The  last  independent  Count  of  Poitou  was  Alphonse, 
brother  of  Louis  IX.,  1241-71,  of  whom  there  are  deniers  resembling 
those  of  Richard.  But  there  are  deniers  of  Philippe  de  France,  son 
of  Philip  IV.,  1311-16.  See  Salle-Lc-Roi. 

Mende,  the  Mimatum  of  Gregory  of  Tours,  cap.  of  the  ancient  episcopal 
fief  or  county  palatine  of  Gevaudan,  and  the  seat  of  a  coinage  for  the 
county  and  diocese  from  the  nth  or  i2th  to  the  I4th  c.  The  deniers,  to 
which  the  currency  seems  to  have  limited  itself,  bear  the  effigy  of  the  patron 
of  the  town  and  cathedral,  and  the  premier  Bishop,  St.  Privatus.  The 
resistance  of  the  bishops  on  repeated  occasions  to  attempted  encroach- 
ments on  their  right  shews  the  profitable  character  of  the  latter.  Mima 
or  Mimas  Civitas. 

Meppen,  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  Corvey  in  Prussia,  ioth-i2th  c. 

Mcran,  capital  of  the  ancient  county  of  the  Tyrol,  and  the  mint  of  the 
Counts  down  to  the  time  of  Sigismund  of  Hapsburg,  Arch-Duke  of  Austria, 
Margraf  of  Elsas,  and  Count  of  the  Tyrol,  who  bequeathed  his  hereditary 
dominions  to  Maximilian  I.  in  1496.  There  are  denarii  and  grossi  of 
Meinhard  I.  and  II.  1253-95. 

Meraude  or  Poilvache,  Duchy  of  Luxemburgh,  a  mint  of  the  Emperors 
Henry  IV.,  1280-88,  and  Charles  IV.,  1346-53,  as  Counts  of  L.  Esmer- 
avda  or  Meravdiensis. 

Merovingian  Mints.  The  tentative  catalogues  of  mints  and  moneyers 
connected  with  this  epoch  and  family  of  coins  still  remain  very  imperfect, 
unsatisfactory,  and  obscure.  Among  hundreds  of  localities  specified  as 
occurring  on  pieces  a  limited  number  is  recognisable  ;  but  of  the  bulk  the 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  129 

identity  is  open  to  question  or  positively  incapable  of  settlement.  See 
Blanchet,  Manuel '  de  Numismatique,  1 890,  i.  42-100.  The  names  of  known 
places  are  comparatively  very  few,  and  comprise  Avignon,  Avranches, 
Aachen,  or  Aix-la-Chapelle,  Amboise,  Amiens,  Angers,  Le  Puy,  Clermont- 
Ferrand,  Strasburgh,  Arras,  Aire,  Autun,  Orleans,  Auxerre,  Bayeux, 
Bourges,  Brienne,  Bordeaux,  Chalons -sur-Saone,  Cahors,  Cambrai, 
Chartres,  Le  Mans,  Dijon,  Dorostadt  or  Durstede,  Angouleme,  Jumieges, 
Geneva,  Grenoble,  Lausanne,  Limoges,  Laon,  Lyons,  Marsal,  Marseilles, 
Macon,  Melun,  Meaux,  Melle,  Metz,  Mayence,  Namur,  Nantes,  Nevers, 
Paris,  Poictiers,  Rennes,  Segrais,  St.  Denis,  Sens,  Souvigny,  Soissons, 
Toulouse,  Tournai,  Troyes,  Treves,  Maestricht,  Toul,  Tours,  Gap,  Vannes, 
Besan5on,  Vienne,  Vendome,  Verdun,  Vue,  Arthon,  Saint  -  Philbert- 
de-Grandlieu,  Le  Port-Saint-Pere,  etc.  Besides  these  more  or  less  con- 
siderable centres,  there  were  numerous  other  points  where  this  coinage 
took  place,  alike  in  France,  Spain,  the  Netherlands,  and  Germany,  not  to 
add  England ;  in  some  instances  the  place  of  mintage  is  doubtful,  and  in 
a  few  it  is  not  mentioned,  and  on  the  whole  we  support  the  theory  that  the 
moneyers  adopted  the  principle  of  going  on  circuit,  and  striking  and 
stamping  at  each  stage  a  certain  quota  of  bullion  or  bar-metal,  according 
to  instructions  or  treaty,  for  fiscal  and  other  purposes.  The  description  of 
the  localities  where  this  monetary  system  was  carried  out  certainly 
favours  the  hypothesis  that  the  coinage  was  the  work  of  functionaries 
constantly  or  periodically  removing  from  point  to  point,  and  making  it 
part  of  their  office  to  enable  the  tax-payer  in  a  town,  village,  manor, 
domain,  curtilage,  or  in  fact  assessed  settlement  of  any  kind,  to  pay  his 
quota  in  a  convenient  medium.  The  abundance  and  variety  of  the  trientes 
seem  to  tend  to  a  proof  that  an  immense  aggregate  of  these  small 
pieces  was  struck  at  different  times,  rather  than  that  any  considerable 
output  took  place  at  a  single  juncture  or  locality.  Whatever  is  to  be 
said  of  the  triens  in  its  day,  and  of  the  gold  florin  of  Florence  and  the 
Venetian  ducat,  when  the  latter  appeared  at  the  dawn  of  a  revival  of 
enterprise  and  commerce,  the  financial  importance  and  interest  of  all 
these  pieces  were  very  considerable  ;  and  we  ought  perhaps  to  add  the 
florin  tfor  and  other  gold  types  of  Louis  IX.,  a  coin  which  may  be 
regarded  as  contemporaneous  with  the  gold  issues  of  the  two  Italian 
republics,  though  perfectly  different  in  fabric  and  character.  In  regard 
to  the  Florentine  and  Venetian  movement,  it  is  obvious  that  the  primary 
considerations  were  the  establishment  of  a  standard  and  the  possession  of 
a  gold  currency  politically  and  religiously  associated  with  the  State. 
It  was  an  additional  security  for  trade  and  a  crowning  symbol  of 
autonomy.  About  580  it  is  supposed  that  Gontran,  King  of  Burgundy, 
and  also  Gondovald,  who  succeeded  or  displaced  him,  struck  the  tremissis 
in  Burgundy  and  Provence,  the  latter  doing  so  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor 
Maurice  Tiberius,  assassinated  in  582.  Comp.  Merovingian  Money  in 
Cat.  of  Denom. 

Merseburg,  capital  of  a  circle  of  Prussian  Saxony,  the  seat  of  a  mint 
in  973,  and  of  continuous  coinage  down  to  the  I7th  c.  Pieces,  at  first  of 
the  bracteate  fabric,  bear  a  figure  of  St.  Laurence,  or  a  bishop's  head  and 
Merseb,  or,  still  later  (1622),  a  cock  and  MB. 

Messerano,  Piedmont,  an  ancient  principality  of  the  Fieschi  family, 
which,  either  here  or  at  Crevacuore,  struck  a  long  series  of  coins  in  silver, 
billon,  and  copper  from  the  I5th  to  the  iyth  c.  The  largest  denomination 
was  the  silver  tallero,  first  introduced  here  by  Francesco  Filiberto 
Ferrero  Fieschi,  1588-1629. 


1 30  The  Coins  of  E^lrope 

Messina,  a  mint  of  the  Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia  and  Sicily,  uth-i2th 
c.  Operata  In  Vrbe  Messana.  Subsequently  a  seat  of  coinage  for  the 
Roman  (German)  emperors  and  the  Spanish  or  Arragonese  masters  of 
the  island.  There  is  a  taro  of  Martin  I.  of  Arragon,  King  of  Sicily, 
1402-9,  struck  here  with  Martin  D,  Gra.  Rex  Sicili.  [and  on  rev.]  Ac. 
Arag.  Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  No.  1796. 

Metz,  Lorraine,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia,  and 
especially  of  Theodobert,  who  was  the  first  of  that  line  to  substitute  his  own 
portrait  for  that  of  a  Roman  emperor,  and  the  capital,  and  doubtless  mint, 
of  some  of  the  successors  of  Clovis  and  of  the  Carlovingian  princes.  A 
denier  of  Lothaire  (840-55),  with  Mediomatricorum  (Moselle)  on  reverse, 
belongs  here  ;  it  was  found  at  Wijk-bi-Durstede,  near  Utrecht.  From  a 
very  early  date,  M.  was  an  episcopal  mint,  and  in  1192  was  ceded  to  the 
burgesses  for  five  years  in  consideration  of  a  payment  of  500  livres  of 
Metz,  with  the  power  reserved  to  the  Bishop  to  resume  his  position  for 
1 200  livres,  which  does  not  appear  to  have  been  exercised  till  about  1551, 
when  the  redemption-money  was  borrowed  from  the  chapter.  But  the 
mint  was  ceded  soon  after  to  Henry  II.  of  France.  Comp.  Vic.  The 
most  ancient  episcopal  piece  may  be  a  denier  with  the  name  of  St.  Peter 
(see  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  433)  ;  there  is  money  of  Bishop  Bertram 
(1179-1212).  The  coinage  ceased  about  1663.  The  civic  angevine  or 
double  gros  of  Metz  was  copied  in  the  Netherlands  by  the  feudal  seigneurs 
of  Stevensweerd,  Reckheim,  and  Stein.  There  is  a  peculiar  coinage  con- 
nected with  this  ancient  city  in  the  form  of  a  long  series  of  small  pieces 
struck  in  the  names  of  the  Sheriffs  or  Aldermen  (maitres-echevins)  from 
1562  to  1663.  See  Cat.  Robert,  808-914,  where  a  large  number  are  figured. 
There  is  an  interesting  siege-piece  of  1552  with  the  portrait  of  Henry  II. 
of  France  and  Henrico  II.  Franc.  R.  Christianis  Opt.  Principi  and  on 
rev.  Met.  Liber  Obsid.  Car.  V.  Imp.  et  Germ.  Oppvg.  Franc,  a  Lot/tor 
Dvce  Cms.  Foelitis  Propvg.  1552.  Metz  was  a  place  of  coinage  under 
the  Bourbon  Kings  of  France  and  under  the  First  Republic  (with  the 
m.m.  AA). 

Menlan,  or  Meullant,  Seine-et-Oise,  a  place  of  coinage  of  Hugues  II., 
Count  of  M.,  nth  c.  There  is  a  denier  with  the  unusual  reading 
Hvgonis  Militis  and  on  rev.  Mvileini  Casta.  This  Hugues  was  at  that 
time  associated  with  his  father  and  was  simply  an  escuyer  or  miles. 

Meung-sur- Loire,  a  place  of  coinage  under  Louis  XIV.  Liards  of 
1654  with  E. 

Mexico,  a  city  mentioned  as  the   apparent   place  of  origin  of  the 

Spanish  coins  marked  ?, ,  or  ME.  in  a  monogram,  which  occurs  also  on 

the  Mexican  series   itself.      A  roughly-struck  irregularly-shaped  silver 
coin  before  us  is  marked  on  the  only  inscribed  side  with  a  cross  and  the 

date  1611,  ?,  and  Rei.     It  seems  to  belong  to  the  colonial  series  during 

the  troubles  with  Holland  about  that  time. 

Middleburgh,  Zeeland,  the  place  of  mintage  of  the  siege-money  struck 
during  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1572-3-4.  There  is  a  velddaalder 
and  the  half,  and  a  copper  coin,  all  square.  Of  the  daalder  there 
are  2  or  3  varieties.  One  before  us  has  the  date  1574,  with  the  arms  of 
Zeeland  at  the  top,  and  is  struck  on  one  side  only.  And  see  also  Sch., 
xvi.  1084.  The  copper  piece  reads  Deo  Regi  Patriae  Fidel.  Middelb. 
1573.  At  a  later  period  Middleburgh  was  one  of  the  Dutch  colonial 
mints,  and  struck  money  in  the  name  of  the  Batavian  Republic. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  131 

Milan,  a  Lombard  and  Carlovingian  mint  in  the  8th  and  Qth  c.  ; 
subsequently  one  of  the  Hohenstaufen  dynasty,  and  in  succession  the 
seat  of  coinage  of  the  republic,  of  the  Visconti  and  Sforza-Visconti 
families,  of  the  French,  Spanish,  and  Austrian  rulers  or  occupiers  of 
Lombardy,  and  of  the  kingdom  under  Napoleon  I.  Like  Rome,  Ferrara, 
Pesaro,  and  Venice,  Milan  enjoyed  the  advantage  of  a  man  of  genius  in 
some  of  its  numismatic  productions  :  from  1483  to  1500  Leonardo  da 
Vinci  designed  at  least  one  coin  for  the  Duke  Lodovico  II  Moro.  Charles 
VI.  of  Germany  (1711-40)  issued  as  Duke  of  Milan  some  roughly-struck 
copper  pieces  of  irregular  form  with  his  portrait,  and  we  have  soldi  and 
\  soldi  in  the  same  series  of  his  daughter  Maria  Theresa,  of  whom  there 
is  a  rare  silver  scudo  as  Duchess  of  Milan,  1779,  as  well  as  lower  deno- 
minations. There  is  a  Spanish  lira  and  \  lira  of  Joseph  II.  of  Germany 
struck  here  on  the  occasion  of  his  inauguration  as  Duke  of  Milan,  July 
25,  1781.  It  is  known  as  the  lira  del  juramento.  During  the  siege  of 
Mantua,  Bonaparte  struck  at  Milan  billon  pieces  of  10  and  5  soldi  ;  and 
there  is  likewise  a  cast  soldo  of  very  thick  and  coarse  fabric  belonging  to 
the  same  series.  There  are  several  very  rare  proofs  of  the  coinage  of  the 
Cisalpine  Republic  (1800-4)  m  silver  and  bronze.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880, 
Nos.  2641-47.  Also  some  of  that  of  1848.  Francis  Joseph  of  Austria 
continued  to  employ  this  mint  down  to  1859.  Mdiola.  Mediolanvm. 
Dvx  Mediolani  or  Mil.,  or  M. 

Miletus,  a  mint  of  the  Norman  Counts  (nth  c.).  A  doppio  follaro  of 
Roger  I.,  1072-1101,  belongs  here. 

Minden,  on  the  Wesel,  Prussian  Westphalia,  the  seat  of  coinage  of 
the  bishops.  There  are  bracteates  in  the  series.  A  piece  of  8  grosschen 
was  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Duke  of  Brunswick  in  1634. 

Minorca,  a  mint  of  the  Almohades  in  Spain  (516-668),  and  possibly 
with  Majorca  one  of  Mohammedan  coinage  down  to  about  1260,  when 
the  Balearic  Isles  were  formed  into  a  kingdom  by  Arragon.  Subsequently, 
under  Alfonso  V.  (1416-58),  there  was  a  special  coinage  for  this  island 
with  Minoricannn. 

Mirandola,  Italy,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  billon  quattrino  with  S. 
Passid,  Mirandvl.,  and  the  mint  of , the  Pico  family  from  1515  to  1691. 
Money  in  all  metals  was  struck  here  ;  and  from  the  fact  that  the  earliest 
Pico  (Gianfrancesco,  1515-33,  a  man  of  learning)  issued  the  double 
zecchino  in  gold,  it  is  to  be  perhaps  inferred  that  the  coinage  began  some 
time  before  his  accession  to  the  lordship.  The  portrait  on  the  early  pieces 
exhibits  a  peculiar  form  of  berretta. 

Mirecourt,  Vosges,  a  mint  of  Ferri  III.,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  1251-1303. 

Mitau,  capital  of  Courland,  and  perhaps  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of 
the  independent  Dukes  of  Courland  (representing  the  extinct  Teutonic 
Order)  after  1561.  The  money  is  of  Polish  type,  and  does  not  appear  to 
have  lasted  beyond  the  end  of  the  same  century,  although  the  duchy  was 
not  extinguished  till  1795.  We  have  before  us  a  piece  with  the  bust  of 
the  Duke  on  obv.  and  Mon.  Ar.  Dvcvm  Cv.  E.  Sem.  (silver  money  of 
the  Dukes  of  Courland  and  Senigaglia) ;  the  rev.  reads  ///.  Gros.  Ar.  Tr. 
Dvci'm  Cvr.  Et  Sen.  1 596.  There  are  also  6-groschen  pieces,  schillings, 
and  thalers,  belonging  to  this  series  ;  but  they  are  all  rare.  Some  add 
Lithuania  to  the  titles. 

Modena,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  successive  forms  of  government 
from  the  I2th  to  the  present  century.  From  1226  to  1294  there  was  an 
issue  of  grossi,  danari,  and  bolognini  under  imperial  authority,  with  De 
Mvtina,  or  D.  Mvtin.  on  rev.  Between  1294  and  1306  Azzo  d'Este  held 

132  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  lordship  ;  there  is  a  'grosso  with  Marchio,  and  in  the  field  A  Z  O. 
From  1306-36  the  republican  system  was  renewed  so  far  as  the  coinage 
was  concerned  ;  but  the  Este  family  remained  in  power,  and  ruled  over 
Modena,  Ferrara,  and  Reggio.  For  a  short  time  Modena  itself  was 
under  papal  jurisdiction,  Leo  X.  having  purchased  it  of  the  Emperor 
Maximilian  for  3000  ducats  ;  and  there  are  coins  struck  for  this  place  by 
him  and  his  successor.  After  some  vicissitudes,  Modena  was  eventually, 
with  Mirandola  and  Reggio,  vested  in  the  ducal  house  of  Este,  which 
reigned  here  down  to  1803,  and  from  1814  to  1859.  It  is  observable  that 
the  democratic  genius  or  tone  of  the  Modenese  smaller  coinage  was 
retained  long  after  the  firm  establishment  of  the  Este  family  on  the 
throne.  A  testone  of  Ercole  II.,  1534-59,  reads  on  rev.  Moneta  Comimi- 
tatis  Mvtine.  But  in  later  reigns  Nobilitas  Estensis,  or  some  other 
motto,  was  substituted.  Alfonso  II.,  1559-97,  struck  a  gold  scudo  of  103 
soldi.  See  Cat.  Rossi,  2735-6-6  bis.  Cesare  d'Este,  1597-1628,  had  the 
ungaro  in  gold,  a  favourite  Italian  imitation  of  the  type  introduced  in 
Hungary  under  Matthias  Corvinus.  Heavy  gold  was  struck  here  by 
Cesare  d'Este  and  his  successor  Francesco  I.,  1629-58 — by  the  former  a 
very  rare  doppio  scudo,  and  by  the  latter  the  multiples  of  4,  8,  12,  and 
24.  These,  though  very  rare,  did  not  produce  very  high  prices  rela- 
tively at  the  Rossi  sale  (Cat.  1880,  Nos.  2753-59).  Louis  XIV.  struck 
here  in  1704  pieces  in  billon  of  5,  10,  and  15  soldi,  with  the  standing 
figure  of  St.  Gemininus  holding  the  oriflamme  inscribed  with  Avia. 

Modena  :  80  sesini  in  silver,  1728. 

Moers,  Rhenish  provinces,  a  mint  of  the  Counts,  subsequently  (1707) 
Princes,  of  Moers,  from  the  I4th  c.  Moirs. 

Moirans,  near  St.  Claude,  Jura,  an  abbatial  mint,  I2th-i4th  c., 
employed  by  the  Abbot  of  St.  Ouen-de-Joux  or  St.  Claude,  and  the 
subject  of  legal  proceedings  in  1373  on  the  part  of  the  Bailli  of  Macon, 
who  shewed  that  the  money  was  an  illegal  imitation  of  regal  types.  The 
coinage  consisted  of  gold  francs-a-pied,  francs  d'argent,  blanques,  etc. 
A  franc-a-pied  of  Guillaume  de  Beauregard,  abbot,  1348-80,  reads  G.  Dei 
Gratia  Abas.  Santi  Ogend\;  and  there  appears  to  have  been  more  than 
one  variety.  The  mint  was  suppressed  by  the  Duke  of  Burgundy  in 
1513.  Its  products  are  peculiarly  rare. 

Mojaisk,  a  Russian  mint  subsequently  to  its  acquisition  in  1457. 

Molhuysen,  a  local  or  municipal  mint.  There  are  pieces  of  4  thaler 
of  1703  and  1707  in  billon. 

Molsheim,  Alsace,  a  mint  of  Jean  IV.  de  Manderscheldt-Blankenberg> 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  133 

1569-92,  and  of  Charles  de  Lorraine,  Bps.  of  Strasburgh,  1593-1607.  The 
latter  also  struck  money  at  Saverne.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1792. 

Monaco,  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  seigniorial  houses  of  Grimaldi  and 
Matignon-Grimaldi  (1640-1893).  But  the  numismatic  series  is  apparently 
incomplete,  and  of  late  years  the  Prince  of  Monaco  has  largely  used  the 
French  money  and  exclusively  the  French  denominations.  Formerly, 
and  down  to  the  close  of  the  last  century,  the  scudo,  danaro,  pezzetta, 
hiigino,  etc.,  were  current,  but  no  pieces  of  high  value.  In  1838  a  pattern 
franc  was  struck,  and  from  the  same  die  pieces  of  20  and  40  francs  in  gilt 
bronze.  There  is  also  a  jeton  of  2  fr.  for  the  cercle  de  Monaco  without 

Moncalieri,  Piedmont,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Savoy, 

Moncalvo,  Piedmont,  a  mint  of  the  marquisate  of  Monteferrato, 
I4th-i5th  c.  There  is  a  rare  j  grosso  in  silver  of  Gio.  I.  Palaeologo, 

Mons,  Hainault,  the  seat  of  the  earlier  as  well  as  later  coinage  of  the 
Counts  of  Hainault  down  to  the  I4th  c.  There  is  an  esterlin  of  Jean  III. 
D'Avesnes,  Count  of  H.,  1280-1304,  with  Moneta  Mantes.  The  States  of 
H.  struck  here  in  1577  siege-money  with  Pace  Et  Ivsticia,  and  from  1579 
to  1587  the  Duke  of  Parma  established  a  Spanish  coinage  as  lieutenant  of 
Philip  II.  in  the  Netherlands.  See  Berg. 

Montalcino,  Prov.  of  Sienna,  Tuscany,  a  republic  from  1555-59  under 
the  protectorate  of  Henry  II.  of  France,  and  a  place  of  coinage  during 
that  period.  The  pieces  bear  Henry's  name.  There  is  a  very  rare  scudo 
d'oro  of  1557  (Rossi,  No.  2833,  650  lire).  From  1555  to  1559  pieces  occur 
with  R.P.  Sen.  Monte  Illicino. 

Montalto,  Ascoli,  a  papal  mint  in  the  i6th  and  iSth  c. 

Montanaro,  Piedmont,  an  abbatial  mint,  1547-82.     Only  low  values. 

Montbeliard,  Burgundy,  a  title  assumed  in  the  loth  c.  by  the  ancient 
Counts  of  Elsgau.  In  1631,  after  several  changes,  the  fief  was  carried 
to  the  Count  of  Wiirtemburg  by  his  marriage  with  the  heiress  of  M.,  and 
remained  subject  to  W.  till  1792-93,  although  it  had  been  formally  ceded 
to  France  in  1536.  The  coinage  of  W.  for  this  signiory  consisted  of  gros, 
kreutzer,  liards,  and  batzen,  which  date  from  1574  to  the  i8th  c. 

Monteferrato.     See  Casale. 

Montelimart,  Dept.  of  Drome,  a  seignioral  fief  and  mint  of  the  family 
of  Adhemar,  Seigneurs  de  la  Garde,  I2th-i4th  c.  The  regal  and  pro- 
venc,al  money  were  imitated  here.  The  domain  was  united  to  the  Crown 
under  Charles  VII.  and  Louis  XI.  in  two  separate  parcels. 

Montf errant,  Auvergne,  a  place  where  Philip  le  Bel  in  1290,  "pour  la 
necessite  de  ses  affaires,"  sought  to  set  up  a  mint,  but  was  induced  to 
shift  it  elsewhere  on  the  protest  of  the  Bishop  and  Chapter  of  Clermont. 

Mont-Lavi,  near  Blois,  the  supposed  source  of  a  denier  of  Gui  I.  de 
Chatillon,  Count  of  Blois,  1307-42,  with  G.  Co.  Blesis.,  and  on  rev.  Mont. 

Montlucon,  Borbonnais,  a  mint  of  the  Sires  de  Bourbon  and  of  the 
Dampierre  family,  i3th  c.,  1202-14,  1249-69.  Deniers  of  this  family  bear 
various  legends,  as  Meat.  Borbonensis.  for  Mahaut  II.,  Countess  of 
Nevers,  Suzeraine  of  Bourbon-Lancy  =  jure  maritij  or  lo  :  D  :  Castri  : 
Villani.  for  Jean  de  Chateauvillain,  Sire  de  Bourbon.  Monthicon.  or 
Dominns  Monluconis. 

Montluel,  a  Savoyard  mint,  1 503-30. 

Montpellier,  a  seigniorial  mint,  and  subsequently  (by  marriage)  one  of 

134  The  Coins  of  Europe 

the  Kings  of  Arragon,  the  Kings  of  Majorca  (a  branch  of  the  house  of 
A.),  and  the  Bourbon  dynasty  in  France.  Montispesulanum.  The  town 
and  signiory  were  sold  to  France  in  1349  for  120,000  gold  e"cus.  Comp. 

Montr euil-Bonnin,  Poitou,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  P.,  I3th  c.  In 
1267  the  mint-master  was  adjudged  to  pay  a  penalty  of  1250  livres 
tournois  for  deficiency  of  standard. 

Mont  Saint  Michel,  near  St.  Omer,  a  mint  of  the  King  of  France, 
while  that  of  Normandy  was  in  English  hands  about  1420. 

Monsa,  in  the  Milanese,  a  seat  of  seigniorial  coinage.  Ettore 
Visconti,  1412-13. 

Moresnet,  Belgium,  Prov.  of  Liege,  where  perhaps  was  struck  in  1848 
certain  money  for  the  Free  Commune  of  Moresnet  under  the  protection 
of  France  and  Prussia  with  a  curious  Janus  head  of  the  two  monarchs, 
Louis  Philippe  and  Fred.  William  IV.  We  have  before  us  two  types  of 
a  2-franc  piece. 

Aforlaijc,  Brittany,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Beam 
and  of  the  Kings  of  Navarre  from  the  nth  to  the  I7th  c.  Beam  was 
united  (with  Navarre)  to  the  Crown  in  1607.  It  appears  that  at  one 
period  the  office  of  mint-master  to  the  Counts  was  hereditary,  and  that  a 
dispute  between  him  and  Gaston  V.  about  1160  was  settled  by  the  ordeal 
of  iron,  the  moneyer  (Geraud)  paying  100  sols  and  a  tithe  of  his  emolu- 
ments (probably  for  the  current  year)  to  the  Priory  of  Sainte-Foy  de 
Morlaix.  The  latter,  by  a  grant  of  1077,  was  entitled  to  a  tithe  of  the 
whole  revenue  arising  from  the  coinage.  The  mint  here  was  situated  in 
the  Hourquie  (Lat.  Furcia),  the  name  and  site  of  the  present  place  for 
holding  the  fairs  ;  this  word  explains  the  legend  on  some  of  the  coins 
Onor  Forcas. 

Moscow,  the  principal  mint  of  the  Grand-Dukes  of  Muscovy  and  of 
the  Czars  of  Russia  from  the  i6th  c.  to  1724.  There  were  at  least  four 
mints  there.  Comp.  Kief. 

Moiisson,  or  Pont-a-Monsson,  Lorraine,  a  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Dukes 
of  Bar,  I4th  c.  Two  pieces  of  Henri  IV.,  Duke  of  B.,  1337-44,  were 
struck  here.  Motions.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  1167  and  1530.  It 
seems  also  to  have  been  a  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Vannes  at  Verdun  ; 
subsequently  annexed  to  the  See  of  Reims. 

Moiizaivc,  a  chateau  and  mint  of  Wenceslas  I.,  first  Duke  of  Luxem- 
burgh,  1353-83.  Movzadies. 

Mouzon.     See  Reims. 

Moyenvic,  Dept.  of  Meurthe,  France,  the  place  of  coinage  of  certain 
anonymous  episcopal  coins  of  the  I3th  c. 

Mue,  or  Le  Mue,  a  town  in  France,  to  which  is  referred  a  gros  tour- 
nois of  Philip  le  Bel  (1285-1314)  with  Mvdencis  Civfs. 

Muhlhausen,  or  Muhlhaus,  Alsace,  a  mint  of  the  Emperors  and  ot 
the  early  Landgraves  of  Thuringen,  and  a  place  of  coinage  down  to  the 
1 8th  c.  There  is  a  remarkable  piece  of  Frederic  Barbarossa  (1155-90) 
belonging  here,  with  Fridericvs  Imperator  Mvlehvsigensis.  Denarivs, 
and  the  Emperor  on  horseback.  The  grosch,  pfennig,  and  heller 
were  struck  here.  Milhvsina. 

Muhlheim,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Berg,  I4th-I5th  c.,  of 
the  Dukes  of  Cleves,  I4th  c.,  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Juliers  and  Berg, 
1 5th- 1 6th  c.  Some  very  early  dated  pieces  were  coined  here  from 

Mtinchen,  or  Munich,  since  the  i8th  c.  the  capital  of  United  Bavaria, 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  135 

but  originally  the  seat  of  government  of  the  Munich  branch.  It  seems 
to  have  been  a  mint  from  the  I5th  c.,  and  to  have  produced  bracteates 
and  pfennings,  and  subsequently  larger  pieces.  The  m.m.  was  a  monk's 
bust  in  allusion  to  the  name.  But  the  Dukes  of  Bavaria  struck  money  at 
several  other  places,  either  independently  or  in  alliance  with  their  neigh- 
bours. The  Counts  of  Fiirstenberg  employed  this  place  of  coinage, 
having  apparently  none  of  their  own. 

Munkdco,  a  Transylvanian  mint  under  the  Waiwode  Franz  II. 
Racoczy  ( 1 703- 1 1 ).  M-M. 

Minister,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  bishops,  as  well  as  the  civic 
mint,  during  a  long  series  of  years.  The  copper  was  probably  early  ;  we 

have  a  piece  of  3  pfenningen,  1602.  The  thaler  of  1661,  struck  after  the 
recovery  of  the  town  by  the  bishop,  is  scarce,  as  is  the  florin  of  1694  with 
the  bishop's  title  as  Seigneur  of  Borculo. 

Munsterberg-Oels,  Prussia,  a  seigniorial  mint  in  the  I7th  c. 

Munsterbilsen,  Limburgh,  an  abbatial  mint  in  the  Middle  Ages,  with 
upright  figures  holding  a  crucifix  and  a  book,  and  the  legend  Scti 

Mifrato,  a  Corsican  mint,  1763-64. 

Murbach  and  Lure  (or  Ludre],  France,  Dept.  of  Saone,  the  source  of 
a  small  silver  abbatial  coin  with  S.  Leod.  Egarivs  and  St.  Ludger  seated 
on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Moneta  Nova  Mvr.  et  Lvdr.  1624.  Probably  two 

Musocco,  Sardinian  States,  a  mint  of  the  Marchese  di  Vigevano  Tri- 
vulzio  (1487-1523).  The  privilege  of  coining  money  was  confirmed  by 
Louis  XII.  of  France,  and  the  dignity  of  a  marshal  was  conferred  on  him 
by  that  prince.  The  St.  George  type  was  used  here  on  some  of  the 
grossi  ;  and  they  also  bear  F.  Mare.,  or  Marescallvs  Fran. 

Musso,  the  supposed  place  of  origin  of  a  quatlrino  of  Gio.  Gia- 
como  de'  Medici,  Count  of  Musso,  1528-32,  with  lo.  lac.  D.  Med. 
M.  Musi. 

Mytilene,  a  mediaeval  seigniorial  mint  of  the  Gattilusio  family,  a 
branch  or  scion  of  the  Palaeologi  (1355-1449).  There  is  a  copper  coin 
with  Meteli.  on  rev.,  and  qvattro  B.  for  value.  The  tornese  and  a  type  of 
the  agnello  were  current  here. 

Nagybanya,  Transylvania,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Hungary  (Emperors 
of  Germany)  and  of  the  Princes  of  Transylvania,  I7th  c.  There  is  a 
doppelthaler  of  Matthias  II.  struck  here. 

Namur,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Luxemburgh,  I4th  c.,  and  the  place 
of  coinage  of  the  convention-money,  or  Moneta  Sociorum,  1342-45, 
between  the  Counts  of  L.  and  of  Bar  and  the  Bp.  of  Liege.  Also  a  mint 
of  the  independent  Counts  of  Namur.  Nam-uric. 

Nancy,  an  ordinary  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine  after  its  acquisition 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

in  1155.  Two  deniers  of  Bertha  of  Suabia  (1176-95),  widow  of 
Matthieu  I.,  were  struck  here.  The  grands  ecus  of  Antoine,  1508-44, 
also  probably  belong  to  this  mint.  The  Dukes  freely  imitated  here  and 

Teston  of  Antoine,  Duke  of  Lorraine,  1508-44  :  silver. 

elsewhere  the  regal  types  and  names  even  so  late  as  the  reign  of  Louis 
XIV.      In   1796  a  piece,  evidently  intended  as  a  pattern  for  a  French 

decime,  proceeded  from  the  foundry  of  one  Thuillie.     A  rare  specimen 

of  the  Nancy  mint  is  the  grande  plaque  of  Marie  de  Blois,  regent  and 
Main-bourse  of  Lorraine,  1346-48. 

Nantes,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Brittany  in  the  gth  c.,  and  an 
occasional  one  of  the  Kings  of  France.  A  Hard  of  Louis  XVI.,  1787,  and 
a  piece  of  25  sols  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Vendeans  about  1793, 
belong  here. 

Nanteuil-le-Haudoin,  10  miles  from  Senlis,  Seine-et-Oise,  a  fortified 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  137 

town  or  position,  a  supposed  place  of  coinage  of  a  younger  branch  of  the 
house  of  Vexin  and  of  origin  of  certain  pieces  with  Castrvm  Nat,  or 
Nata  \Nantoligum  Cos/rum],  belonging  to  the  reign  of  Louis  VII., 

Naples,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Byzantine  emperdrs  (641-741),  and 
later  an  autonomous  mint  of  some  anonymous  ruler  using  the  St.  Jannarius 
type  of  \\\&follaro,  probably  one  of  the  Norman  line,  struck  money  here 
till  the  end  of  the  nth  c.  The  coins  of  Roger  I.  and  II.  of  Sicily,  or  of 
Sicily  and  Naples,  are  very  Oriental  in  their  complexion,  and  like  the 
Amalfitan  gold  taro  were  evidently  borrowed  from  Mohammedan  originals. 
The  Normans  were  succeeded  by  the  house  of  Anjou,  which  held  pos- 
session till  the  middle  of  the  I5th  c.,  and  thenceforward,  to  the  fall  of  the 
Bourbons  in  1860,  this  city  has  followed  the  fortunes  of  the  south  of  Italy, 
and  issued  money  in  the  names  of  the  Arragonese,  Spanish,  German,  and 
French  occupiers,  with  occasional  intervals  of  republican  reaction.  The 
usual  Italian  types  occur  in  this  series.  Charles  II.  of  Spain  struck  a 
\  taro  and  a  gold  piece  called  a  scudo  riccio,  perhaps  in  reference  to  the 
gnurled  edge.  The  silver  piastra  of  Joseph  Napoleon,  1807,  describes 
him  as  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  Prince  of  France,  and  Grand  Elector  of 
the  German  Empire.  A  notable  incident  in  the  numismatic  annals  of 
Naples  is  the  democratic  movement  of  1648  under  Mas.  Aniello  of  Amalfi, 
when  they  struck  the  copper  piece  =  3  tornesi,  known  as  the  publica 
del  popolo,  with  the  titles  of  Henry  of  Lorraine,  Duke  of  Guise,  and  a 
crowned  targe  with  S.P.Q.N.  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Pax-  Et  Libertas, 

Narbonne,  a  Visigothic  mint.  Narbona.  Probably  in  the  Carlovingian 
era  one  of  Milon,  Count  of  N.  There  is  a  denier  with  Milon,  and  on  rev. 
Pe[ptnus]  R[ex\.  It  is  cited  among  those  in  operation  for  the  regal 
coinage  in  the  Edict  of  Pitres,  864.  In  1266  the  Viscounts  of  N.  and 
the  Archbishops  concluded  an  amicable  arrangement  for  a  common 
coinage,  the  former  using  a  key,  the  latter  a  mitre,  as  a  symbol.  There  is 
a  long  series  of  this  currency  limited  to  petits  and  doubles  tournois  of  a 
prescribed  weight  and  fineness.  The  Marechal  de  Joyeuse  struck  money 
here  in  the  time  of  the  League. 

Narva,  Russia,  Dist.  of  St.  Petersburgh,  a  mint  of  Charles  XI.  of 
Sweden,  1660-97,  with  the  name  and  arms  of  the  town  on  rev.  and  a 
crown  with  C  beneath  it  on  obv.  and  the  motto  Dominvs  Protector 

Nassau  Mints  (minor)  :  Beilstein,  Dietz  (transferred  from  Beilstein 
in  1692),  Dillenburg,  Elfeld,  Eppstein,  Grensau,  Hachenbuch,  Her- 
born  (1681-95),  Holzapfel,  Idstein,  Kircheim,  Koenigstein,  Limburg 
(transferred  to  Wiesbaden  in  1830),  Lorch,  Oberlahnstein,  Weilburg 


Naumburg,  a  mint  of  the  bishops  and  town  from  the  nth  to  the  1 7th 
c.  Lower  values.  The  earlier  pieces  represent  the  Bishop  seated  or 
standing.  Nvwemb,  Nvemb,  NN.  or  N.  The  Bishops  of  Naumburg- 
also  struck  money  at  Zeitz  (M.  Cicen.). 

Nesle,  Dept.  of  Somme,  a  regal  mint  with  some  feudal  qualification  in 
the  nth  and  I2th  c.  Nigella,  or  Niviella  Vicus.  The  "gros  de  Nesles," 
struck  under  the  Valois  and  Bourbon  Kings  (Henry  1 1. -IV.),  probably 
owed  its  name  to  the  Tour  de  Nesle  at  Paris. 

Nestwede,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Noestvede. 

Neubrandenbourg,  Mecklenburgh,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  M.,  I5th  c., 
with  Moneta  Brandepo. 

138  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Neufchateaii,  Vosges,  a  seat  of  coinage  of  the  early  Dukes  of 
Lorraine,  of  a  series  of  anonymous  pieces,  which  may  be  either  of 
a  municipal  or  an  ecclesiastical  character  (Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  1693- 
1704),  and  of  certain  coins  struck  by  Gaucher  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de 
Porcien,  after  his  marriage  with  the  widow  of  Thibaut  II.,  Duke  of 
Lorraine,  in  1314.  Monetary  treaties  were  made  between  the  Duke  and 
the  Count  in  1318  and  1321  with  a  view  to  the  adjustment  of  the  relative 
standards  of  the  currencies.  Moneta  Nom  Castri. 

Ncufchatel,  or  Neuenburg,  the  seat  of  coinage  for  the  canton,  and 
from  the  I4th  to  the  i6th  c.  of  money  struck  in  the  names  of  the  families 
of  Hochberg,  Longueville,  and  Orleans-Longueville.  It  subsequently 
issued  batzen  and  kreutzer  with  the  titles  of  the  Margraves  of  Branden- 
burg and  the  Kings  of  Prussia  ;  and  in  1806,  having  been  erected  into  a 
principality  in  favour  of  Alexander  Berthier  by  Napoleon  I.,  began  a 
series  of  batzen,  etc.,  with  the  marshal's  name  and  titles  down  to  1810. 
There  is  also  a  pattern  5-franc  piece,  which  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
published,  and  which  bears  no  date. 

Ncuss,  Prov.  of  Dusseldorf,  Prussia  (the  Roman  Novesium\  the  source 
of  a  double  gros  without  date,  bearing  the  name  of  the  city. 

Nevers,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage  of  varied  character  from  the 
8th  to  the  1 7th  c.  The  last  Duke  of  N.  sold  his  French  domains  in  1659 
to  Cardinal  Mazarin.  Nivernis,  or  Nivernis  Cvt. 

Nidaros,  a  Norwegian  mint  under  Magnus  III.,  1093-1103,  and  also 
one  of  the  Archbishop,  i6th  c.  Olaws  Dei  Gra.  Arc.  Ep.  NicfSen. 
(Archbp.  Olaf  Engelbrektsson,  1523-37).  Comp.  Drontheim. 

Nieheim,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Paderborn,  i3th  c. 
Civitas  Niehem. 

Nicuvci'ille-lez-Namur,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Namur,  I4th  c.,  and 
particularly  of  Guillaume  I.  (1337-91). 

Nijny-  Novgorod,  Central  Russia,  a  very  early  Russian  mint,  and 
probably  in  existence  concurrently  with  that  at  Kief,  which  dates  back  to 
the  loth  c.  In  1852  a  find  or  trouvaille  was  made  here  of  dies  similar  in 
design  to  the  coins  which  have  come  down  to  us  of  the  Duchy  of  Kief  or 

Nimmhegcn,  Gelderland,  a  mint  of  the  early  Counts  of  Gueldres,  I  ith 
c.,  and  of  a  long  and  varied  series  of  coins,  including  bracteates,  some 
bearing  the  imperial  titles,  down  to  the  I7th.  The  groot,  the  briquet,  the 
stuiver  and  double  stuiver,  the  peerdeke,  the  schelling,  the  daalder  of  20, 
28,  and  30  stuivers,  and  gold  money,  issued  from  this  place. 

Nio  (los},  European  Turkey,  a  place  of  coinage  in  the  I3th  c.  of 
Ludovico  of  Savoy,  1284-1302. 

Niort,  Dept.  of  Deux -Sevres,  a  mint  in  the  loth  or  perhaps  gth  c., 
given  in  1019  by  the  Duke  of  Aquitaine  to  the  Abbey  of  Cluny  :  the 
Director  was  at  that  time  Odilon.  This  concession  was  ratified  in 

Nismes,  an  early  French  mint,  though  apparently  not  much  employed. 
There  is  a  very  rare  denier  of  Louis  IX.  belonging  here  ;  it  is  said  that 
only  two  specimens  are  known. 

Nivelles,  Brabant,  an  abbey,  which  doubtless  struck  within  its  pre- 
cincts the  coins  bearing  its  name.  The  original  concession  is  dated 
1040,  and  was  confirmed  in  1209.  Nimella.  Deniers  and  mailles. 

Nizza,  or  Nice,  Monteferrato,  Piedmont,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of 
Provence,  of  the  house  of  Anjou,  I3th  c.,  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Savoy,  1521- 
1636.  A  siege-piece  of  Charles  II.,  1543,  occurs  in  Cat.  Rossi  with  (on  rev.) 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  139 

Nic.  A.  Tvr.c.  Et  Gall.  DPS.  1543  ;  it  fetched  220  lire.     Its  authenticity 
seems  to  be  questionable. 

Nogent-le-Roi,  Eure-et-Loir,  a  seat  at  the  beginning  of  the  nth  c. 
of  the  coinage  of  Roger,  son  of  Eudes,  King  of  France.  There  are  deniers 
with  Regerius  Eps,  and  on  rev.  Nuicete  Cas.  Roger  was  Count  of 
Chartres  and  Bishop  of  Beauvais.  Amaury  III.  De  Montfort  also  struck 
money  here  with  Nocentis  Cat.  It  is  noticeable  that  the  former  signalised 
his  ecclesiastical  rank  only.  See  Beauvais. 

Nogent-le-Rotrou,  county  of  Perche,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage, 
similar  to  that  of  Chateaudun,  from  the  second  half  of  the  I2th  c.,  at  one 
time  in  connection  with  the  monastery  of  Saint  Denis  de  Nogent.  Perti- 
censis.  Pierre,  son  of  Jean,  Count  of  Brittany,  enjoyed  in  1265  the  right  of 
coinage  in  the  counties  of  Perche  and  Chartres. 

Norden,  Hanover,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  East  Friesland,  I5th  c. 

Nordlingcn,  Bavaria.    See  Schulman,  xvii.  1195. 

Northeim,  Hanover,  12  m.  N.  by  E.  of  Gottingen,  the  place  of  coinage  ot 
a  mariengroschen  of  1554.  At  the  Reinmann  sale  in  1891-92,  Part  ii.,  No. 
6954,  a  thaler  of  1671  with  the  titles  of  Leopold  I.  and  on  obv.  Man: 
Nova  :  Civit :  Northeimans  :  fetched  600  marks. 

Novara,  a  seat  of  republican  coinage  under  imperial  sanction,  I2th- 
I4th  c.  and  in  the  I5th  c.  of  the  Farnese  family.  A  money  of  Pier 
Luigi,  Duke  of  Parma  (1545-47),  bears  on  rev.  Novaria,  or  Novarice. 
Marchio.  Giov.  Visconti,  Bishop  of  Novara,  1329-42,  struck  money 
here  as  Count  of  Domodossola.  Comes  Assole.  This  mint  was  closed 
in  1547. 

Novellara,  Modena,  probably  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  coins  of 
small  values  struck  by  the  Counts  of  Novellara  of  the  house  of  Gonzaga, 
1 6th- 1 7th  c.  No.,  or  Novel. 

Novo-Torjok,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Noyon,  a  bishopric  which,  with  Tournay,  was  annexed  to  the 
proprietary  domain  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Medard  at  Soissons  in  531.  It 
was  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve  and  Eudes  in  the  9th  c.,  and  of  the 
Bishops  and  Counts  from  the  lothor  nth.  A  denier  of  Renaud,  1175- 
88,  bears  a  double  crozier  significant  of  the  former  union  of  the  two 
dioceses  ;  but  the  earlier  money  is  not  at  present  known.  Naviomus. 

Niirnberg,  Bavaria,  an  important  place  from  a  very  early  period,  and 
the  source  of  a  long  and  extensive  series  of  coins  in  all  metals.  Much  of 
the  money  was  really  struck  under  the  authority  of  the  burgraves  else- 
where :  at  Neustadt,  Zenn,  Swabach,  etc.  There  is  a  gold  ducat  of  1507 
with  Moneta  Vrbis  D.  Nvrmbcrg  and  the  date,  and  on  rev.  a  standing 
figure  and  Sanctvs  Lavrencivs.  We  may  also  mention  the  ducat  of 
1617  commemorative  of  the  Reformation,  reading  Ecclesia.  Norica. 

Nyon,  Cant,  of  Vaud,  Switzerland,  a  place  to  which  the  mint  of  Louis, 
Seigneur  de  Vaud,  was  transferred  in  1299,  on  account  of  his  interference 
with  the  rights  of  the  Bishop  of  Lausanne.  He  compromised  the  matter 
in  1308.  Nyon  reverted  to  the  Counts  of  Savoy  under  Le  Comtc  Vert, 
Amadeus  VI. 

Obenbach,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishop  of  Treves,  Werner  von  Falkenstein 
(1388-1418).  A  gold  ducat  reads  Moneta  Nova  Ovenb. 

Oberkirch,  Alsace,  one  of  the  provisional  or  necessitous  mints  of  the 
See  of  Strasburgh  about  1682,  when  the  city  took  possession  of  the 
coinage  within  the  walls. 

1 40  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Oberwesel,  Prussia,  19  miles  from  Coblentz,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishops 
of  Treves,  1 4th- 1 5th  c.  Wesalia. 

Odense,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Odsvn.  Odn.  Ottois. 

Oettingen,  Bavaria,  the  capital  of  a  once  independent  countship,  after- 
wards a  principality,  a  mint  from  the  I4th  to  the  i6th  c.  In  1458  the 
Duke  of  Bavaria  forbade  the  imitation  of  his  coinage  by  the  Count  of 
Oettingen.  There  were  other  mints  at  Wemdingen  (1395)  and  Waller- 
stein.  Pieces  in  all  metals — florins,  thalers,  kreutzers,  batzen,  pfennigen — 
were  struck.  There  are  square  coins  with  Vo.,  a  dog  and  a  St.  Andrew's 
cross.  Ofing.,  or  Otingensf,  usually  occur. 

Oldcnburgh,  now  the  capital  of  a  grand-duchy,  but  in  the  1 5th  c.  was 
a  seigniorial  fief  with  an  independent  Graf  or  Count.  There  is  a  grote  of 
Nikolaus,  Count  of  Delmenhorst  (1423-47)  with  Nicolai  Domini 
Oldenbor1,  and  a  stuber  of  Johann  XIV.,  1505,  with  lohs.  Coma1,  in 
Oldcbor1  Anno  Domini  MCCCCCV.  This  city  seems  to  have  been  the 
seat  of  the  money  of  necessity  struck  by  Christian  I.,  King  of  Denmark, 
during  a  long  series  of  years  (1448-81).  A  4-skilling  piece  of  Frederic  I. 
of  Denmark,  1532,  represents  the  King  seated  on  his  throne,  the  arms  of 
O.  at  his  feet. 

Oldcnburgh  Mints :  Birkenfeld,  Jever,  Kniphausen,  Vechte,  Wildes- 

Olmutz,  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  prince-bishops. 

Oppenheim,  Hesse-Darmstadt,  a  mint  of  the  Emperors  (i2th  c.),  of  the 
Counts  palatine  of  the  Rhine  (i3th-i4th  c.),  and  of  the  town.  Oppen- 
hcim,  or  Oppcnh. 

Opsolo,  or  Opslo,  Sweden,  the  place  of  mintage  of  money  of  necessity 
struck  by  Christian  II.  during  the  war  against  Frederic  I.  of  Denmark 
in  1531. 

Orange,  12  m.  N.  of  Avignon,  the  capital  of  the  former  county  or 
principality  of  the  same  name,  and  the  place  of  origin  of  a  series  of  coins, 
at  first  limited  to  small  silver  deniers,  from  the  I2th  to  the  I7th  c.  The 
earliest  pieces  bear  W.  Priccps.  Arasc.,  and  on  rev.  Imp.  Fredericus, 
the  original  concession  having  been  granted  by  Frederic  Barbarossa  in 
1178  to  Bertrand  I.  de  Baux,  first  Prince  of  O.,  of  whom,  however,  no 
money  seems  to  be  at  present  known.  The  later  coinage  in  silver  and 
gold,  with  the  portraits  of  the  reigning  sovereigns  of  the  house  of  Orange- 
Nassau,  is  very  well  executed  and  very  interesting.  But  gold  had  been 
introduced  under  Raymond  IV.,  1340-93,  of  whom  there  are  francs-a- 
pied  and  florins.  The  types  of  Lyons,  Le  Puy,  Gap,  and  Saint-Paul- 
Trois-Chateaux,  were  copied  on  the  older  money.  A  franc-a-cheval  of 
Raymond  IV.  has  been  mentioned  ;  but  no  example  is  known.  The 
silver  e*cus  and  their  divisions,  and  the  gold  pistoles  of  Guillaume  de 
Nassau,  the  Silent,  Philippe  Guillaume,  Maurice,  Frederic  Henri,  Guil- 
laume, and  Guillaume  Henri  (1544-1688),  represent  the  most  important 
features  in  this  series.  Two  douzieme  d'e"cu  of  Guillaume  Henri,  1661  and 
1665,  differ  in  the  shields  ;  the  former  bearing  the  arms  of  France,  the 
other  those  of  Orange — the  lions  and  cornets.  Arasc.,  Aur.,  Aurastce, 

Orbec,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Orbeg. 

Orbetello,  Tuscany,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  few  coins  (1782-98)  of 
Ferdinand  IV.,  King  of  the  Two  Sicilies.  There  is  a  piece  in  copper  of 
4  quattrini,  1782,  with  Reali  Presidii.  Qvattrim '////.,  1782,  in  four  lines. 

Ore/lies,  Dept.  of  Nord,  near  Douay,  a  seat  of  municipal  or  urban 
coinage  from  the  end  of  the  I2th  c.  (1188).  Mailles,  with  Orcsiet. 

Catalogue  of  E^lropean  Mints  141 

Orciano,  near  Pesaro,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  Marchesi  d'O.  of  the 
Obizzi  family,  1790-96. 

Orgelet,  Dept.  of  Jura,  arrond.  of  Lons-le-Saulnier,  a  mint  between  1341 
and  1350  of  Jean  de  Chalon,  Comte  d'Auxerre  et  de  Tonnerre,  who  was 
disqualified  by  the  regulations  of  1315  from  striking  money  in  France.  In 
1363  his  son  was  using  the  mint,  and  like  his  father  was  excommunicated 
by  the  Primate  of  Vienne.  Billon  only. 

Orleans,  doubtless  a  Merovingian  mint,  as  one  of  the  sons  of  Clovis, 
on  the  division  of  the  kingdom  in  511,  made  it  his  capital.  It  was  a 
Carlovingian  place  of  coinage  and  one  of  Eudes,  987-98.  A  piece  of 
24  sols  of  Louis  XV.,  1767,  was  struck  here,  and  one  of  the  same  value  of 
Louis  XVI.,  1787. 

Ortenburg,  Austria,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  of  thalers,  etc.,  1636,  of 
Cardinal  Wiedmann,  Count  of  O. 

Ortona,  Naples,  a  mint  of  Joanna  II.,  Queen  of  Naples,  1414-35  ;  of  the 
town,  1459-60;  and  of  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  1495.  Charles  struck  a 
cavallo  here  with  (on  rev.)  Orto?ia  Fidelis  R\egi\  F\ranciceY\ 

Orvieto,  Papal  States,  a  communal  mint  from  1341  to  1354,  and  the 
place  of  origin  of  a  bolognino  with  Vrbs  Vetvs  and  V.  in  field  between 
three  stars  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Sea.  Maria. 

Osnabriick,  Hanover,  the  mint  of  the  bishops  and  chapter,  I2th-i3th  c. 
The  distinguishing  symbol  is  a  wheel.  There  is  a  curious  series  of 
pfennigen  and  deniers  in  copper  of  a  later  date,  with  their  multiples,  apper- 
taining to  the  See  and  town,  including  a  piece  of  9  pf.  A  thaler  of  Leopold 
I.,  1693,  was  struck  there  ;  and  money  of  necessity  appeared  in  1633. 

Ostend,  the  home  of  a  denier  of  the  I3th  c.  with  a  full-faced  bust  of 
St.  Martin  and  Ostd. 

Otterndorf,  a  mint  of  the  duchy  of  Lauenburgh,  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  Danish 
money  was  struck  here  in  1830. 

Oudewater,  S.  Holland,  besieged  and  burned  by  the  Spaniards  in 
1575,  the  place  of  origin  of  money  of  necessity  in  tin  issued  at  that  time. 
We  have  met  with  a  piece  of  40  stuivers. 

Oye,  Kasteel  van,  or  Castle  of  Oye,  Brabant,  an  occasional  or  special 
place  of  coinage  of  Marie  de  Brabant  (1371-90). 

Paderborn,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  seat  of  urban  and  episcopal  coinage 
from  the  I3th  c.,  with  interruptions,  to  the  i8th. 

Padua,  the  seat  of  a  tolerably  extensive  coinage  of  the  republic,  I3th- 
I4th  c.,  and  of  the  Carrara  family  down  to  the  commencement  of  the 

Padua:  Francesco  II.,  1388-1406.     Copper. 

1 5th,  when  the  city  and  territory  were  annexed  to  Venice  (1405).     The 
aquilino,  carrarino,  and  grosso  carrarese  in  silver,  and  some  exceedingly 

142  The  Coins  of  Europe 

curious  copper  pieces  of  at  least  two  types,  belong  here.  The  Venetian 
coinage  seems  to  have  been  executed  at  headquarters,  like  that  for 
Bergamo,  Friuli,  etc.  The  mint  was  closed  in  1405-6.  It  is  proper  to 
mention  that  the  copper  money  above  referred  to  is  set  down  in  the 
Rossi  Catalogue,  1880,  as  belonging  to  the  category  of  tessere  or  tokens  ; 
but  this  is  a  doubtful  point. 

Palermo,  a  mint  of  the  Arab  emirs  of  Sicily,  loth-nth  c.,  and  of  the 
kingdom  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  I7th-I9th  c. 

Pallant.     See  Cidlemborg. 

Palma,  cap.  of  Majorca,  and  probable  place  of  mintage  of  certain 
coins  mentioned  under  Majorca.  Some  of  the  pieces  bear  a  P. 

Palma-Nuova,  Udine,  the  place  of  coinage  of  thick  plated  pieces  of 
50  and  25  centesimi  with  the  Italian  titles  of  Napoleon  I.,  struck  during 
the  blockade  by  the  Allies  in  1814. 

Pamiers,  a  mint  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Foix  (iith-i4th  c.),  whose 
domains  were  amalgamated  with  Beam.  Fnxii.  No  specimens  which 
can  be  confidently  attributed  to  this  place  are  known  ;  but  certain  pieces 
of  low  standard,  struck  here  about  1420,  were  suppressed  or  prohibited 
by  the  Crown  in  1421-22. 

Pampeluna,  Navarre,  the  principal  town  of  this  part  of  Spain  in  the 
Middle  Ages,  and  probably  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  Counts  of  Bigorre 
(9th-i4th  c.).  Henry  IV.  of  France,  after  his  accession  to  the  throne  of 
that  kingdom,  and  the  annexation  of  Lower  Navarre  to  the  Crown,  struck 
coins  for  special  currency  there,  and  the  later  Bourbon  princes  have  done 
the  same  thing. 

Parchim,  Mecklenburgh,  a  seigniorial  mint,  1 4th- 1 5th  c.  Moneta 
Parchem  R.  Civit.  Dni.  D.  Werle.  The  same  person  had  a  second  mint 
at  Malchin  (Moneta  Malchinen.*). 

Paris,  a  mint  of  the  successors  of  Clovis  I.  in  that  portion  of  his 
dominions  after  511,  more  particularly  of  Clovis  II.,  of  the  Kings  of 
Neustria,  of  the  Capetian,  Valois,  and  Bourbon  Kings  of  France,  and  of 
the  Napoleon  dynasty.  A  denier  of  Charles  le  Chauve  was  struck  here. 
During  the  First  Revolution  the  Hotel  des  Monnaies  produced  for  the 
first  time  the  modern  type  of  the  franc  (in  a  5-fr.  piece  only)  and  the 
centime ;  and  Monneron  issued  his  series  of  medaillcs,  or  copper  tokens, 
in  substitution  for  assignats,  of  which  the  worth  at  one  period  declined, 
till  it  required  from  15,000  to  25,000  livres  in  paper  to  pay  for  a  pair  of 
boots.  These  tokens,  for  which  Monneron  had  a  patent,  were  for  2  and 
5  sols,  and  a  second  firm,  Lefevre  &  Cie,  brought  out  similar  ones  for  10 
and  20  sols.  The  earlier  coinage  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Greece  pro- 
ceeded from  this  mint,  as  also  did  and  does  that  for  the  Colonies.  Prob- 
ably nearly  all  the  essais  or  patterns  of  various  dates,  in  which  this 
series  is  so  rich — even  those  for  the  Franco- Italian  pieces — were  of  the 
same  origin. 

Parma,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  under  imperial  authority  by  virtue  of  a 
concession  from  Philip  of  Suabia,  King  of  the  Romans,  in  1207.  The 
earliest  pieces  with  which  we  have  met  are  oboli,  with  the  name  of  Philip 
on  obv.  and  that  of  the  town  on  rev.  Under  Frederic  II.  (1220-50)  the 
fabric  and  style  greatly  improved.  This  was  subsequently  a  mint  of 
several  of  the  popes,  of  the  Farnese  family,  and  of  the  more  modern 
duchies  created  by  Napoleon  I.,  and  in  favour  of  Marie  Louise.  Some 
of  the  coins  of  the  Farnesi  were  struck,  however,  at  Piacenza,  and  were 
evidently  the  work  of  some  distinguished  artists.  Of  the  money  of  Marie 
Louise,  ex-Empress  of  the  French,  as  Duchess  of  Parma  and  Guastalla, 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  143 

there  are  only  two  dates,  1815  and  1830.  Some  of  the  later  Farnesi  or 
Bourbons  struck  gold  pieces  of  high  values.  There  is  an  especially  rare 
double  scudo  of  silver  of  Ottavio  Farnese  (1547-87),  which  fetched  370 
lire  in  the  Rossi  sale,  and  a  testone  of  the  same  Prince  struck  to  com- 
memorate a  splendid  victory  in  1553.  A  piastra  of  Turkish  type  was 
struck  for  the  Levantine  trade  by  the  last  Duke  but  one,  and  was  sup- 
pressed, it  is  said  ;  only  two  examples  existing.  One  sold  at  the  Rossi 
sale  for  50  lire. 

Passariano,  or  Passerano,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Radicati,  Counts  of 
Cocconati,  i6th  c.  The  territory  was  eventually  ceded  to  Savoy. 

Passau,  Bavaria,  a  mint  of  the  bishops  in  the  early  part  of  the  i6th 
c.,  and  perhaps  of  the  Counts  of  Passau  and  Weisskirchen.  There  are 
batzen  of  1516,  1518,  1522,  etc.  The  thaler  was  struck  down  to  the  i8th 
c.  Comp.  Schlitz. 

Pau-in-Bearn,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Beam, 
nth  c.  Coins  of  Henry  IV.,  1589-1610,  were  struck  for  Navarre  here, 
and  perhaps  also  for  Beam. 

Pavia,  a  mint  of  the  Gothic  kings,  5th  and  6th  c,,  of  the  Lombards 
(whose  capital  it  became),  7th  c.,  and  of  the  emperors,  8th-i3th  c.  There 
is,  belonging  to  this  city,  a  gold  tremissis  of  one  of  the  Lombard  kings, 
7th  c.  Remedi  Cat.,  1884,  No.  2124.  In  the  I3th  c.  it  was  for  a  short 
time  a  republic,  and  afterward  became  subject  to  the  Visconti  family 
(1350-1464).  There  is  a  very  rare  gold  siege-piece  of  1524,  with  1524 
Ces.  PP.  Ob.,  struck  on  the  occasion  of  the  blockade  by  the  troops  of 
Francis  I.  We  have  seen  this  also  in  silver.  The  Lombard  kings 
adopted  on  their  denari  the  Christiana  Religio  type  of  Louis  le  De"bon- 

Pequigny,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Amiens,  a  barony  which  appears 
from  a  charter  of  1300  to  have  then  enjoyed  the  right  of  coinage  ;  but  no 
money  is  known. 

Pereiaslavi,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Pergola,  one  of  the  mints  of  Pope  Pius  VI.  (1775-99).  Only  bronze 
or  copper  money. 

Perigueux,  Dordogne,  a  mint  of  Philip  le  Hardi  in  1280,  and  down  to 
the  1 5th  c.,  when  Charles  VII.  struck  money  there  and  at  Dome. 

Peronne,  Dept.  of  Somme,  the  place  of  origin  of  an  early  denier  with 
Perronensis  Mo. 

Perpignan,  cap.  of  the  ancient  Prov.  of  Roussillon,  now  dept.  of 
Pyrenees,  a  place  of  coinage  under  Arragonese  auspices  from  the  com- 
mencement of  the  I2th  c.,  and  of  municipal,  as  well  as  of  regal,  money. 
It  shared  the  destinies  of  Roussillon  in  being  successively  under  Spanish 
and  French  masters,  each  of  whom  governed  the  operations  of  its  mint. 
The  civic  currency  seems  to  date  from  1427  ;  the  denominations  author- 
ised by  royal  ordinances,  1427-1528,  mention  gros,  half  gros,  deniers, 
doubles,  sanars,  menuts,  etc.  But  for  general  circulation  we  find  as  early 
as  1349  pieces  of  higher  value  and  imitations  of  the  French  ecu  (for,  the 
latter  with  the  A  of  the  Paris  mint  reversed  for  difference.  Perpignan 
was  also  the  seat  of  a  Franco-Spanish  coinage  in  1642-55,  consisting  of  a 
sol,  double  sol,  and  menut,  with  Perpiniani  Ville.,  or  P.  in  the  heart  of 
the  cross.  Another  early  mark  was  a  double  P.  The  mint  seems  to  have 
been  closed  in  1659. 

Perugia,  a  republican  mint  in  the  I3th  c.,  and  from  the  time  of  Leo 
X.  to  the  end  of  the  i8th  c.  an  occasional  one  of  the  popes.  See  Cat. 
Rossi,  1880,  No.  3428,  for  a  notice  of  the  scudo  struck  in  twenty-four 

144  The  Coins  of  Europe 

hours  during  the  Revolution,  with  Repvbblica  Romano.  Pervgia  A.  VII., 
and  on  rev.  Scvdo  within  a  wreath.  Rossi  had  a  copper  proof,  said  to 
be  unique. 

Pesaro,  Italy,  Prov.  of  Urbino-e-Pesaro,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the 
money  of  a  branch  of  the  Sforza  family,  which  held  the  principality  in 
the  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  There  is  a  very  finely  executed  copper  sesino  of 
Giovanni  Sforza  (1489-1510).  The  sovereigns  of  Urbino,  the  Borgia,  and 
Leo.  X.,  also  used  this  mint.  Giovanni  Sforza  struck  silver  money  here, 
as  well  as  that  in  bronze  or  copper.  A  piece  in  the  former  metal  has  on 
rev.  a  standing  figure  of  St.  Paul  and  Pavlo  Cvstodi.  The  copper 
coinage  is  of  more  than  one  type.  Armand  (Mcdailleurs  Italiens,  ii. 
1 18)  mentions  a  sesino  without  a  reverse,  ascribed  to  Francia.  If  so,  both 
this  and  the  one  figured  in  the  text  were  from  the  same  hand,  as  well  as 
the  silver.  The  coins  and  medals  with  the  legends  Patria  Recetita, 
Securitati Pvblicae,  etc.,  appear  to  be  referable  to  the  period  of  Sforza's 
restoration  (1503-10),  which  would  suit  Francia. 

Petersheim,  near  Maestricht,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  of  oboles  by 
Willem,  Seigneur  of  P.  in  the  beginning  of  the  i4thc.,  with  Wies1.  De. 

Phalsburg  and  Lixheim,  Meurthe,  a  principality  erected  by  the 
Emperor  Ferdinand  II.  in  1621  in  favour  of  Henriette,  sister  of  the  Duke 
of  Lorraine,  wife  of  the  Baron  d'Ancerville,  son  of  the  Cardinal  de  Guise. 
The  mint,  presumably  established  here,  struck  some  very  well-executed 
coins  in  silver  and  billon  with  the  bust  of  the  Princess.  The  Lorraine 
types  were  more  or  less  imitated. 

Piaccnza,  a  Lombard  mint  (7th-8th  c.),  and  one  of  the  Emperors 
(i2th-i4th  c.),  of  Giovanni  da  Vigriate,  Lord  of  P.  (1410-13),  and  of  the 
Popes  (1513-45).  A  single  piece,  a  silver  grossetto,  reading  Placentia 
Avgvsta,  and  on  rev.  Redemptio  Nostra,  commemorates  a  brief  interval 
of  autonomy  in  1 500.  The  city  was  subsequently  a  seat  of  the  coinage 
of  the  Farnesi,  Dukes  of  Parma,  and  fell  in  succession  under  the  power 
of  the  Empress  Maria  Theresa,  the  Duke  of  Savoy,  and  the  Parmesan 
branch  of  the  Bourbons. 

Pierre-Chatel,  Vaud,  Savoy,  a  mint  of  Louis  II.  (1302-50).  There  is 
a  double  parisis  with  Lvdovuvs  de  Sa\baudia\,  and  on  rev.  Man.  Pet. 
Castri.  It  appears  to  have  struck  money  down  to  1359. 

Pinerola,  Piedmont,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  Princes  of  Achaia  of 
the  house  of  Savoy,  1334-1400. 

Piombino,  an  urban  mint  by  virtue  of  an  imperial  grant,  1 509,  and  a 
place  of  coinage  of  the  Appiani  and  Ludovisi  (1594-1699).  Pr.  Plumb. 
or  PL  Comp.  Lucca. 

Pisa,  a  republican  mint  under  imperial  authority  (i2th-i4th  c.),  of 
Charles  VIII. ,  King  of  France  (1494-95),  of  a  second  republican  period, 
and  of  the  Medici  and  their  successors  in  the  grand-duchy  of  Tuscany. 
Some  very  beautiful  coins  bear  the  name  of  Pisa  as  the  place  of  origin, 
and  there  are  a  few  small  silver  pieces,  without  the  title  of  any  ruler,  about 
1714 — perhaps  municipal  currency.  These  have  on  obv.  the  Virgin  and 
Svp.  O nines  Speciosa,  and  on  rev.  a  cross  with  Aspice  Pisas.  There  is  a 
danaro  or  mezzo-grosso  of  the  Emperor  Henry  VII.  with  Pise  on  rev., 
which  was  doubtless  struck  before  his  death  in  August,  1314,  at  Ron- 
convento,  near  Sienna. 

Pistoia,  Tuscany,  a  mint  of  the  Lombard  Kings,  7th  c. 

Pithiviers,  or  Pluviers,  France,  Dept.  of  Loiret,  a  mint  of  Philippe  I. 
of  France,  1060-1 108. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  145 

Ploermel,  a  mint  of  John  IV.,  Duke  of  Brittany,  1364-99. 

Podewin,  Olmiitz,  a  castle  belonging  to  the  See  in  1241,  where  Conrad 
III.  in  that  year  gave  the  Bishop  the  privilege  of  founding  a  mint. 

Poictiers,  a  mint  of  the  ancient  Counts  or  Dukes  of  Aquitaine,  of 
Richard  I.  of  England  as  D.  of  A.,  and  of  the  Valois  and  Bourbon  Kings 
of  France. 

Poilvache,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Luxemburgh.  A 
denier  noir  of  Marie  d'Artois,  Dame  de  Poilvache  (1342-52)  was  struck 
here.  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  242.  Comp.  Merande. 

Point  d'Ain,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy,  I4th  c. 

Pomeranian  Mints :  Anclam  (formerly  Tanglin),  Camin,  Coeslin, 
Colberg,  Damm,  Demin,  Franzburg,  Garz,  Gollnow,  Greifenberg,  Greifs- 
wald,  Gutzkow,  Pasewalk,  Pyritz,  Riigen,  Riigenwald,  Schiewalbein, 
Schlawe,  Stargard,  Stettin,  Stolpe,  Treptow-am-Rega,  Ukermiinde, 
Usedom,  Wolgast,  Wollin. 

Pomponesco,  Lombardy,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Gonzage,  Counts  of 
P.,  1583-93.  Low  denominations  only. 

Pont-de-Sorgues,  Provence,  supposed  to  have  been  a  mint  of  the 
Counts  of  Provence  and  the  place  of  origin  of  the  small  silver  pieces 
which  bear  Comes  Palaci.  and  Dux  Marchio  Pit.,  with  the  sun  and  moon 
in  the  field. 

Pontoise,  a  mint  of  Philip  I.  and  Louis  VI.  of  France  (1060-1137). 
Deniers.  Pontesive,  Pontise,  or  Pontisar.  Cash'. 

Ponzone,  Sardinia,  the  mint  of  some  anonymous  marquis.  Closed  by 
order  of  Henry  VII.  in  1310. 

Poperingen,  a  mint  of  Philippe  d'Alsace  after  the  abandonment  of 
Saint  Omer  about  1128,  and  of  Thierri  d'Alsace,  Count  of  Flanders, 

Portia,  a  seigniorial  fief,  and  perhaps  mint,  of  Prince  Annibale 
Alfonso,  1701. 

Portuguese  Mints :  Bahia,  Camora,  Ceuta,  Corunna,  Goa,  Gulmarens, 
Lisbon,  Miranda,  Villa  -  Rica,  Porto,  Pernambuco,  Rio  de  Janeiro, 

Posen,  or  Poznan,  a  place  where  in  the  I3th  c.  Paul  Grzymala,  Bishop 
of  Posen,  struck  denarii  in  conjunction  with  the  Duke  of  Poland.  It  con- 
tinued to  be  a  Polish  mint  till  the  I5th  c.  This  was  perhaps  the  seat  of 
coinage  of  the  grand-duchy  of  Posen  down  to  the  present  c.  We  have 
before  us  a  3-groschen  piece  of  1816. 

Prague,  Bohemia,  the  principal  seat  of  the  Bohemian  coinage  from 
the  loth  to  the  i8th  c.  There  are  deniers  of  fine  silver  of  the  early 
dukes.  The  prager  -  grosch  =  12  pfennigen,  was  first  struck  under 
Wenceslas  II.  from  dies  engraved  by  Florentine  artists,  whom  he  had 
invited  to  his  court.  It  was  extensively  imitated.  There  are  deniers, 
groschen,  and  gold  ducats  of  John,  the  blind  king,  who  fell  at  Crecy  in 
1346,  and  various  coins  of  Frederic,  Count  Palatine  and  King,  1619-20, 
consort  of  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  James  I.  of  Great  Britain,  including 
pieces  of  24  and  48  kreutzer  with  two  different  portraits.  Charles  VI. 
struck  here,  we  believe,  the  rare  coin,  dated  1 740,  and  with  the  ordinary 
titles,  but  of  exceptionally  thick  fabric  ;  it  is  sometimes  classed  with  siege- 
money.  Braga,  Praga,  or  Civitas  Prague. 

Preny,  Lorraine,  a  mint  of  Matthew  II.,  Duke  (1218-51).  A  denier, 
said  to  be  unique,  is  described  in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1208.  There  is 
also  a  grande  plaque  of  John  I.  (1348-89)  belonging  to  this  place. 

Preto,  Ouro  Preto,  or  Villa  Ricca,  cap.  of  the  Brazilian  prov.  of  Minas, 


146  The  Coins  of  Europe 

and  during  some  considerable  time  an  active  Portuguese  mint  for  colonial 

Prisrend,  a  fortress  in  Servia  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  the  place  of 
coinage  of  pieces  bearing  Prisrenh  in  Slavonic  characters,  with  a  seated  or 
standing  figure  of  Christ. 

Provins,  Seine-et-Marne,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Champagne,  and  on 
some  pieces  associated  with  Sens.  Pruins,  or  Privins  Casto.  This  was 
a  seat  of  long  and  extensive  coinage,  but  the  types  are  mostly  unin- 
teresting and  degenerate.  The  portrait  of  the  earlier  coinage  becomes 
toward  the  second  half  of  the  I3th  c.  what  was  known  as  the  peigne  or 
comb,  through  the  ignorance  or  carelessness  of  the  engraver.  A  corrupt 
type  of  the  Roman  interregnal  money,  struck  in  the  name  of  the  Senate, 
was  executed  at  P.  in  the  second  half  of  the  I2th  c.,  and  follows  the  lines 
of  the  original,  except  that  its  origin  is  betrayed  by  the  peigne  cham- 

Prussian  Mints  (minor) :  Dirschau,  Koenigsberg  (closed  in  1798), 
Malborg,  Marienburg,  Memel,  Oliva,  Samland,  Schlochau,  Thorn.  (PROV. 
OF  POSEN)  Bromberg,  Fraustadt,  Gnesen,  Kroeben,  Lissa,  Posen, 
Zuin.  (PROV.  OF  SAXONY  :  Circle  of  Magdeburg)  Alsleben,  Armstein, 
Aschersleben,  Barby,  Croppenstadt,  Falkenstein,  Frosa,  Gardelegen, 
Giebichenstein,  Hakeborn,  Halle,  Oschersleben,  Osterburg,  Osterwick, 
Reinstein,  Salzwedel,  Schoenebeck,  Seehausen,  Seligenstadt,  Stassfiirt, 
Stendal,  Tangermiinde,  Ursleben,  Wegeleben,  Werben,  Wernigerode, 
Wolmerstadt.  (Circle  of  Merseburg}  Artern,  Beichliningen,  Belgern, 
Bibra,  Bornstadt,  Coelleda,  Eckartsberga,  Eilenburg,  Eisleben,  Freiburg, 
Heringen,  Herzberg,  Hettstadt,  Kelbra,  Landsberg,  Liebenwerder, 
Mansfeld,  Memleben,  Merseburg,  Miihlberg,  Naumburg,  Nebra,  Querfurt, 
Rabensvvalde,  Rennstadt,  Sangerhausen,  Schraphau,  Skenditz,  Stolberg, 
Torgau,  Wettin,  Weissenfels,  Wiehe,  Wittenberg,  Zeitz.  (Circle  of  Erfurt} 
Bleicherode,  Clettenberg,  Ellrich,  Erfurt,  Helligenstadt,  Lipprechtrode, 
Lohra,  Miihlberg,  Miihlhausen,  Nordhausen,  Ringleben,  Salza,  Schleu- 
singen,  Thamsbriick,  Trefurt,  Vargula,  Weissensee. 

Pskow,  an  early  Russian  mint.     Comp.  Fraustadt. 

Puy,  or  Le  Pu_y,  Haute-Loire,  the  seat  of  a  long  series  of  episcopal 
coinage  from  the  loth  to  the  I4th  c.,  the  original  grant  having  been  made 
to  the  28th  Bishop  about  920.  The  right  was  contested  by  the  Vicomtes 
de  Polignac  on  two  different  occasions,  when  the  See  paid  25,000  and 
20,000  sols  as  a  compromise.  Deniers,  oboles,  and  pougeoises,  or  £  ob. 

Puy-Saint-Front,  Perigord,  a  mint  of  the  early  Counts,  in  association 
with  the  town,  from  the  loth  c.  There  were  periodical  dissensions  on  the 
subject  of  this  joint,  currency. 

Puygiron,  Dept.  of  Drome,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Valentinois  and 
Diois  of  which  we  hear  in  1327  through  the  condemnation  of  some  of  the 
workmen  to  be  burned  alive  for  uttering  false  money. 

Quedlinburg,  Prussian  Saxony,  the  seat  of  a  convent  in  928  and  of  a 
conventual  or  abbatial  coinage  in  994  by  virtue  of  a  grant  from  Otho  III. 
There  are  bracteates,  groschen,  thalers,  ducats,  and  copper  money, 
usually  bearing  a  figure  of  the  Abbess,  standing  with  a  book,  a  lily,  etc., 
in  her  hand.  In  the  I5th  c.  the  Abbey  made  some  concessions  to  the 
town.  Qvitveli,  Gvddelbv.,  Qvidelgebvr.,  Cvedellnbv,  Qvidelige,  etc.,  are 
readings  on  pieces.  The  ladies  superior  of  this  establishment  were  often 
personages  of  high  rank.  There  is  a  thaler  of  Dorothea  of  Saxony,  lady- 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  147 

abbess,  1617,  and  a  \  thaler  on  the  death  of  Anna  Dorothea  of  Saxe- 
Weimar,  lady-abbess,  1704. 

Quentovic,  Artois,  a  Merovingian  and  Carlovingian  mint,  and  one  of 
the  Counts  of  Flanders  by  the  concession  of  Charles  le  Chauve.  It  is 
mentioned  in  the  Edict  of  Pitres,  864.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  280, 
where  an  esterlin  reading  Cventovici  is  ascribed  to  Cnut  I.,  King  of 
Denmark  and  Northumbria,  but  more  probably  belongs  to  his  son 
Charles.  See  Encre. 

Quimperle,  Brittany,  a  mint  of  John  IV.,  Duke  of  B.,  1364-99.  Kiper. 

Ragnsa,  Dalmatia,  the  seat  of  an  almost  unbroken  republican  coinage 
from  the  I2th  to  the  close  of  the  i8th  c.  The  earliest  money  belonging 
to  this  place  appears  to  be  the  silver  grosso  with  the  figure  of  St. 
Blazius  ;  the  latest  pieces,  silver  thalers,  were  struck  down  to  1798.  One 
before  us  has  a  female  head  evidently  copied  from  the  portraits  of  Maria 
Theresa,  though  intended  for  the  goddess  of  liberty.  The  perpero  and  ^ 
p.  and  the  Venetian  mezzanine  were  also  at  successive  periods  current 
here  ;  but  neither  proceeded  from  the  local  mint. 

Ragusa,  Sicily,  an  ancient  town,  to  which,  rather  than  to  the  cog- 
nominal  place  in  Dalmatia,  should  be  referred  the  copper  coins  modelled 
(like  the  augustale  of  Frederic  II.)  on  the  classical  type,  and  (we  appre- 

hend) improperly  described  as  follari.  One  before  us  (nth  or  I2th  c.), 
found  in  the  Island  of  Sardinia,  has  on  obv.  a  head  intended  for  the  city 
with  Moneta  Ragusii,  and  on  rev.  a  castle  and  Civitas  Ragusii. 

Rambervillers,  Vosges,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  anonymous 
episcopal  coins  of  the  I3th  c. — possibly  of  the  Chapter  of  Metz. 

Randerode,  or  Randerath,  10  m.  N.W.  of  Juliers,  a  seigniorial  mint  of 
the  I4th  c.,  where  the  gros  tournois  was  imitated  by  the  local  lords.  Sch., 
xii.  504,  and  xiv.  319. 

Randers,  Jutland,  a  Danish  mint,  I2th  c.     Ranrosia,  Radrvsias. 

Ratisbon  (Regensburg\  Bavaria,  the  seat  of  imperial,  ducal,  and  epis- 
copal coinage,  and  subsequently  of  an  urban  series  under  the  control  of 
the  Dukes  of  Bavaria  and  the  See  of  Ratisbon.  There  is  a  denier  of 
Henry  I.,  995-1004,  struck  at  this  mint.  We  have  before  us  a  curious 
sede  vacant e  thaler  of  1787  with  the  shields  of  all  the  bishops  and  a 
mitred  bust  of  the  deceased  one,  enclosing  the  papal  type  of  St.  Peter,  with 
the  keys,  in  a  boat. 

Ratzeburg,  Mecklenburg-Strelitz,  formerly  an  episcopal  See,  now  a 
principality,  partly  in  Denmark.  There  is  a  thaler  probably  struck  here 
in  the  I7th  c. 

Ravenna,  a  mint  of  the  later  Byzantine  Emperors,  of  the  Ostrogothic 
Kings  (5th-7th  c.),  of  the  Lombard  Dynasty,  of  the  Bishops  in  conjunction 
with  Charlemagne,  of  anonymous  Archbishops,  1 3th- 1 4th  c.,  (perhaps)  of 
the  Republic  of  Venice,  and  of  the  Popes  at  two  or  three  intervals  of  time. 

148  The  Coins  of  Europe 

We  have  before  us  a  small  bronze  coin  of  the  5th  c.  (part  of  a  follaro) 
with  Felix.  Ravenna  and  a  turreted  head  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Ravenna  in 
a  monogram  within  a  wreath.  The  money  struck  by  Venice  for  this  city 
was  more  probably  coined  in  the  capital.  Felix.  Ravenna.,  Rv.,  DC. 
Ravena.,  or  Eclesie.  Ravene. 

Ravensperg.  Some  of  the  Dukes  of  Gueldres  enjoyed  the  title  of  Count 
of  R.  On  a  gold-gulden  of  Raynald  IV.,  1402-23,  he  is  styled  Co.  R. 
There  is  a  copper  sechscr  of  1621  with  Nvmtnvs  Ravenspvrg,  and  a  piece 
of  12  pfennigen  in  copper  of  1659,  belonging  to  this  place. 

Recanati,  Deleg.  of  Ancona,  the  source  of  some  autonomous  coins 
between  the  i4th  and  i6th  c.,  with  De.  Reca.  Neto.  on  obv.,  and  on  rev. 
Mari.  A.;  others  have  De  Racanati.  and  D.  Rccaneto.,  with  S.  Flavianvs 
on  rev. 

Reckheim,  Brabant,  a  free  barony  and  a  mint  of  the  Heeren  or 
Seigneurs  of  Sombreffe  and  Vlodorp,  who  copied  the  Metz  types.  A 
silver  daalder  of  Hermann  van  Lynden,  1603,  was  apparently  struck  here, 
as  well  as  other  pieces  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Lynden.  There  is  also  a 
considerable  copper  coinage. 

Rccklinghaiisen,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Archbp.  of 
Cologne  1 4th  c.,  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Broech  and  Counts  of  Limburg, 
and  of  the  Counts  of  Recklinghausen.  At  present  it  is  the  capital  of 
the  dukedom  of  Arenberg,  and  was  in  the  last  century  the  seat  of  coinage. 
Relnichsven,  and  Nvm.  Rihlinght's. 

Redon,  Brittany,  a  mint  established  by  John  V.,  Duke  of  B.,  in  1422. 
A  denier  of  the  I3th  c.  reads  Scs.  Martinus  and  Redonis  Civi. 

Regensburg.     See  Ratisbon. 

Reggio,  a  seat  of  episcopal  coinage  in  the  ijth  c.,  and  of  papal  coinage 
(1512-23).  There  is  a  denaro  of  Nicolo  Maltraversi  (1233-93).  Reggio 
subsequently  formed  part  of  the  duchy  of  Modena  under  the  Este 
family.  There  is  a  mezzo  scudo  of  Ercole  II.,  with  the  title  of  Duke  of 
Reggio  only,  and  a  copper  quattrino  with  Regivm  Lepidi — a  recollection 
of  the  Roman  name. 

Reichenstein,  Silesia,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Rosenberg  and  the 
Dukes  of  Liegnitz-Brieg. 

Reims,  Champagne,  a  mint  of  the  Merovingian,  Carlovingian,  and 
Austrasian  kingdoms,  of  the  Counts  of  Champagne,  of  the  Archbishops 
(sometimes  in  concert  with  the  former),  and  finally  of  the  Crown.  The 
last  archbishop  who  struck  money  appears  to  have  been  Jean  de  Craon, 
1355-73.  The  Comte"  was  incorporated  with  the  See  in  the  nth  c.,  and 
the  mint  of  Mouzon,  formerly  belonging  to  the  Abbey  of  Saint  Vannes  at 
Verdun,  was  taken  over  about  the  same  time.  Re.  Remus,  Rimus,  etc. 
A  denier  of  Charles  le  Chauve  has  Remis  Civitas.  One  of  Henri  de 
Dreux,  archbp.  1227-45,  reads  on  rev.  Tebau  Comes. 

Remiremont,  Vosges,  with  Saint  Die",  an  ancient  abbatial  mint,  and 
one  of  the  earliest  places  of  coinage  of  the  duchy  of  Lorraine,  and  Lor- 
raine and  Bar.  The  ecclesiastical  series  have  the  names  of  St.  Peter  and 
St.  Amatus,  and  a  cross  cantoned  with  Ro  Ma  Ri  Cvs.  See  Cat.  Robert, 
1886,  Nos.  1668-82.  Romaricvs.,  or  Romarti. 

Rennes,  Brittany,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Brittany  and  of  ihe  Kings 
of  France  from  Louis  XL  It  is  supposed  that  it  may  have  been  a 
Merovingian  mint  under  a  duke  contemporary  with  Dagobert  I.  A  gold 
franc  of  Francois  II.,  the  last  independent  Duke  (1458-88),  has  Francixvs. 
Dei.  Gracia.  Briton.  Dvx.,  and  an  ecu.  d'or  of  Louis  XII.  reads  (after  the 
union)  Lvdovicvs.  D:  G :  Francor.  Rex :  Britonv :  Dvx.  It  was  prob- 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  149 

ably  in  the' interval  between  the  death  of  Charles  VIII.  in  April  1498, 
and  her  remarriage  to  Louis  XII.,  that  Anne,  daughter  and  heiress  of 
Francis  II.,  struck  the  remarkable  piece  dated  1498,  where  she  describes 
herself  as  Queen  of  France  and  Duchess  of  the  Bretons,  and  does  not 
name  a  consort.  Rennes  was  also  a  mint  of  the  Valois  and  Bourbon 
lines.  The  ecu  of  6  livres  of  Louis  XV.,  1723-5,  was  struck  here.  It  is 
to  be  suspected  that  the  numismatic  records  of  the  city  are  very  frag- 

Retegno,  a  mint  of  the  ancient  family  of  Trivulzio,  1676-1726.  There 
is  a  rare  ducatone  doppio  of  Antonio  Teodoro,  1676.  All  the  larger 
pieces  have  the  effigy. 

Rethel,  subsequently  Retel-Masarin,  Ardennes,  an  important  and 
prolific  mint  of  the  Counts  of  R.  and  Counts  of  Flanders,  etc.,  certainly 
prior  to  1315,  as  it  is  cited  in  the  Monetary  Regulations  published  in  that 
year,  down  to  about  1629.  The  Champagnois  types  were  at  first  imitated 
here.  The  domain  underwent  many  changes  of  ownership,  and  finally 
came  into  the  possession  of  Cardinal  Mazarin.  Regitestensis,  or  Reg. 
Estensis.  In  1357  we  find  Louis  of  Maele,  Count  of  Flanders,  striking 
here,  and  elsewhere  within  the  county,  moutons  d'or  and  gros  d'argent. 
Arches  and  Chateau-Renaud  were  two  fiefs  appurtenant  to  this  property. 

Reuss  Mints :  Dochlau,  Gera,  Greiz,  Schleiz. 

Reuss,  a  principality  in  Upper  Saxony,  now  divided  into  Reuss-Greitz 
and  Reuss-Schleitz.  But  there  were  formerly  five  divisions  :  Reuss- 
Greitz,  Schleitz,  Gera,  Ebersdorf,  and  Lobenstein.  All  have  struck 
money  in  silver  and  copper.  There  is  a  grosch  of  Heinrich  III.  of 
Reuss- Ebersdorf,  1814.  Heinrich  XX.  of  Reuss-Greitz  struck  a  doppel 
thaler  in  1851,  which  is  now  rare.  Of  the  Lobenstein  branch  there  are 
pfenningen,  etc.,  of  Heinrich  LXXIL,  thus  establishing  the  antiquity  at 
least  of  the  family. 

Revel,  on  the  Gulf  of  Finland,  the  seat  of  a  small  civic  coinage  in  the 
1 3th  and  I4th  c.  under  Polish  control.  There  is  the  schilling  in  silver 
and  the  solidus.  It  also  struck  some  of  the  money  (thalers,  marks, 
schillings,  and  ferdings)  of  the  Order  of  Livonia.  There  is  one  of 
Heinrich  de  Galen,  1555,  with  Hinr :  De  :  Galen  :  Ma  :  Li :  and  on  rev. 
Mo  :  No  :  Revalie  :  \  5  5  5. 

Rheda,  Prussia,  in  the  regency  of  Minden,  formerly  the  seat  of  a  local 
coinage,  chiefly,  if  not  exclusively,  of  copper  money — the  pfenning  and  its 
multiples.  There  is  a  4-pfenning  piece  of  1659. 

Rheina,  Prussian  Westphalia,  the  source  of  pieces  of  1602  of  12,  8, 
and  6  pfenningen,  some  counter-marked  with  a  bar  with  three  stars 
and  3  R. 

Rheinau,  Cant,  of  Zurich,  a  place  of  coinage  of  bracteates  formerly 
ascribed  to  Fishingen. 

Rheinmagen,  Prussia,  Lower  Rhine,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia. 

Rhenen,  Utrecht,  17  m.  from  Amersfoort,  one  of  the  mints  of  the 
Bishops  of  Utrecht  in  the  I4th-i5th  c.  There  is  a  very  rare  gold  ducat 
of  Frederic  of  Blankenheim,  Bp.  of  Utrecht,  1394-1422,  with  Rijnesis. 
Rhenen  was  also  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Cologne,  1 5th- 1 7th  c. 

Rhenish  Mints  (minor)  :  Brauweiler,  Bretzenheim,  Biidelich,  Biiderich, 
Biirnheid,  Cloten,  Saint -Corneli,  Cranenburg,  Dahlen,  Dinslaken, 
Duelken,  Saint-Eucharius  (Treves),  Geilenkirchen,  Gerresheim,  Gladbach, 
Hammerstein,  Hechingen,  Herzogenrade,  Heyde-Terblyt,  Junkheit,  Kern, 
Lennep,  Liessem,  Malmedy,  Manderscheid,  St.  Maximin,  Mere,  Miinster- 

150  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Eiffel,  Neuenaar,  Niederwesel,  Priim,  Ratingen,  Rommersheim,  Saar- 
briicken,  Siegberg,  Simmern,  Sinzig,  Solingen,  Sponheim,  Vallendar, 
Veldenz,  Wassenberg,  Waldfeucht,  Wetzlar,  Wielberg,  Wipperfurt, 

Rhodes,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  Leone  Gabalas,  I3th  c.,  who  appears 
to  have  struck  here  a  bronze  coin  with  Greek  legends  ;  for  a  short 
time  a  place  of  Genoese  coinage,  same  c.  ;  and  the  mint  of  the 
Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  from  the  beginning  of  the  I4th  c.  to  the 
conquest  of  the  island  by  the  Turks  in  1522.  Down  to  the  time  of  Gio. 
Battista  Orsini,  Grand  Master  from  1467  to  1476,  only  the  ^igliato  and 
aspro  in  silver  were  struck.  Orsini  issued  a  gold  ducat  copied,  even  to 
the  legend  on  rev.,  from  that  of  Venice.  The  double  was  introduced  at 
the  beginning  of  the  i6th  c.,  and  there  is  a  very  rare  piece  of  P'abrizio 
del  Carretto,  G.  M.  1513-21,  which  at  the  Rossi  sale  in  1880,  No.  3687, 
fetched  2000  lire.  The  first  G.  M.,  Fulco  de  Villaret  (1310-19),  coined 
a  grosso  of  a  special  type,  differing  from  the  subsequent  series  of 

Riazan,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Ribe,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Ri.  and  a  wheel. 

Ribeaupierrc,  near  Colmar,  Alsace,  a  seigniorial  mint  from  the  I3th 
c.  It  received  a  concession  from  Charles  V.  of  Germany  in  1550,  and 
we  have  a  silver  florin  or  gulden  with  the  name  Egenulfus,  and  the 
date  1564. 

Ribnitz,  a  Mecklenburgh  mint  in  1430. 

Riel,  a  mint  of  the  Archbishops  of  Cologne,  1 4th- 1 5th  c.  There  is  an 
early  dated  gold  florin  of  Thierry  II.  of  Mceurs,  1414-63.  Cat.  Robert, 
1886,  No.  2046.  This  piece  follows  the  style  of  those  of  the  Palatinate. 

Rictbcrg,  Westphalia,  a  seigniorial  county,  now  part  of  the  princi- 
pality of  Kaunitz.  The  independent  proprietors  formerly  coined  money 
of  low  values.  There  is  a  i  thaler  lantnmncz,  with  the  titles  of  Fer- 
dinand II.  (1620-38),  and  a  copper  piece  of  4  pfenningen,  1703. 

Riga,  a  mint  of  the  Knights  of  the  Order  of  Livonia,  i6th  c.  There 
is  a  solidus  of  Hermann  von  Bruggenau,  Master  in  1536,  struck  here, 
as  well  as  other  pieces.  Riga  was  also  a  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  inde- 
pendent Kings  of  Poland,  and  at  one  period  of  those  of  Sweden.  There 
is  a  rare  thaler  of  Charles  XL,  1660. 

Rimini,  a  republican  autonomous  mint  in  the  I3thc.,  and  a  seigniorial 
one  of  Sigismondo  Pandolfo  Malatesta  in  the  I5th.  The  coins  are  un- 
common. The  republican  grosso  and  $  grosso  bear  the  figures  of  St. 
Gaudentius  and  St.  Julian  and  DC  Arimi  No,  or  D.  Arimino.  Other 
forms  are,  Arimini,  or  Riminensis. 

Riom,  Puy-de-D6me,  the  capital  of  the  portion  of  Auvergne  given  by 
Louis  IX.  to  his  brother  Alphonse.  There  are  deniers  with  the  chatel, 
copied  from  the  gros  tournois,  and  Anfours.,  or  Alfunsus.,  Comes.,  and 
Riomcnsis.,  or  De.  Riomensis. 

Rochefort,  Dept.  of  Jura,  N.  of  Lons-le-Saulnier,  the  place  of  origin  of 
a  denier  of  Tristan  de  Chalon,  Comte  d'Auxerre,  about  1363,  with  S. 
Cabilon.  and  Rocofort.  Now  a  village. 

Rode.     See  Hertogen-rode. 

Rodez,  or  Rhodez,  Dept.  of  Aveyron,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  ancient 
Counts  of  Rovergue  and  Rodez,  iith-i4th  c.  There  seems  to  have  been 
in  or  about  1160  a  compact  between  the  secular  lords  and  the  bishop, 
by  which  the  latter  struck  the  money,  and  received  during  the  continu- 
ance of  the  process  12  deniers  per  week.  Rodes  Duco.,  or  Rodes  Civis. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 5 1 

Rodigo,  Lombardy,  probably  a  mint  of  the  Gonzage  of  Mantua, 
1483-96,  as  Marquises  of  R. 

Rogoredo,  (?)  Sardinian  States,  near  Bellinzona,  a  mint  of  the  Tri- 
vulzio  family,  Marquises  of  Vigevano,  i6th  c. 

Rolduc.     See  Hertogen-rode. 

Romans,  Dept.  of  Drome,  a  mint  under  Charles  VI.  of  France  (ord.  of 
Sept.  ir,  1389),  and  of  Francis  I.,  1515-47,  for  Dauphiny.  A  point  under 
second  letter. 

Rome,  an  Ostrogothic  and  Lombard  mint,  6th-8th  c.,  and  one  of  the 
Popes  from  the  8th,  at  first  under  Carlovingian  control  or  sanction  ;  the 
seat  of  coinage  of  the  pieces  struck  during  the  absence  of  the  pontiffs  in 
the  name  of  the  Roman  Senate  and  people  ;  and  finally  of  the  Holy  See 
down  to  the  reign  of  Pius  IX.  and  the  formation  of  the  modern  kingdom 
of  Italy.  Many  of  the  papal  coins,  however,  were  struck  elsewhere — at 
Avignon,  Perugia,  Bologna,  Terni,  San  Severino,  Gaeta,  Paris,  etc.  One  of 
the  most  remarkable  pieces  connected  with  the  city  is  the  irregularly-shaped 
silver  ducat  of  Clement  VII.,  coined  during  the  siege  of  Rome  by  the 
troops  of  Charles  V.  in  1527,  with  the  arms  and  title  on  obv.,  and  Dvcato 
within  a  wreath  on  rev.  Two  years  only  previous,  the  same  pontiff  had 
issued  a  jubilee  5-sequin  piece  in  gold,  with  sanguine  and  triumphal 
inscriptions.  The  coinage  for  the  Roman  Republic  of  1798-99,  consisting 
of  a  gold  and  silver  scudo  and  a  baiocco  and  2^  bai,  was  engraved  by 
Tommaso  Mercandetti.  In  1846  Pius  IX.  struck  a  scudo,  a  baiocco, 
and  a  \  bai  ;  the  die  of  the  scudo  was  soon  afterward  accidentally 
broken  or  damaged.  But  we  have  also  a  pattern  scudo  of  the  same 
date,  with  the  arms  of  the  senior  cardinal,  Riario  Sforza,  and  the  legend 
Sede  Vacante.  At  the  Rossi  sale  in  1880  occurred  a  very  extensive  series 
of  papal  coins  from  Adrian  I.  (772-95)  ;  and  a  few  of  the  silver  danari 
and  of  the  scudi  d'oro  realised  very  high  prices.  A  danaro  of  Teodoro 
II.  and  Lamberto  (898-900)  brought  £17  :  123.,  and  one  of  Giovanni  XI. 
(930)  was  carried  to  .£30.  Two  gold  zecchini  of  Pio  III.  (1503)  produced 
£74  and  ^72.  Others  realised  .£36,  ^29  :  I2S.,  etc.  The  result  was  at 
the  time  a  surprise.  There  is  a  2o-franc  piece  of  Napoleon  I.,  1813, 
belonging  to  this  mint  with  the  wolf  and  twins  on  rev. 

Romorantin,  near  Blois,  a  seigniorial  mint,  which  produced  pieces  of 
the  Blois-Chartres  type,  with  Remorantini.,  or  Remerensis.  One  piece 
bears  T.  Co.  Remvr.,  and  is  attributed  to  Thibaut  V.,  Count  of  B., 

Ronciglione,  Viterbo,  the  seat  of  a  temporary  coinage  during  the 
German  occupation  of  the  prov.  of  Viterbo,  1799-1800.  A  silver  proof  of 
the  madonnina  of  1799  nas  on  rev-  LJ  Incendio.  Di.  Ronciglione.  Anno 
1799.,  with  a  view  °f  the  city  in  flames.  A  papal  mint,  1799,  Sede 

Ronco,  in  the  Genoese  territory,  a  mint  of  the  Spinola  family,  Marquises 
of  Roccaforte  (1647-99). 

Roquefeuil,  Nismes,  originally  an  independent  fief,  but  carried  by 
marriage  into  the  lordship  of  Anduze-Sauve.  The  deniers,  only  struck 
between  1169  and  1239,  are  imitations  of  those  of  A.,  and  read  Roca- 
foliens,  and  on  rev.  Lex  Prima  M\pnetel\  in  allusion  to  the  fineness. 

Roskilde,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Rose. 

Rostock,  Mecklenburgh-Schwerin,  the  seat  of  a  long  and  tolerably 
extensive  coinage,  chiefly  of  the  lower  values,  from  the  I2th  to  the  igth  c. 
There  were  several  monetary  conventions  between  R.  and  other  towns. 
As  early  as  1361,  R.  had  an  unrestricted  right  of  coinage.  The  earlier 

152  The  Coins  of  Europe 

mark  was,  like  that  of  Wismar,  a  bull's  head  on  a  triangular  shield,  for 
which  a  griffin  passant  was  afterward  substituted.  RO-SS-  TO,  Rostocke, 
or  Rostokcen.  R.  became  in  the  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  one  of  the  mints  of  the 
undivided  duchy  of  Mecklenburgh.  There  is  a  silver  piece  with  Civitas 
Magnop  [Rostock],  and  on  rev.  Moneta  Wysmar.  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No. 
2165.  Comp.  2155. 

Rothau,  near  Strasburgh,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  Palatine  of  Deux- 
Ponts-Veldenz,  mentioned  in  a  document  of  1621.  No  money  known. 
Another  seat  of  coinage,  of  which  no  remains  exist,  was  Schelstadt  in 
the  same  vicinity.  The  Counts  also  struck  money  at  Weinbourg  in  the 
1 6th  c 

Rothweil,  or  Rottweil,  Wiirtemburgh,  a  mint  after  1512  for  pieces  in 
gold  and  silver  with  an  eagle  and  globe.  It  seems  to  have  continued 
down  to  1623,  under  which  date  there  is  a  very  rare  thalerklippe,  or  square 
thaler,  of  1623,  with  the  titles  of  Ferdinand  II.  on  rev.,  and  on  obv.  Moneta 
Nova  Rotwilensis.  1623.  Reinmann  sale,  1891-92,  Part  ii.,  No.  7037, 
2550  marks=^i47  :  los,  The  Townshend  collection  of  Swiss  coins  has 
a  grosch  of  the  I5th  c.,  and  a  second  of  1622,  as  well  as  a  dicken  of  the 
latter  date,  with  Moneta  •  Nova  •  Rotwilensis  • ,  or  Moneta  •  N  •  Rotwcle  • , 
or  Mo  •  No  •  Rotwilensis  • 

Rouen,  a  more  or  less  busy  place  of  coinage  from  the  Carlovingian 
era.  This  mint  was  employed  by  the  successors  of  Charlemagne,  by  the 
Capetian  dynasty,  by  some  at  least  of  the  independent  Dukes  of  Nor- 
mandy, by  Henry  V.  of  England  (1420),  and  by  the  Bourbon  Kings  of 
France.  Our  knowledge  of  the  numismatic  series  of  the  Dukes  of  Nor- 
mandy has  been  considerably  increased  of  recent  years  by  finds,  especially 
that  of  1885.  Some  of  the  issues,  with  the  name  of  St.  Romanus,  patron 
of  R.,  are  supposed  to  have  been  under  the  common  authority  of  the 
church  or  chapter  of  Rouen  and  the  dukes,  and  at  their  joint  charge. 
None  of  the  products  of  this  mint  possesses  more  than  a  normal  docu- 
mentary interest,  and  many  are  of  extremely  barbarous  and  illiterate 
work.  Perhaps  one  of  the  earliest  specimens  of  this  seat  of  coinage  is 
the  denier  with  the  corrupt  legend  Vlo  Tvici  Rex,  and  on  rev.  Rotom. 
Ch'ita.,  ascribed  to  a  temporary  possession  by  Louis  IV.  of  France,  936- 
54,  during  the  minority  of  Duke  Richard  ;  but  this  seems  doubtful  and 

Roussillon,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage  from  an  early  period. 
The  town  shared  the  vicissitudes  of  the  prov.  of  R.,  which  at  various 
periods  was  transferred  from  Arragon  to  Majorca,  France,  etc.,  but  was 
during  some  time  under  the  monetary  jurisdiction  of  autonomous  counts, 
of  whom  there  are  coins  struck  here  or  at  Perpignan.  A  denier  of  the 
I2thc.  bears  on  rev.  Rosilonus.  While  it  was  under  the  Spanish  sway,  R. 
issued  deniers  in  its  own  name,  but  on  the  larger  money  is  associated 
with  Barcelona.  Comp.  Perpignan. 

Rovigo,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  Venetian  anonymous  bagattino, 
1 5th  c. 

Roye,  Dept.  of  Somme,  the  conjectural  place  of  origin  of  a  maille  with 
the  name  of  Simon,  the  moneyer  of  Philippe  d' Alsace  at  Amiens  and 
Crespy  (1155-61),  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  R.  between  a  crescent  and  a 

Rudolstadt,  -near  Weimar.     See  Schwarzburg. 

Rugen,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  mint  in  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  Pfennigen 
and  bracteates.  Rvgian. 

Rummen,  an  early  Brabantine  mint  of  the  local  heeren.     Sch.,  Cat. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 5  3 

ix-  373-75-  There  are  various  types  of  groot  and  denier  noir,  or  swaart, 
of  Jan  van  Wesemael,  Arnoud  van  Orije,  etc. 

Ruremonde,  or  Roremonde,  21  m.  from  Venray,  Gueldres,  one  of  the 
mints  of  the  Dukes  of  Gueldres,  I4th-I5th  c.,  and  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain. 
Some  of  the  former  series  struck  here  and  at  Venrade  are  curious  as 
demonstrating  the  armorial  differences  between  damoiseaux  or  minors 
and  those  of  full  age. 

Russon,  prov.  of  Limburg,  Belgium,  a  mint  of  the  heeren  or  seigneurs 
of  that  place,  I4th-i5th  c.  A  gros  tournois  of  Jean  de  Louvain  has 
Moneta.  Rvthes\  Sch.,  ix.  376. 

Saalfeld,  Saxe-Meiningen,  an  abbatial  mint  down  to  1350,  when  the 
abbot  ceded  the  right  to  the  town.  There  is  a  large  bracteate  with  Scs. 
Petrvs  Apostolvs  in.  Salfelt.  It  was  also  an  early  place  of  coinage  of  the 
Counts  of  Schwarzburg,  and  received  in  1448  from  the  Duke  of  Saxony 
a  concession  for  the  lower  values.  The  place  does  not  appear  to  have 
produced  any  coinage  of  importance.  A  heller  of  1726  has  T.E.  in  a 
monogram  under  a  ducal  crown. 

Sabbionetta,  Lombardy,  in  the  Milanese  territory,  formerly  an  inde- 
pendent duchy  in  the  Gonzaga  family  (1559-1671),  and  a  seat  of  coinage. 
The  Dukes  also  struck  money  at  Bozzolo. 

Sagodoura,  Moldavia,  the  place  of  coinage  from  1771  to  1774  of  pieces 
of  5  kopecks  and  3  dengi  in  the  name  of  Catherine  II. 

Sahagun,  Ldon,  an  ancient  abbatial  establishment,  to  which  Queen 
Uraca  and  Alfonso  VII.  successively  (1116-19)  conceded  the  right  of 

Saint-Aignan,  Touraine,  a  mint  of  the  Sires  de  Donzy.  Coins  of  the 
Blois  type.  Sancti  Ainiano. 

Saint-Andre,  formerly  Straeten,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage  in 
the  1 5th  c.  by  Matthias,  son  of  Jan,  Bailli  of  Goch  in  Gelderland,  with 
Mathias.  Van.  Der.  Stras.,  or  Strate. 

Saint-Andre  de  Villeneu-ve-Lez-A'vignons,  a  place  of  coinage  under 
Charles  VI.  of  France  (ord.  of  Sept.  1 1,  1389).  Orig.  m.m.  a  point  under 
2oth  letter  and  from  1540,  R.  The  mint  was  transferred  to  Orleans  late 
in  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV. 

Saint- Ba-von,  near  Ghent,  a  mint  of  Louis  de  Creepy,  Count  of 
Flanders,  1312-46,  if  not  of  Margaret  of  Constantinople,  1244-80. 

Setint-Bertin,  Flanders,  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Bon,  Count  of  Flanders, 

Saint-Brieuc,  Brittany,  a  mint  of  Charles  de  Blois,  about  1314,  during 
his  contest  for  the  duchy. 

Saint-Denis,  France,  a  mint  of  Charles  le  Chauve. 

Saint-Die,  Vosges,  one  of  the  earliest  places  of  coinage  of  the  duchy 
of  Lorraine,  and  probably  at  a  prior  period  an  abbatial  mint,  whence 
came  the  pieces  with  a  crozier  and  a  book,  and  the  reading  Deodatus,  or 
Deodatus  Usus.  Some  very  barbarous  pieces  in  bad  state  are  described 
in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  1663-66.  The  rulers  of  L.  used  this  mint  from 
the  time  of  Gerard  d' Alsace  (1048-70).  Sa.  in.  Diei. 

Saint-Gall,  Switzerland,  an  abbatial  mint  from  947  for  pieces  of  brac- 
teate fabric,  and  an  urban  one  from  1415.  The  addition  of  the  gold 
collar  to  the  rampant  bear  was  given  by  Frederic  III.  in  1475.  There 
are  uniface  pieces  in  gold  and  silver  with  the  civic  arms.  The  plappart 
of  1424  is  the  first  dated  Swiss  coin  at  present  known.  There  is  a  very 
early  and  rare  dicken  of  1505  with  Moneta  Nova  Sancti  Galli,  and  an- 

154  The  Coins  of  Europe 

other  of  1511  slightly  varied.  The  Abbey  of  Beda  Angherrn,  in  this 
canton,  also  struck  money.  We  have  met  with  the  thaler,  \  thaler,  and 
20  kreutzer. 

Saint-Gengoux;  a  mint  of  Louis  VII.  of  France  (1166),  and  possibly 
also  of  the  Abbey  of  Cluny.  Comp.  Cluny. 

Saint-Genix,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy,  1341-55. 

Saint-Georges  de  Boschennlle,  diocese  of  Rouen,  a  possible  abbatial 
mint,  of  which  Blanchet  (Manuel,  1890,  i.  2)  cites  a  bas-relief  exhibiting 
the  process  of  coining  hammered  money  in  the  nth  c.  It  was  perhaps 
a  transfer  from  actual  life. 

Saint -Gery,  near  Cambrai,  the  seat  of  an  ancient  abbatial  mint, 
eventually  incorporated  with  that  of  C.  It  possibly  existed  in  the  time 
of  Charles  le  Chauve  (840-75),  and  in  934  the  Count  of  Cambrai  enjoyed 
the  revenues  of  the  abbey  and  a  moiety  of  those  of  the  castle.  The  pre- 
tensions of  the  Count  were  set  aside  in  947.  None  of  the  coinage  of 
Saint-Gery  seems  to  be  known. 

Saint-Gilles,  Toulouse,  one  of  the  mints  of  the  early  independent 
Counts  of  T.,  at  least  from  the  nth  c.  A  denier  of  Alfonso,  1112-14, 
reads  Anfos.  Conies.,  and  Onor.  Sci.  Egidi.  Others,  which  may  have 
been  struck  here,  at  Toulouse  itself,  or  at  Pont-de-Sorgues,  have  Comes 
Tolosc.,  and  Marti  Puincie.  The  product  was  known  as  the  monnaie 
egidienne,  and  included  the  type  of  the  paschal  lamb,  which  is  found  in 
the  arms  of  Toulouse,  and  in  weights  of  that  city  of  the  I5th-i6th  c. 
The  Marechal  de  Joyeuse  struck  money  here  in  the  time  of  the  League 

Saint-Jean  d1  Angcly  (Angeliacus),  near  Cluny,  an  early  mint,  incor- 
porated in  the  i  ith  c.  (1030-9),  by  the  widow  of  Guillaume  le  Grand,  Duke 
of  Aquitaine,  with  Cluny. 

Saint-Jitlien  and  Salics,  two  chateaux  of  Matthieu  de  Foix,  Comte  de 
Comminges  and  (by  marriage)  Vicomte  de  Beam,  where  in  1421-22  he 
struck  without  authority  certain  money,  which  was  suppressed  in  1425  by 
order  of  the  King. 

Saint- Laurent-les-Chalon,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy,  i5th  c. 
Ancerna,  or  Angrognia  de.  S.  La u rend. 

Saint- Lo,  La  Manche,  near  Coutances,  a  French  mint  under  the  Mero- 
vingian dynasty  and  during  the  reign  of  Philip  le  Hardi  (1270-85),  and 
occasionally  at  a  later  period  coins  with  the  distinctive  mark  C  occur. 
Henry  V.  of  England  struck  money  here  in  1420.  A  franc  d'argent  and 
other  issues  of  Henry  IV.  of  France,  1608,  belong  to  this  place. 

Saint-Martial,  an  ancient  abbey  in  or  near  Limoges,  and  the  seat  of 
an  independent  coinage  from  the  nth  c.  down  to  1315,  when  the  sole 
right  was  vested  in  the  Vicomtes  de  Limoges.  In  1307  we  find  Jean  III., 
V.  de  L.,  doing  homage  to  the  Abbot  for  the  chateau,  the  chatellenie,  and 
the  mint.  See  Barbarin  and  Lemona  in  Cat.  of  Denom. 

Saint-Maurice  d^Agaune,  Valais,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy  I3th 
c.,  and  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Bargen,  Sogern,  and  Nellenburg.  The  first- 
named  acquired  the  imperial  authority  to  strike  here.  The  early  Savoyard 
and  other  pieces  bear  an  image  of  the  local  saint.  A  piece  called  moneta 
maurisiensis  is  supposed  to  belong  to  this  place.  See  Blanchet,  ii.  265. 

Saint- Medard  de  Soissons.     See  Soissons. 

Saint-Mihicl,  or  St.  Michael,  duchy  of  Bar,  diocese  of  Verdun,  a  mint 
of  the  abbots  and  of  the  ancient  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Bar  at  least  from 
the  date  of  a  charter  granted  by  Richet,  Bishop  of  Verdun,  to  the  Abbot 
Uldaric  in  1099,  and  renewed  by  a  successor,  with  leave  to  coin  in  the 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  155 

name  of  the  abbot,  in  1124,  and  (it  is  supposed)  with  right  reserved  to  the 
See  of  Verdun  to  use  the  mint.  This  is  the  only  mint  which  was  re- 
tained by  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine  and  Bar  after  the  union,  about  1420,  of 
the  two  domains  and  titles.  There  is  a  rare  esterlin  of  Edward  I.,  Count 
of  B.,  1302-37,  belonging  here.  S.  Michael. 

Saint-Omer,  an  abbatial,  seigniorial,  and  communal  mint,  Iith-I2th 
c.  Probably  the  money  was  struck,  for  the  most  part,  within  the  Abbey 
of  St.  Bertin,  and  perhaps  the  abbatial  series  and  that  of  the  Counts  of 
Flanders  were  for  some  time  concurrent.  The  former  read  Andomarus, 
and  on  rev.  Bertinus,  or  S.  Pet\r\us,  with  a  figure  holding  a  key  or  a 
crozier ;  some  exhibit  two  croziers  for  the  Abbeys  of  St.  Omer  and  St. 
Bertin.  The  communal  coinage  lasted  during  a  year  only,  having  been 
given  to  the  burgesses  by  a  charter  of  the  Count  of  Flanders  in  1127, 
and  withdrawn  in  1128.  Baudouin  VI.,  Robert  I.,  Charles  le  Bon,  etc., 
employed  this  mint  (1067-1128).  S.  Om.,  Ome.,  Omer,  or  Omes.;  some- 
times St.  Ome. 

Saintonge,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  mint  in  the  Middle  Ages.  It  be- 
longed successively  to  Angouleme,  Aquitaine,  Anjou,  and  Aquitaine,  and 
was  united  to  the  Crown  by  Charles  V.  of  France.  Steinas.  The 
coinage  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  founded  by  a  Count  of  Anjou  in  the 
nth  c.,  was  long  vested  in  that  house. 

Saint-Paul-Trois-Ckateaux  (Augusta  Tricastrinoruni),  an  episcopal 
mint  from  a  very  remote  date.  The  Emperor  Frederic  Barbarossa  con- 
firmed the  right  in  1154.  Money  was  struck  here  for  the  Dauphin  under 
Charles  VI.,  with  a  crozier  as  a  mark  of  the  Bishop's  jurisdiction,  and 
a  proviso  that  the  latter  shared  the  profits.  The  earliest  pieces  bear 
Ave.  Gra.  Plena,  and  on  rev.  Santi  Pauli.  Other  pieces  read  Eps. 
Santi  Pauli  Tricastrin.  There  was  an  attempt  here  to  imitate  the 
Florentine  gold  money  in  a  piece  with  Flor.  Ep.  Tea.  disposed  so  as  to 
resemble  Florentia. 

Saint- Petersburgh,  the  mint  of  some  of  the  Czars  in  the  last  and  pre- 
sent c.,  opened  in  1724.  Some  patterns  of  the  Czarina  Anne,  1740,  and 
of  John  or  Ivan  III.,  1741,  belong  here,  as  well  as  pieces  of  10,  5,  and  2^ 
thaler  in  gold,  and  9  groschen  in  silver,  struck  for  the  grand-duchy  of 

Saint-Pierre,  Metz-in-Lorraine,  supposed  to  be  a  church  or  monastery 
where  a  mint  was  established  by  the  Bishops  of  the  See  or  the  Dukes  of 
Lorraine.  But  see  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  433. 

Saint-Quentin,  Picardy,  probably  the  place  of  origin  of  the  feudal 
coinage  of  Vermandois,  which  does  not  appear  to  have  lasted  beyond 
1214,  when  the  fief  passed  to  the  Crown.  Scs  Quintinus.  Veranumiu, 
etc.  In  1589  Philippe  de  Longueville,  Governor  of  Picardy,  struck 
money  here  in  the  name  of  Henry  III.  with  H.  D1  Orleans  D.  A.  Longa- 
vill.  Faciebat,  or  S.Q.  1589. 

Saint- Remy.  See  Marseilles.  In  1302  the  Seneschal  of  Beaucaire 
was  ordered  by  Philip  le  Bel  of  France  to  seize  and  sequestrate  certain 
tournois  de  Saint-Remy,  struck  by  the  Count  of  Provence,  and  allowed 
to  circulate  outside  his  territory. 

Saint- Symphorien  d'Ozon,  Savoy,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  S.  from 
about  1330  to  1 60 1,  when  this  place  was  ceded  to  France. 

Saint-Trond,  Metz-in-Lorraine,  now  in  Belgium,  prov.  of  Limbourg, 
a  supposed  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Metz  when  the  town  was  within  that 
diocese.  A  mint  of  Robert  de  Langres,  Bishop  of  Lie"ge,  1240-47. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Saint-Venant,  near  St.  Omer,  one  of  the  places  of  coinage  of  the  com- 
munal mailles,  formerly  spread  over  so  large  a  portion  of  Flanders. 
Vnent,  or  Vnaento. 

Saint-Waast,  near  Arras,  an  abbatial  mint  in  the  nth  c.,  and  one 
employed  by  Robert  le  Frison,  Count  of  Flanders,  1073-93.  Robert  II., 
Comte  d'Artois,  1250-1302,  struck  a  denier  here  with  Vcdaste. 

Saintc- Severe,  Bourbonnais,  a  fief  of  the  house  of  Brosse-Huriel,  and 
apparently  a  place  of  independent  coinage  in  the  I3th  c.  There  is  a 
denier  with  Vgo.  Vicecomcs.  and  Sancta  Severn. 

Saintes,  Charente-Infdrieure,  a  mint  of  Louis  VII.,  King  of  France 
(1137-80).  Steinas. 

Salamanca,  a  Visigothic  mint.     Salmantica. 

Salc-au-Comtc,  Perigord,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  P.,  1322. 

Salerno,  the  place  of  origin  of  some  of  the  coinage  of  the  Dilkes  of 
Beneventum,  and  probably  a  principal  mint  of  the  duchy  of  Salerno  and 
of  the  Norman  kingdom  of  Sicily  and  Apulia  under  Robert  Guiscard  and 
his  successors. 

Salics.     See  Saint-Julien. 

Safins,  Dept.  of  Jura,  an  ancient  town,  fortified  in  1411  by  the  Duke 
of  Burgundy.  In  1257  the  Comte  de  Chalon,  a  relative  of  the  Duke  by 
marriage,  had  a  mint  here.  The  place  was  besieged  by  the  French  in 
'477)  !595?  1636,  and  1668. 

Salle-le-Roi,  Poitou,  a  mint  and  hunting-seat  of  Richard  I.  of  Eng- 
land about  1190  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Les  Essarts,  where  there  were 
silver  mines.  In  1784  a  discovery  of  this  place  of  coinage  was  made, 
and  a  denier  of  Richard  was  found  there. 

Salm,  Lorraine  and  Luxemburgh,  a  principality,  of  which  the  two 
branches  have  struck  money  from  the  I3th  c.  to  1782.  The  arms  are 
gules :  2  salmons  arg.,  surrounded  by  4  croisettes  arg.  There  is  a 
demi-gros  a  1'aigle  of  Henri  V.,  Count  of  Salm  in  Ardenne  or  InfeVieur, 

Saluzzo,  Sardinian  States,  a  mint  of  the  marquises  from  1221,  the 
date  of  the  investiture  of  Manfredo  III.  by  Frederic  II.  with  the  fief,  to 
1 563.  M.  Salvtiarvm.  The  coinage  of  this  State  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  1 5th  and  commencement  of  the  i6th  c.  embraces  some  pieces  of 
singular  merit  and  artistic  beauty,  particularly  the  scudi  of  1503  and 
1516,  to  which  reference  may  occur  hereafter. 

Salzburg,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Kaernthen  or 

Carinthia  from  the  loth  c.,  and  of  the  former  down  to  the  i8th.     Some  of 
the  episcopal  money  bears  the  addition  Ac  Epus.  Gvrcen  (Bishop  of 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  157 

Gurk),  and  some  were  struck  in  conjunction  with  the  Dukes.  It  is  a  re- 
markably well-executed  series,  and  comprises  pieces  both  in  gold  and 
silver,  some  square,  of  striking  boldness  and  beauty  of  workmanship. 
Attention  may  be  drawn  to  a  gold  ducat  of  1654  with  a  rosebush  and  the 
motto  Alles  mit  Gott  Vnd  Derzeit,  in  the  name  of  Sophia,  daughter  of 
the  then  prelate.  Money  of  necessity  appeared  in  1593,  1620-24,  and 

Sampigny  (Sampimacvtn).     See  Verdun. 

San  Benigno  di  Fruttnaria,  an  abbatial  fief,  1529-82.  Abb.  S.  Beni., 
or  Benigni.  Comp.  Montanaro. 

Sancerre,  Dept.  of  Cher,  a  seigniorial  mint  from  the  nth  to  the  I7th 
c.  The  deniers  recall  the  legend  that  the  place  was  founded  by  Julius 
Caesar  ;  they  are  mostly  anonymous.  Sacrum  Ccesaris,  Dominus  Ccesar, 
etc.  Etienne  II.,  1037-47,  placed  his  name  on  the  money — StepJianvs 

San  Gervasio,  Sardinian  States,  a  mint  of  the  house  of  Savoy, 

San  Giorgio,  a  seigniorial  seat  of  the  Milano  family,  Marquises  of  San 
Giorgio.  Giacomo  IV.  struck  a  tallero  of  silver,  engraved  by  Roettier, 
with  his  titles,  etc.,  but  whether  here  or  not  is  uncertain. 

San  Marino,  the  ostensible  place  of  coinage  of  pieces  of  10  and  5 
centesimi,  1864,  of  which  there  are  varieties.  But  these  were  actually 
struck  at  Milan. 

San  Martina  dell'  Argine,  a  fief  of  the  Gonzage,  Princes  of  Bozzolo 

.},  1614-71.     Santo.  Martin. 

San  Severino,  one  of  the  papal  mints  during  the  revolutionary  period, 
1797.  There  are  the  5,  i\,  i,  and  ^  baiocchi  struck  here  by  Pius  VI., 
and  a  quattrino. 

Santa  Fiora,  a  palatine  fief  of  the  Aldebrandischi,  I3th  c. 

Santa  Maria  di  Castello,  an  unknown  mint,  to  which  there  is  an  early 
reference,  according  to  M.  Blanchet,  mentioning  "  Moneta  Sanctae  Mariae 
de  floreni  Castellani." 

Santarem,  Estremadura,  a  temporary  mint  of  Antonio,  Prior  of  Crato, 
who,  after  the  death  of  Henry  the  Cardinal,  King  of  Portugal,  in  1580, 
asserted  a  title  to  the  crown.  He  struck  here  a  copper  ceitil,  and  i,  2, 
and  4  reales  in  silver. 

Santia,  Sard.  States,  a  Savoyard  mint,  1630. 

Santiago,  the  place  of  coinage  in  the  nth  c.  of  certain  ecclesiastical 
institutions,  invested  by  Alfonso  VII.  of  Castile  and  Leon  with  the 
privilege  of  striking  money. 

Saragassa,  or  Zaragoqa,  a  Visigothic  mint.  Cesar.  Avgvsta.  And  one 
of  the  Spanish  Kings.  Z. 

Sarrebourg,  France,  Dept.  of  Meurthe,  a  place  of  Merovingian 
coinage,  and  a  mint  of  the  Chapter  of  Metz,  of  certain  anonymous  money 
of  the  1 3th  c.,  etc. 

Sassari,  Sard.  States,  the  supposed  place  of  coinage  of  certain  money 
struck  by  the  judge  or  advocate  of  the  commune,  early  I5th  c. 

Saumttr,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  denier  struck  between  950  and  1026 
by  the  Abbey  of  St.  Florent,  with  Beati.  Florentii  and  a  cross  on  obv.,  and 
on  rev.  Castrv.  Salmvrv.  and  a  key. 

Savona,  Sardinia  Terra-firma,  a  seat  of  anonymous  republican  coinage 
with  Moneta  Saone  or  Saona  (i4th  c. ),  and  the  place  of  origin  of  a  \ 
patacchina  in  billon,  and  perhaps  other  money,  struck  by  the  authority 
of  Louis  XL,  King  of  France  (1461-64),  with  Civitas  Saona  and  an  eagle 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Comvnis  Saona,  a  cross,  and  a  fleur-de-lis.     Francis 
I.  of  France  struck  here  three  varieties  of  the  testone  and  a  pattachina. 

Saxon  Mints,  minor  :  (i.)  the  Electorate,  Duchy,  and  Kingdom : 
Altenzelle,  Bautzen,  Buchholz,  Colditz,  Dohna,  Freiberg  (transferred  to 
Dresden,  1556),  Frohnau,  Grimma,  Groitzsch,  Grossenhain,  Klein- 
Schirma,  Leissnig,  Loessnitz,  Oschats,  Pegau,  Flauen,  Schneeberg, 
Strehla,  Taucha,  Wolkenstein,  Zittau,  Zwickau. 

Saxon  Mints  (ii.)  Duchies,  etc.,  within  Saxon  territory :  (SAXE- 
WEIMAR)  Allstedt,  Apolda,  Arnshaug,  Bergau,  Bargau,  or  Bargel,  Berka, 
Capellendorf,  Cranichfeld,  Gebstaedt,  Gleisberg,  Lobdeburg,  Magdala, 
Mittenhausen,  Remda,  Rothenstein,  Saalborn,  Suiza,  Tanrode,  Weida, 
Windberg.  (SAXE-COBURG)  Cella  St.  Blasii,  Gleichen,  Grimmenstein, 
Ichtershausen,  Koenigsberg,  Krawinkel,  Neustadt-am-Heide,  Reinhards- 
briinnen,  Volkerode.  (SAXE-MEININGEN)  Camburg,  Reichmannsdorf, 
Roemhild,  Wasungen.  (SAXE-ALTENBERG)  Eisenberg,  Kahla,  Lucka, 
Meuselwitz,  Miinsa,  Poelzig,  Roda,  Schmoellen,  Windischleuba.  (AN- 
HALT)  Ballenstadt,  Coethen,  Coswig,  Dessau,  Gernrode,  Hagenrode, 
Harzgerode,  Miihlstadt,  Nienburg,  Ploetzkau,  Rosslau,  Thesa,  Zerbst. 
(SCHWARZBURG)  Arnstadt,  Clingen,  Gehren,  Goldsthal,  Greussen,  Gross- 
Koerner,  Keula.  (S.  -  RUDOLSTADT)  Blankenburg,  Frankenhausen, 
Friedeburg,  Kefernburg,  Koenigsee,  Leutenberg,  Schlotheim,  Stadtilm. 
Saxony.  Duchy  and  kingdom  of  ^  -...•  .  c  T,,  ,  .  •• 
Saxotty  Duchies  in  lMin's'  See  Blanchet,  „.  101-6, 

Saxony,  Prussian  J       ^ r '»  l^~^ 

Schafhausen,  Switzerland,  the  seat  of  the  cantonal  coinage  from  the 
date  of  the  monetary  concession  in  1333.  The  earliest  were  bracteates. 
Many  of  the  pieces  embody  the  legend  or  idea  conveyed  in  the  name. 
It  was  also  a  mint  at  an  early  period  of  Savoy  and  other  States  lying  in 
or  on  the  borders  of  Switzerland. 

Schleiz,  Reuss,  the  source  of  bracteates  of  the  Counts  of  Lobdeburg- 
Arnshaug,  with  a  bull,  a  bull's  head,  or  a  man  carrying  a  bull's  head  in 
his  hand,  I3th  c.  A  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Reuss,  1622-78. 

Schlitz,  Hesse -Darmstadt,  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  independent 
Counts  of  Schlitz,  Passau,  and  Weisskirchen,  whose  castle  still  exists  ; 
i6th-iyth  c.  The  money  usually  bears  on  the  rev.  the  imperial  arms  and 

titles.     As  early  as  1516  the  discovery  of  the  rich  silver  mine  of  Joa- 
chimsthal,  Bohemia,  and  its  appropriation  by  the  then  Count,  led  to  the 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  159 

coinage  of  large  silver  pieces  with  the  imperial  or  royal  titles  by  the  owner. 
The  first  bear  date  in  1518.  The  right  of  coinage  is  said  to  have  been 
abolished  by  the  Emperor  Ferdinand  in  1528,  shortly  after  the  death  of 
Louis,  last  independent  King  of  Bohemia,  in  1526.  There  is  a  thaler  of 
this  type  with  the  name  and  titles  of  Louis,  dated  1525.  See  Joachims- 
thai  supra. 

Schmalkalden,  Hesse,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Henneberg,  I3th  c.  ; 
of  the  Landgraves  of  Hesse,  I4th-i5th  c.  In  1455  tne  Duke  of  Saxony 
interdicted  the  coinage  by  the  latter  of  pfennigen  of  bad  quality.  Smal. 
Smalkald.,  or  a  crowned  S. 

Schonau,  Baden,  the  place  of  origin  of  thalers  of  Theodore  von 
Milondorck,  1542,  and  of  4-heller  pieces  of  John  Gottfried  de  Blancha, 


Sckoneck,  Prussian  Poland,  in  the  regency  of  Dantzic,  on  the  left  bank 
of  the  Rhine.  A  seigniorial  mint  in  the  I4th  c.  There  is  an  esterling  of 
Hartard  (1316-50) ;  it  is  of  excellent  execution,  and  is  figured  in  Cat. 
Robert,  1886,  No.  2159. 

Schoonhoven,  S.  Holland,  the  place  of  issue  of  tin  money  of  necessity 
during  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1575.  We  have  the  12,  6,  5,  4, 
and  3  stuivers  with  S.  in  a  wreath. 

Schoonvoorst)  Brabant,  a  seigniorial  mint,  where  the  popular  gros 
tournois  was  counterfeited.  See  J.  de  Chestret  de  Haneffe,  Renard  de 
Schonau,  Sire  dc  Schoonvorst :  Un  gentilhomme  financier  du  XIVme 
siecle,  1892. 

Schwabach,  Bavaria,  a  mint  of  the  Margraves  of  Brandenburgh,  i$th 
c.  A  solidus  of  Friedrich  III.,  1440-71,  was  struck  there.  Also  an 
occasional  place  of  coinage  of  the  Kings  of  Prussia. 

Schwalenberg,  Prussia,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  I4th  c.,  connected 
with  the  ancestors  of  the  house  of  Waldeck-Pyrmont.  There  are  deniers 
of  the  Counts  Volquin,  Widekind,  etc. 

Schivarzburg,  near  Weimar,  Saxony,  with  Koenigsee,  Rudolstadt, 
Remda,  Stadtilm,  and  Arnstadt,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  Counts  of  S. 
and  S. -Rudolstadt.  There  are  bracteates  of  the  I4th  c.  The  earliest 
thalers  were  in  1515.  Co.  I.  Sc.  There  is  a  rare  \  thaler  on  the  death 

of  the  Countess  Emilia,  1670,  and  a  very  curious  piece  of  1791  with  a 
wild  man  and  woman  as  supporters  of  the  shield  on  rev. 

Schwarzenberg,  Bavaria,  the  probable  place  of  origin  of  at  least  some 
of  the  coinage  of  the  princes  of  that  place,  now  of  little  importance,  in 
the  1 7th- 1 8th  c. 

Schweidnitz,  or  Svidnitza,  Silesia,  the  seat  of  local  coinage  from  the 
1 4th  to  the  1 6th  c.,  with  a  boar  or  a  boar's  head.  The  right  of  striking 

160  The  Coins  of  Europe 

money  was  purchased  from  the  Duke  of  Bohemia  in  1361  and  from 
Poland  in  1369.  Only  low  values  known.  Stveinig,  or  Sivieni.  The 
town  of  Reichenbach  had  the  right  of  coinage  here  given  by  the  Duke  of 
Silesia  in  1351. 

Schwerin,  Mecklenburgh,  an  episcopal  mint  in  the  I3th  c.,  and  of  this 
branch  of  the  grand-ducal  family  after  the  division  between  Schwerin 
and  Strelitz. 

Schiverte,  Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  de  la  Marck,  I3th  c. 

Schtvyz,  Switzerland,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  from  1424.  Svitensis. 
Comp.  Bellinzona. 

Sao,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  very  rare  gold  zecchino  struck  by  Filippo 
Maria  Visconti,  Duke  of  Milan  (1421-35);  of  a  Genoese  coinage  of  grossi 
and  tornesi  ;  and  of  pieces  of  the  same  class  with  the  names  of  the 
Genoese  podestas  of  the  Giustiniani  family  (i5th-i6th  c.).  One  has 
Civitas.  Chio.  Monet.  Ivstiniana. 

Sebenico,  Dalmatia,  the  possible  place  of  coinage  of  certain  silver 
bagattini  of  the  Republic  of  Venice,  but  more  probably  struck  at  V. 

Sedan,  Champagne,  originally  a  fief  of  the  See  of  Reims,  and,  after 
many  vicissitudes,  the  property,  by  marriage  with  Bouillon,  of  Henri  de 
la  Tour  d'Auvergne,  Manfchal  de  Turenne  (1591).  It  remained  in  that 
family  till  1721,  and  we  owe  to  the  great  Turenne  himself  and  some  of 
his  successors  a  very  remarkable  series  of  coins  in  gold,  silver,  and 
billon,  particularly  the  large  e"cus  from  1591  to  1594,  with  the  portraits  of 
Turenne  and  his  wife,  Charlotte  de  la  Marck,  who  brought  him  the  pro- 
perty. Comp.  Bouillon. 

Segovia,  Old  Castile,  an  early  Spanish  mint,  to  which  are  assigned 
certain  ecclesiastical  coins  of  the  nth  c.  struck  by  monasteries,  and  the 
seat  of  a  coinage  in  the  I7th  c.  Pieces  of  50  reales  in  silver,  of  1618,  1623, 
1626,  belong  here.  The  elder  Don  Carlos  used  this  mint  from  1833  to 
1840  for  occasional  issues  of  silver  and  copper,  with  his  name  and 

Selwerd,  probably  the  seat  of  the  Dukes  of  Gueldres  as  chatelains  or 
seigneurs  of  that  place,  if  not  of  Coevorde,  I4th  c.  A  groot  or  gros  of 
Reinold  or  Raynald  III.,  1344-57,  reads  Reinold.  Dns.  Kovord. 

Scmendria,  Servia,  one  of  the  mediaeval  mints  of  the  Kings  of  Servia, 
who  imitated  the  Venetian  mafapan,  or  rather,  perhaps,  followed  more 
closely  than  Bulgaria  the  fabric  and  metrology  of  that  time.  But  there 
are  varieties  which  may  lay  claim  to  originality  of  pattern.  We  have 
before  us  one  where  the  patron-saint  appears  to  present  the  standard  to 
the  Prince. 

Senlis,  Dept.  of  Oise,  a  mint  of  Hugues  the  Great,  Duke  or  King  of  the 
Franks  of  Neustria,  and  Count  of  Paris,  923-56. 

Sens,Dept.  of  Yonne, a  Merovingian,Carlovingian,and  seigniorial  mint, 
9th-iith  c.  The  archbishops  at  one  period  seem  to  have  had  an  interest 
in  the  coinage  ;  and  comp.  Auxerre  and  Provins.  The  money,  deniers 
and  oboles  only,  was  current  throughout  Champagne,  and  was  imitated 
at  Provins.  Senones  Civitas. 

Serain,  diocese  of  Cambrai,  a  seigniorial  fief  belonging  to  the  Counts 
of  Ligny  in  1304.  There  are  esterlins  and  rijder-grooten  or  gros  au 
cavalier  of  Waleran  I.  and  II.  (1304-53),  with  Moneta  Nova  Serenensis., 
Moneta  Seremne.,  or  Moneta  Serain. 

Seville,  a  Visigothic  mint.     Ispali.     And  of  the  Spanish  Kings.     S-E. 

S1  Heerenberg.     See  Berg, 

S>  Hertogenbosch.     See  Bois-le-Duc. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  161 

Siegen,  .Pruss.  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Cologne,  I3th  c. 
Segen  and  Segensis. 

Sienna,  Tuscany,  a  Carlovingian  mint  and  a  seat  of  republican  coinage 
under  imperial  authority  from  the  nth  to  the  i6th  c.,  except  a  brief 
period  of  subjection  to  the  Duke  of  Milan  (1390-1404).  About  1550  it 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Medici  family.  A  rare  gold  scudo  of  Cosmo  I. 
reads  Cosmvs  Med.  Flor.  Et.  Satiar.  Dvx.  On  rev.  is  Sena  Vetvs 
Civitas  Virginis.  The  latter  inscription  commonly  occurs  on  the 
autonomous  money.  It  may  be  remarked  that  the  Sienese,  in  celebra- 
tion of  a  victory  over  the  Florentines,  struck  a  piece  of  4  gold  scudi  of 

udo  di  oro,  isth  c. 

the  ordinary  type,  on  obv.,  but   having   on  rev.  Manvs   Tve.  Domine 
Fecerunt  Me.     Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  4813,  250  lire. 

Sierck,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine  in  the  I4th  and  I5th  c. 
Cicrk,  Cirkes,  or  Sicrk. 

Sigtuna,  or  Zigtuna,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  earliest  esterlings  of 
Sweden  during  the  reign  of  Olaf  Skdtkonung,  1001-26.  Zin.  Zitvn. 

Silesian  Mints:  Bernstatt,  Breslau,  Brieg,  Frankenberg,  Franken- 
stein (transferred  in  1507  to  Reichenstein),  Freistadt,  Friedeberg,  Glatz, 
Glogau,  Goerlitz,  Goldberg,  Herrnstadt,  Jauer,  Klein-Glogau,  Kreuzberg, 
Lausitz,  Liegnitz,  Loewenberg,  Liiben,  Munsterberg,  Namslau,  Neisse, 
Nickolsdorf,  Oels,  Ohlau,  Oppeln,  Ratibor,  Reichenbach,  Reichenstein, 
Sagan,  Schweidnitz,  Striegau,  Trachenberg,  Trebnitz,  Wartenberg, 

Sinigaglia,  a  mint  of  the  Delia  Rovere  family,  Dukes  of  Urbino 
(i  6th  c.). 

Sirmium,  a  fortress  in  Bulgaria,  of  which  the  Governor,  Sermon, 
struck  in  or  about  A.D.  1019  small  gold  siege-pieces  during  the  struggle 
for  Bulgarian  independence  against  Byzantium  or  Constantinople.  These 
pieces  bear  a  monogram  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  the  name  and  rank  of 
Sermon  in  native  characters. 

Sisteron,  Basses-Alpes.     See  Forcalqnier  and  Toulon. 

Sittart,  or  Sittard,  a  Brabantine  mint  in  the  I4th  c.  There  is  a  groot 
of  Waleran  de  Born  struck  here.  Sch.,  Cat.  vii.  492. 

Sitten,  a  Merovingian  mint  (Sidvnis)  ;  subsequently  of  uniface  coins 
bearing  the  bust  of  St.  Theodolus,  probably  by  virtue  of  the  imperial 
grant  of  1274.  An  episcopal  mint  from  1457  to  1780.  Svitensis. 

Skoplje,  a  mediaeval  fortress  of  Servia,  where  money  was  struck  with 
the  name  of  the  place  of  origin  in  Slavonic  characters. 

Slagelse,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Slahlov. 

Shiijs,  Zeeland,  a  mint  of  Philip  le  Beau,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  in  1492, 
as  Damoiscau  or  minor.  It  struck  money  of  necessity  during  the  siege 
by  Maximilian  I.  of  Austria  in  1492  in  the  name  of  the  Archduke  Philip  : 
a  gold  florin  and  a  briquet  and  double  briquet  in  silver. 


1 62  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Smallenberg,  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Cologne,  I3th  c. 
Civitas  Smalnberg,  or  Smalenbtirgi. 

Sneek,  W.  Friesland,  the  source  of  coins  bearing  Snekensis  and  a 
shield  quartered  with  an  eagle  and  three  crowns. 

Soest,  Prussia,  an  occasional  mint  of  the  Emperors  of  the  West. 
There  is  a  denier  of  Otho  III.,  983-1002,  struck  here.  A  series  of  copper 
pfenningen,  from  the  i6th  to  the  i8th  c.,  belongs  here.  Those  of  the  1 8th 
c.  which  most  usually  occur  (1700-50)  have  Stadt  Soest  and  a  key. 

Sofia,  capital  of  the  principality  of  Bulgaria,  and  the  seat  of  a  coinage 
since  1880. 

Soissons,  the  capital  and  probably  the  mint  of  Clovis  I.  and  perhaps 
also  of  Pepin  le  Bref.  Subsequently  one  of  Louis  le  Uebonnaire,  who 
conferred  the  privileges  and  profits  on  the  richly  endowed  Abbey  of  Saint 
Medard  at  Soissons,  founded  by  Sigebert,  King  of  Austrasia.  At  this 
time  the  coinage  was  carried  out  in  the  palace.  Money  was  struck  here 
in  the  name  of  Charles  le  Chauve,  perhaps  by  the  abbey  ;  but  subse- 
quently the  Bishops  and  Counts  of  Soissons  acquired  in  succession  the 
jurisdiction,  the  latter  holding  from  the  See,  which  ceded  the  right,  no 
doubt,  for  a  consideration.  One  of  the  Counts  married  Agathe  de  Pierre- 
fonds  ;  and  there  is  a  denier,  possibly  struck  at  the  now  famous  Chateau 
de  Pierrefonds,  with  Moneta  Canon  \Conori\  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  De 
Pierefons.  The  ordinary  money  of  Soissons  reads  Suesswnis,  or  Mon. 

Solfcrino,  Lombardy,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  a  branch  of  the  Gonzaga 
family,  Marchesi  di  Solferino  (ijth  c.). 

Solms,  a  seat  of  seigniorial  coinage,  I7th  c.  A  grosch  of  Ernst  II., 
1613,  is  cited  by  Schulman,  Cat.  xiv.  No.  539. 

Solothurn,  or  Soleure,  an  abbatial  mint  from  930  to  1381,  when  the 
city  purchased  the  right  from  the  Abbot  of  St.  Ursus,  and  struck  money 
down  to  the  last  c.  Solodvrcnsis. 

Sommiercs,  Anduse,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  united  lordships  of 
Anduse  and  Sauve,  a  mint  of  that  family,  ioth-i3th  c.,  and  in  1236  a 
royal  seat  of  coinage.  Deniers  and  oboles  with  Andusiensis,  De 
Andusia,  Salvicnsis,  or  De  Salve.  The  capital  B  on  obv.  may  indicate 
the  house  of  Bermond,  in  whom  the  lordship  was  vested  in  the  loth- 
uth  c. 

Sondcrshausen,  Schwarzburg,  the  seat  of  coinage  of  the  principality 
of  Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. 

Sora,  Naples,  the  seat  of  an  independent  duchy  down  to  1462  of 
the  last  Duke,  Pier  Gian.  Paolo  Cantelmi  (1459-61).  Rossi,  Cat.  No.  4844, 
had  a  bolognino,  which  fetched  185  lire. 

Soragna,  Parma,  a  former  principality  in  the  Meli-Lupi  family,  i8th 
c.  A  gold  zecchino  of  Nicolo  Meli-Lupi,  1731,  occurred  at  the  Rossi 
sale,  and  brought  90  lire. 

Sorrento,  Naples,  a  mint  of  the  Lombard  Princes,  nth  c. 

Souvigny-lc-  Vieux,  Dept.  of  La  Manche,  France,  the  seat  of  an  ancient 
Cistercian  priory,  which,  from  the  nth  c.,  had  a  right  of  coining  money. 
There  are  only  deniers  of  a  low  standard  of  silver,  with  a  bust  of  Saint 
Mayeul  facing  or  in  profile.  At  a  later  date  the  priors  and  the  Sires  de 
Bourbon  struck  convention-money  at  Souvigny  at  the  common  cost  as  a 
means  of  settling  disputes  which  had  arisen  by  reason  of  encroachments 
on  the  part  of  the  seigneurs.  In  1320  Philippe  le  Long,  King  of  France, 
extinguished  the  rights  by  payment  of  15,000  bons  petits  tournois  =  about 
240,000  fr.  Scs.  Maiolvs  and  Silviniaco,  or  Borbonensis.  Some  deniers 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  163 

have  the  bust  of  St.  Mayeul  and  a  cross  cantoned  with  D.B.  (Dominus 

Sonzdal,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Souzoun,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Spalatro,  Dalmatia,  the  place  of  origin  of  certain  small  billon  pieces 
of  the  1 3th  c.,  with  Spa  Catt  ino  disposed  in  three  lines  on  obv.,  and  on 
rev.  a  cross.  In  and  after  1397  the  Ban  or  Waiwode  of  Bosnia,  on 
behalf  of  Sigismund,  King  of  Hungary,  struck  here  various  coins  bearing 
a  shield  with  an  armed  arm  and  his  titles  as  supreme  waiwode  or  voyvode 
of  Bosnia  and  vicar  of  the  kingdom  of  Lladislaus,  and  on  rev.  the 
patron-saint,  St.  Dominus  or  Doimus.  The  grossi  coined  here  by  the 
feudal  dukes  formed  a  source  of  trouble  to  Venice,  as  it  was  represented 
in  1410  that  the  standard  was  below  that  of  the  Republic  and  injured  her 

Spanheim,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Spanheim,  I4th  c. 
Schulman,  Cat.  ix.  554,  cites  a  gros  tournois  of  Johan  II.  1357-1403. 

Spanish  Mints.     See  Blanchet,  ii.  281. 

Spira,  an  ecclesiastical  mint  for  the  Archbishops. 

Spoleto,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  bracteate  danaro,  struck  on  a  large 
flan,  with  Wido.  Gragia.  Di.  Re.  It  was  struck  by  Guido,  Lord  of  Spoleto, 
939-44,  who  probably  occupied  the  ancient  castle  of  the  exarchs  of 
Ravenna.  Spoleto  also  produced  a  few  anonymous  ecclesiastical  coins 
with  Spoletanvs,  or  Spoleto,  on  rev.,  and  was  a  place  of  papal  coinage, 
1 5th  and  i8th  c.  There  are  2-baiocchi  pieces  of  the  Roman  Republic, 
1798-99,  struck  here. 

Stadtberg.     See  Marburg. 

Statt,  prov.  of  Liege,  a  mint  of  Thibaut  de  Bar,  Bishop  of  Liege, 

Stavelot,  or  Siablo,  Belgium,  prov.  of  Liege,  the  seat  of  an  abbey 
said  to  have  been  founded  in  the  7th  c.  by  Sigebert,  King  of  Austrasia. 
There  is  abbatial  money  of  the  i6th  c.  with  the  imperial  titles  on 

Stavoren,  on  the  Zuyder  Zee,  formerly  a  town  of  great  importance,  a 
mint  of  the  early  Counts  of  West  Friesland  in  the  nth  c.  It  is  at 
present  an  insignificant  village. 

Steenwijk,  Holland,  the  seat  of  a  coinage  of  necessity  during  the 
siege  by  the  French  in  1580,  and  perhaps  also  during  that  by  Maurice  of 
Nassau  in  1591. 

Stein,  or  Steyn,  Austrian  Illyria,  a  seigniorial  mint  of  the  I4th  c., 
where  the  boetdrager  of  Louis  de  Maele,  Count  of  Holland,  was  imitated. 
Comp.  Carin. 

Stcnay,  Lorraine,  French  dept.  of  La  Meuse,  a  temporary  mint  of 
Louis  XIII.  during  his  occupation  of  Lorraine,  1635-39.  Comp. 

Stendal,  Prussia,  formerly  the  capital  of  the  Mark  or  March  of 
Brandenburg,  and  the  mint  of  the  early  margraves  from  the  I2th  c. 
There  are  groschen,  pfennigen,  and  other  low  values,  of  Joachim  and 
Albrecht,  struck  there  in  1513.  The  town  acquired  the  right  of  coinage 
in  1369.  Standi. 

Stettin,  Pomerania,  or  Pommern,  now  part  of  Prussia,  a  mint  of  the 
Dukes  and  Kings  of  Poland  and  of  the  independent  Dukes  of  Pommern, 
1 2th- 1 7th  c.  The  duchy  was  divided  between  S.  and  Wolgast  in  1295, 
and  reunited  in  1625.  There  is  a  profusion  of  early  bracteates  with  an 
infinite  variety  of  designs.  The  Dukes  had  nearly  thirty  other  mints, 

164  The  Coins  of  Europe 

among  which  we  may  specify  Griefswald,  Rugen,  Stargard,  Stralsund, 
and  Wolgast.  A  schilling  of  Bogeslas  X.,  Duke  of  Pommern,  1502,  was 
struck  at  S. ;  also  perhaps  a  grosch  of  Duke  Franz,  1617,  and  a  double 
schilling  of  Bogeslas  XIV.,  1622. 

Stevensiveerd,  Gueldres,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  s'  Heerenberg, 
1 5th- 1 6th  c.  Sch.,  xi.  37.  At  a  somewhat  later  epoch  it  struck  the 
copper  dute  or  doit  for  local  use.  Comp.  Berg. 

Stezau,  a  fortress  of  Servia  in  mediaeval  times,  and  the  place  of  origin 
of  coins  bearing  Ctczauh. 

Stockholm,  an  early  place  of  coinage  of  the  Kings  of  Sweden,  with 
and  without  the  royal  titles.  A  dickthaler  of  Stene  Sture,  the  younger 
(1512-20),  reads  on  obv.  Mone.  Stockholm.  1512,  and  on  rev.  5.  Eric-vs 

Stockholm  or  of  1573. 

Rex  Svecic.  There  is  also  copper  money  of  the  i6th  c.  with  the  name  of 
the  capital  only. 

Stolbcrg,  Pruss.  Saxony,  circle  of  Merseburg,  the  place  of  origin  of 
bracteates  of  the  i2th  or  i3th  c.,  with  a  stag  to  1.,  of  later  uniface  pieces, 
with  a  stag's  head  and  Stol.  or  Stalb.,  and  from  the  concession  of  a  grant 
in  1467  to  the  Counts,  the  seat  of  a  considerable  coinage  in  gold,  silver, 
and  copper.  The  thaler  and  its  divisions,  first  struck  in  1544,  the 
kreutzer  and  batz  and  their  multiples,  and  the  albus,  were  current  here, 
and  the  gold  ducat.  The  gold  is  very  rare.  A  ducat  of  1743  shews  on 
the  obv.  a  stag  with  his  horns  entangled  in  a  pillar ;  but  a  very  beautiful 
one  of  1818,  struck  to  commemorate  the  golden  wedding  of  Christian 
Friedrich,  exhibits  a  free  stag  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  /.  Ducat.  D.  XI.  Nov. 
1818.  There  were  two  or  three  branches  of  this  house — Stolberg-Stolberg, 
Stolberg-Rochefort,  and  Stolberg-Weringerode — of  which  all  had  the 
coining  privilege. 

Straeten.     See  Saint-Andri, 

Stralsund,  Pomerania,  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  Jasomar  II.,  Prince 
of  Rugen,  and  of  convention-money  between  it  and  other  towns  in  the 
duchy.  There  are  very  early  pieces,  both  in  silver  and  billon,  bearing 
on  obv.  an  arrowhead,  and  Moneta  Svndensis. 

Strasburgh,  Alsace  or  Elsas,  a  Carlovingian  or  Frankish  mint. 
There  is  a  denier  of  Pepin  le  Bref,  8th  c.,  struck  there.  The  episcopal 
coinage  under  imperial  authority,  and  with  the  secular  titles,  commenced 
in  pursuance  of  a  concession  from  Louis  the  German  in  873.  The  bishops 
began  by  placing  a  crozier  in  the  field,  and  then  their  initials  in  the  legend 
of  the  coinage  ;  and  there  is  an  engraving  in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1754, 
of  a  well-executed  denier  of  Bishop  Odbert  (906-13).  The  gros  tournois 
was  current  here  in  a  local  imitation  at  an  early  date.  In  the  nth  c. 
these  powerful  prelates  substituted  their  own  names  and  effigies  for  those 
of  the  suzerain  (965-92),  perhaps  by  virtue  of  an  amplified  grant  from 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  165 

Otho  II.  in  974,  when  that  Prince  conferred  the  right  cum  omni  integri- 
tate ;  and  at  the  end  of  that  c.  we  find  a  bracteate  system  intro- 
duced by  certain  lay  seigneurs  as  well  as  by  the  occupants  of  the  See,  to 
be  continued  down  to  the  I3th,  with  a  variety  of  types  and  symbols,  side 
by  side  with  an  apparently  independent  imperial  series  of  the  usual 
fabric.  The  I3th  c.  witnessed  the  rise  of  a  municipal  interposition,  in 
consequence  of  the  progressive  debasement  of  the  bracteates  ;  during  a 
few  years  (1298-1306)  the  city  struck  anonymous  pieces  of  episcopal  type  ; 
the  influence  and  spirit  of  the  burgesses  gradually  triumphed  ;  and 
finally,  in  1 508,  the  Emperor  having  vested  the  gold  coinage  exclusively 
in  the  borough,  the  Church  lost  its  ground  completely  here.  The  bishops 
struggled  in  vain  from  1592  or  before  to  recover  their  ascendancy,  and 
struck  money  elsewhere  (comp.  Guebwiller,  Giinzburg,  and  Molsheitn)  ; 
there  is  also  evidence  of  the  crisis  in  money  of  necessity  of  1592,  struck 
by  the  city  during  its  contest  with  Bishop  Charles  de  Lorraine.  In  1681 
S.  became  French,  and  the  monetary  patterns  were  modified.  From 
1693  the  m.m.  was  BB.  In  1815  a  decime  was  issued  here  in  the  name 
of  Louis  XVI II. 

Stuttgart  (Stvggarten,  or  Stvgardi  on  coins),  cap.  of  Wtirtemburgh,  the 
place  of  origin  of  some  of  the  ancient  coinage  of  this  duchy  and  kingdom, 
and  since  1423  the  only  mint  for  this  State.  There  is  a  long  series  of 
coins  in  all  metals  and  various  denominations.  We  may  note  a  small 
square  gold  piece  without  date  with  a  view  of  Stuttgart. 

Substancion,  or  Siistancion-Melgueil,  near  Maguelonne,  a  Merovingian 
and  Carlovingian  mint,  of  which  the  precise  site  is  not  known.  Svstan- 
cione.  The  See  of  Maguelonne  was  transferred  hither  in  737.  It  was  the 
seat  of  a  seigniorial  coinage  from  the  loth  c.,  and  of  an  episcopal  one 
from  the  I3th  to  the  I4th.  The  types  were  borrowed  from  the  royal 
coinage  with  the  name  of  Carloman,  and  from  that  of  Narbonne,  and 
appear  to  have  acquired  popularity,  as  the  monnaie  melgorienne  was 
widely  spread  over  the  south  and  west  of  France.  The  peculiar  form  of 
cross  is  also  found  on  seals  of  the  Bishops  of  Melgueil. 

Sulmona,  Naples,  in  the  Abruzzi,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  bolognino 
of  Charles  III.  of  Durazzo  (1382-86),  and  of  a  carlino  and  cavallo  of 
Charles  VIII.  of  France  (1495).  On  tne  latter  occur  the  letters  S.M.P.E. 
for  Sidmo  mihi  patria  est — a  quotation  from  Ovid's  Tristia. 

Susa  (Segusio,  or  Sectisia),  Sardinian  States,  perhaps  the  earliest  mint 
of  the  Counts  of  Savoy.  There  is  a  danaro  of  Umberto  II.,  1091-1103, 
struck  here.  It  has  on  rev.  Secvsia.  But  comp.  Acqtiabella.  Under 
Amadeus  IV.  (1233-53)  Susa  ceased  to  appear  on  coins,  and  Sabavdia  is 

Sutri,  Papal  States,  conjectured  to  be  the  Flavia  Sidrio  mentioned 
on  coins  of  Desiderius,  King  of  the  Lombards,  755-74.  More  usually 
known  as  Colonia  Sutrina. 

Swinemunde,  Prussia,  in  the  prov.  of  Stettin,  a  mint  of  the  earlier 
Kings  of  Hungary.  There  are  small  billon  pieces  (deniers)  of  Louis  II., 
struck  there  in  1517,  1520,  and  1523. 

Swiss  Mints  (minor)  :  Appenzell,  Diessenhofen,  Disentis,  Engelberg, 
Fishingen,  Glarus,  Gotteshausbund,  Graubiindten,  Haldenstein-Schauen- 
stein,  Kyburg,  Laufenburg,  Muri,  Nyon,  Peterlingen  (abbey,  962),  Prun- 
trut,  Rheinau,  Sitten,  Solothurn,  Stein,  Tessin  or  Ticino,  Thurgau, 

Swiss  Mints.     See  Blanchet,  ii.  962-67. 

Systerbeck,  a  Russian  mint  under  Catherine  II. 

1 66  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Tagliacozzo,  Naples,  a  mint  of  Pope  Alexander  V.,  1410.  There  are 
two  bolognini  with  Talia.  Coza.  on  rev. 

Tarascon  (see  Marseilles],  Provence,  the  mint  of  Rend  and  Charles 
III.  d'Anjou,  1434-86,  Counts  of  Provence.  In  1483  the  Archbp.  of 
Aries  gave  leave  to  the  mint-master  here  to  strike  his  money  at  Mont- 
dragon  in  consideration  of  an  annual  payment  of  20  ecus  d'or  of  the 
money  of  the  King  of  France,  which  tends  to  shew  that  the  mint  at  T. 
had  then  closed.  The  m.m.  is  a  tarasque,  a  nondescript  monster,  which 
used  to  be  carried  in  procession  in  the  streets  here  and  elsewhere  on 
certain  occasions. 

Tarbes,  Hautes- Pyrenees,  a  mint  of  Edward  I.  of  England  as  Duke 
of  Aquitaine. 

Tarragona,  a  Visigothic  mint  (Tarraco,  Tiraone),  and  one  of  the 
Spanish  kings. 

Tassarolo,  a  seigniorial  fief  of  the  Spinola  family  (1604-90),  and  the 
probable  place  of  origin  of  certain  coins,  some  with  portraits,  including  a 
tallero  with  its  divisions,  a  scudo,  a  luigino,  a  piece  of  8  bolognini,  etc., 
all  very  rare.  The  coinage  is  connected  with  the  duchy  of  Massa- 
Carrara  ;  one  or  two  examples  bear  the  portrait  and  titles  of  Alberico  II., 

Teano,  a  Lombard  mint,  i  ith  c. 

Termini,  a  mint  of  the  King  of  Naples,  1515-21. 

Termondc,  or  Dendermonde,  E.  Flanders,  a  mint  mentioned  in  a 
document  of  1 108.  Guillaume  de  Juliers,  grandson  of  Gui  de  Dampierre, 
Count  of  Flanders,  struck  money  here  in  1302-3.  It  remained  a  mint  of 
the  Counts  of  F.  and  of  the  Dukes  of  Burgundy  ;  and  by  virtue  of  a 
concession  from  Philip  le  Bon  (1419-67)  the  local  Brotherhood  of  Our 
Lady  struck  money  here. 

Terncs,  Les,  Auvergne,  present  dept.  of  Cantal,  probably  the  place 
intended  on  a  coin  of  Jean  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de  Saint-Pol,  1317-44, 
with  the  legend  lohanes.  Comes.  Santi.  Pavli.  E.  T.  Nois. 

Terni,  States  of  the  Church,  the  place  of  origin  of  billon  pieces  of  8 
and  6  baiocchi,  1797,  money  of  necessity  in  character.  Comp.  Perugia. 

Teschcn,  or  Teck,  Styria,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Teschen  (1529-79),  of 
the  bishops,  of  the  town,  and  of  the  Emperors  Ferdinand  III.  and  IV.  as 
Kings  of  Bohemia.  There  is  a  thaler  of  Wenzslaw  Adam,  Duke  of  Teck, 
with  Wcncesla  D.G.  Dvx  Tesine.  1560. 

Thann,  Alsace,  a  mint  of  the  Landgraves  of  Alsace,  I5th  c.,  of  the 
municipality  down  to  1505,  and  for  a  short  time  reopened  in  1623. 
Moneta  Nova  Tannensis.  There  are  gros  of  the  town  with  S.  Theo- 
baldus  episcopus. 

Thicrrens,  near  Moudon,  Cant,  of  Vaud,  Switzerland,  the  place  of 
coinage  of  certain  contrefai^ons  of  the  money  of  the  Bishop  of  Lausanne 
by  Louis,  Seigneur  de  Vaud,  a  cadet  of  the  house  of  Savoy. 

Thionville,  France,  Dept.  of  Moselle,  a  mint  of  Henri  II.  le  Blondel, 
Count  of  Luxemburgh  (1246-81). 

Thionville,  Luxemburgh,  one  of  the  earliest  known  mints  of  the 
Counts  of  L.,  1 2th  c.  Tionville. 

Thorn,  Brabant,  the  place  of  coinage  of  an  important  conventual 
establishment  under  the  government  of  abbesses,  1 5th- 1 7th  c.  There  is 
a  gold  angel  of  Margaret  of  Brederode,  abbess,  1531-71,  and  liards, 
double  liards,  halves  and  quarters,  belonging  to  this  institution.  Some 
bear  the  name  of  the  Abbess  Anna  de  la  Marck,  who,  like  the  preceding, 
was  the  member  of  an  illustrious  seigniorial  family.  The  Abbess 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  167 

Margaret  copied  the  Goslar  (Hanover)  type  with  the  Virgin  and  Child 
on  obv.  and  a  lion  on  rev.,  on  a  gros  or  groot  reading  Moneta  Nova 
Arge :  D  :  M :  B .  The  same  abbess  struck  a  \  daalder  of  a  novel  type 
with  Denarivs  Nows  Qvindecim  Stvfferorvm,  of  which  there  seem  to  be 
two  varieties. 

Thorn,  Prussian  Poland,  a  mint  of  the  Teutonic  Order  I3th-i5th  c. 
In  1436  the  Grand  Master  surrendered  the  right  of  coinage  to  the  town 
for  half  the  profits.  Thorn  was  also  a  mint  of  the  independent  Kings  of 
Poland,  whose  money  bears  Moneta  Dvcatvs  Prvcie,  or  the  double 
Jagellon  cross  and  the  double  Prussian  eagle.  This  was  in  the  i6th  c. 
the  common  Polish  mint  for  the  whole  of  Prussia  under  that  Crown. 
There  was  copper  currency  (solidi)  down  to  about  1770.  A  solidus  of 
1761  has  the  crowned  monogram  of  Augustus  III.  of  Poland,  and  on  rev. 
Solid.  Civitat.  Thorun.  There  is  a  rare  solidus  belonging  here  of  John 
Casimir,  King  of  Poland  (1648-68),  for  East  Prussia. 

Thonars,  Poitou,  a  viscounty  in  the  Middle  Ages,  whose  representa- 
tive intermarried  with  the  house  of  Mauleon.  In  1226  Henry  III.  of 
England  granted  to  Hugues  I.,  V.  de  T.,  the  right  of  striking  money  of 
the  Poitevine  standard  to  be  current  throughout  the  province  with  his 

Tiel)  a  mint  of  the  Emperors  of  the  West  of  the  Hohenstaufen 
dynasty.  Deniers  of  Henry  II.  (1002-24)  a°d  of  Conrad  II.  (1024-39) 
were  struck  here. 

Tiftis,  Georgia,  an  early  Prussian  mint. 

Tirlemont,  Brabant,  the  source  of  mailles  of  the  I3th  c.  with  the 
paschal  lamb. 

Tirnova,  Bulgaria,  possibly,  with  Sofia,  the  chief,  if  not  only  mint,  of 
the  principality  since  1880. 

Tivoli,  near  Berne,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  piece  of  5  baiocchi 
(madonnina)  of  Pius  VI.,  1797. 

Todi,  Papal  States,  an  autonomous  (i3th  c.)  and  papal  (1450)  mint. 

Toledo,  a  Visigothic  mint,  and  one  of  the  Kings  of  Castile  and  Leon. 
I2th-I5th  c.  Alfonso  VIII.,  1158-88,  struck  here  dinars  with  Arabic 
characters  and  his  title  as  Emir  of  the  Catholics,  or  Alf.  There  is  a  coin 
of  Beatrice  of  Portugal,  consort  of  John  I.,  1379-90,  with  her  name  and 
titles  as  Queen  of  Castile  and  Portugal.  Joseph  Buonaparte,  King  of 
Spain,  1 808-10,  employed  this  mint.  Toleto,  T.O.,  or  Q. 

Tongres,  prov.  of  Liege,  a  mint  of  Jean  d'Arkel,  Bishop  of  Liege,  and 
Due  de  Bouillon,  1364-78. 

Tonnerre.     See  Chateattbclin,  Orgelet,  etc. 

Torgau,  Prussian  Saxony,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Saxony  of  the 
Ernestine  branch,  i6th  c. 

Torriglia,  possibly  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Lomellini  family,  I7th  c. 
There  are  luigini  of  Violante  Doria  Lomellini,  Contessa  di  Lomellini 
(1665-67),  supposed  to  belong  here. 

Tortona,  Piedmont,  an  imperial  mint,  1 2th- 1 3th  c.  ;  a  grosso  and  ^ 
grosso  have  on  obv.  IWirator  Fr.,  and  on  rev.  Terdona.  This  place  was 
at  one  time  within  the  territory  of  the  Dukes  of  Milan. 

Toul,  France,  Dept.  of  Meurthe,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia 
(6th-8th  c.),  of  the  Carlovingian  line  of  kings,  and  of  the  bishops  of  the 
See,  io-i4th  c.  It  is  possible  that  a  copper  coin  of  Jean  d'Huhlhuizen  of 
the  I3th  or  I4th  c.,  described  by  Schulman,  Cat.  xv.  316,  is  part  of 
this  episcopal  series.  It  is  clearly  not  a  seigniorial  piece.  A  curious 
denier  of  Otho  (956-62)  has  the  name  of  the  town  written  from  right  to 

1 68  The  Coins  of  Europe 

left,  OLL  VT.  Other  forms  are  Vrbs  TV///,  Tvllo  Civls,  Tvllensis,  etc., 
but  the  place  first  appears  under  the  name  of  Levcha  Civitas.  The 
coinage  of  this  See  is  poorly  and  carelessly  executed,  and  the  earliest 
productions  are  degenerate  copies  of  Carlovingian  types. 

Toulon,  a  seat  of  a  special  unauthorised  coinage,  during  the  confusion 
in  France  about  1589,  by  the  Admiral  Bertrand  de  Nogaret,  who  also 
struck  money — pieces  of  6  blanques — at  Sisteron  or  Forcalquier. 

Toulouse,  one  of  the  chief  cities  of  the  kingdom  of  the  Visigoths,  a 
Merovingian  and  Carlovingian  mint,  one  of  the  Bishops  and  the  Counts 
of  T.,  of  whom  the  latter  seem  to  have  usurped  the  coinage,  perhaps 
with  rights  reserved  to  the  See,  and  of  the  Kings  of  France  of  the  Valois 
and  Bourbon  dynasties.  It  was  also  the  centre  of  the  system  of  mone- 
tary weights  for  a  lii>ra  and  its  parts,  etc.,  long  prevalent  in  the  South  of 
France  as  far  as  the  Pyrenees,  and  of  which  the  precise  history  is 
scarcely  yet  fully  understood.  Some  of  these  poids  were  clearly  nothing 
more  ;  but  the  livra  of  Toulouse,  Bordeaux,  etc.,  appears  to  have  belonged 
to  a  different  category.  The  most  singular  feature  about  it  and  its 
divisions  is  that  they  are  dated. 

Tournai,  a  bishopric  given  with  that  of  Noyon,  from  531  to  1146,  to 
the  Abbey  of  Saint  Medard  at  Soissons,  founded  by  Sigebert,  King  of 
Austrasia.  No  remains  of  any  episcopal  or  other  money  of  that  period 
have  come  down  to  us  ;  but  on  the  coinage  of  the  i2th  c.  the  prelates  of 
both  Sees  bear  a  double  crozier  in  token  of  the  ancient  union  or  alliance. 
The  Bishops  of  Noyon  also  used  the  mint  here.  At  a  later  period  there 
are  coins  of  the  Counts  of  Flanders,  the  Kings  of  France  (from  Philip  III.) 
and  Spain,  and  of  Albert  and  Isabella  after  the  cession  of  Brabant  to 
Austria.  In  1306  T.  was  one  of  the  eight  royal  mints  of  France.  There 
are  siege-pieces  of  1521,  1581,  and  1709. 

Tournus,  Saone-et- Loire,  the  seat  of  an  abbatial  mint  from  889  by 
virtue  of  a  concession  by  Eudes,  King  of  France,  confirmed  by  his  suc- 
cessors. The  earliest  coins  signify  that  they  were  struck  by  the  permis- 
sion of  Lothaire,  and  cannot  be  older  than  955.  Some  of  the  pieces  bear 
Caput  Regis. 

Tours,  a  Carlovingian  mint  and,  during  the  early  Capetian  period 
under  Hugues  Capet  and  his  immediate  successors,  a  place  of  great 
monetary  importance.  The  Abbey  of  Saint  Martin  was  a  celebrated  seat 
of  coinage,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  the  Tournois  standards,  which 
preceded  that  of  Paris  established  under  Philip  Augustus,  but  was  re- 
tained and  employed  by  him  in  all  the  coinage  outside  the  regal  precincts 
or  le  sermcnt  de  France.  Louis  IX.,  however,  was  the  first  to  introduce 
the  gros  tournois,  and  to  place  the  French  currency  generally  on  a  sounder 
and  more  practical  basis.  A  signal  movement  such  as  that  at  Tours, 
even  before  the  time  of  Louis  IX.,  inevitably  exercised  a  powerful  influ- 
ence on  all  sides,  and  affected  the  coinage  of  Champagne  and  other 
adjacent  provinces,  as  it  eventually  did,  where  the  striking  type  of  the 
gros  appeared,  that  of  many  parts  of  Europe.  The  earlier  French 
kings  employed  this  mint  for  the  provinces  beyond  the  Loire,  and 
distinguished  their  money  from  that  of  the  abbey  by  the  simple  legend 
Tvronvs  Civfs.  Thibault  le  Tricheur,  Count  of  Tours,  about  950,  also 
used  it. 

Transylvania*  Minis.    See  Blanchet,  ii.  181. 

Trau,  Dalmatia,  a  seat  of  Venetian  colonial  coinage.  A  bagattino 
has  on  obv.  S.  Lavrentivs  N.M.,  and  on  the  rev.  Sanctvs 
Marcvs  Venet.,  with  the  facing  lion. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  169 

Tregui'rc,  Cotes  du  Nord,  a  mint  of  Charles  de  Chatillon  or  Blois,  a 
competitor  in  1341  for  the  duchy  of  Brittany  by  reason  of  his  marriage 
with  the  niece  of  Duke  John  III. 

Tresana,  a  place  to  which  are  referred  certain  coins  in  silver  and 
bronze  of  the  Malaspina  family,  i6th  c.  But  the  appropriation  seems 
doubtful.  Perhaps  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  Lombard  kings. 

Treves,  or  Trier,  a  mint  of  the  Kings  of  Austrasia,  7th-8th  c.  (7V.), 
and  the  seat  of  an  ecclesiastical  and  imperial  coinage  from  the  loth  c.,  if 
not  earlier.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  1863-64. 

Treviso,  a  mint  of  Charlemagne,  of  some  of  the  later  emperors,  of  the 
Count  of  Goritz,  and  of  Venice.  The  reverse  of  a  danaro  of  Charlemagne 
reads  Tarvis.  The  Count  of  Goritz  (1319-23)  struck  the  aquilino  and 
picciolo,  which  have  Comes  Gone.,  or  Comes  Gor.,  and  on  rev.  Tarvisiu, 
or  Tarvisivm. 

Trevoux,  Les  Dombes,  Burgundy,  originally  a  chateau  which  de- 
veloped into  a  town,  a  mint  of  the  Sires  de  Thoire  and  Villars  in  the  I2th 
c.,  and  subsequently  of  the  Dukes  and  Sires  de  Bourbon  and  Bourbon- 
Montpensier.  Les  Dombes  or  Dombes  was  united  to  the  Crown  in 
1527  ;  but  the  coinage  was  resumed,  and  continued  till  the  closing  years 
of  the  1 7th  c.  ;  the  latest  piece  which  we  have  seen  is  one  of  4  sols  of 
Anne  Marie  Louise  d'Orleans,  1665.  The  Due  de  Maine,  the  last 
beneficiary  of  the  mint,  renounced  it  under  unsatisfactory  circumstances, 
in  having  fabricated  money  in  imitation  of  regal  types  of  a  lower  standard 
to  enhance  the  commercial  advantage.  At  an  earlier  stage  the  coins  of 
Dombes,  of  which  there  is  an  extensive  and  important  series  in  gold, 
silver,  and  billon — including  a  gold  piece  of  Jean  II.,  1459-75,  weighing 
six  times  as  much  as  an  ordinary  teston,  and  probably  a  piece  de  plaisir — 
had  attained  great  celebrity  and  were  copied  in  many  directions,  even  in 
Italy  ;  the  \  dcu  or  piece  of  5  sols,  with  the  youthful  portrait  of  Marie  de 
Montpensier,  is  said  to  have  been  greatly  used  in  foreign  commerce,  and 
to  have  been  long  at  a  premium  in  Turkey  as  a  bijou  or  jewel,  which  they 
termed  a  timmin.  There  is  a  curious  contrefaqon  of  a  Venetian  ducat 
struck  here  about  1620,  which  is  said  to  have  evoked  a  remonstrance 
from  the  Doge — an  involuntary  tribute  to  the  reputation  of  the  mint. 

Trient,  a  seat  of  episcopal  coinage  from  the  I3th  (perhaps  i2th)  to 
the  1 6th  c.  The  most  important  piece  in  this  series  is  a  munt-medaille 
of  Bernardt  Clees,  Bishop  from  1524  to  1539.  Rossi  Cat,  1880,  No.  4899. 
The  mint  closed  in  1776.  There  is  a  proof  in  silver  of  the  last  gold  sequin 
struck  there. 

Trieste,  an  episcopal  mint,  1 2th- 1 4th  c.  The  bishops  also  struck 
money  in  the  I3th  c.  at  the  Castle  of  Pastorium.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No. 
495,  places  under  this  head  a  piece  belonging  to  Trient. 

Troyes,  in  Champagne,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Champagne.  A 
denier  of  Henry  II.,  Count  from  1 180  to  1 197,  belongs  here.  Also  of  the 
League,  1586,  Louis  XIV.  and  XV.  A  \  louis  of  the  former,  1694,  and  a 
hard  of  the  latter,  were  struck  at  T.  Trecasi  Civi. 

Truxillo,  Spain,  prov.  of  Ca$eres,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  peseta  of 
Ferdinand  VI L,  1808,  struck  as  a  proclamation  of  his  authority,  with 
Proda.  en  la  C.  de  Trvxillo  Rno.  de  Guat. 

Tiingen  or  Thiengen,  duchy  of  Baden,  formerly  in  the  landgraviat 
of  Kletgau  or  Kleggau,  a  fief  successively  of  the  Sees  of  St.  Blasien  and 
Constanz,  and  of  the  Barons  von  Kreukingen,  and  perhaps  a  mint  of  all 
these  lords,  but  at  present  known  only  as  the  place  of  coinage  of  certain 

1 70  The  Coins  of  Europe 

bracteates   of  the    i4th   c.,   with   T|,  attributed   to   the   contemporary 

Seigneurs  of  Kreukingen. 

Tunsberg,  a  Norwegian  mint  under  Magnus  III.,  1093-1103. 

Turennc,  a  mint  of  the  Vicomtes  de  T.  from  the  nth  to  the  I4th  c. 
Their  money  was  current  in  the  dioceses  of  Cahors,  Limoges,  and  Peri- 
gueux.  In  1263  the  V.  did  homage  to  Henry  II.  of  England  for  his 
chateaux,  his  fiefs,  and  his  mint  (pro  monctd  sud  et  jure  cudendi  cam). 
Raimundus  De  Turena,  R.  Vicecomes  and  Tiircnne,  with  a  cross  canton- 
ing E\eaulicu\  etc.  The  earliest  known  coins  are  of  Raimond  I., 
1091-1 122. 

Turin,  the  possible  place  of  coinage  of  the  small  bracteates  of  Lom- 
bard fabric  discovered  in  the  vicinity,  with  coins  of  Charlemagne  and 
Desiderius.  A  mint  of  some  of  the  rulers  of  Savoy.  There  are  coins  of 
Filippo  (1297-1334)  and  of  Ludovico,  Prince  of  Achaia  (1402-18  :  Torim>s 
Cn'fs),  as  well  as  of  the  Piedmontese  Republic,  1798-99  ;  of  a  gold 
2o-franc  piece  struck  by  Bonaparte  in  commemoration  of  the  Battle  of 
Marengo,  I4th  June  1800,  with  IJ  Italic  dclivrcc  a  Marengo  ;  of  a  5-franc 
piece  of  Napoldon,  1811  ;  and  of  the  more  recent  sovereigns  of  Sardinia 
and  Italy. 

Turr,  an  early  Russian  mint. 

Udinc,  a  mint  of  the  patriarchs  of  Aquileia,  I4th  c. 

Ulm,  or  Uberlingcn,  Bavaria,  a  royal  and  imperial  mint  from  a  very 
early  date  ;  but  it  does  not  appear  to  have  produced  anything  but  hellers 
and  schillings  till  1546,  when  we  find  a  dated  thaler.  In  1552  Charles  V. 
conceded  the  right  to  coin  gold  and  silver.  The  ancient  hellers  bear 
a  V.  During  the  Thirty  Years'  War  Ulm  issued  a  regiments  thaler  in 
1622,  and  during  a  siege  by  the  Imperialists  in  1704  a  florin  and  a  piece 
of  21  florins  in  gold  and  a  gulden  in  silver.  The  mint  is  said  to  have 
been  closed  in  1773,  of  which  date  there  is  a  kreutzer  of  thick  fabric. 
Comp.  Kcmptcn. 

Unna,  Prussia,  circle  of  Hamm,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  de  la  Mark. 
Vnncus  or  Vnnts. 

Urbano,  in  the  Bolognese  territory,  the  source  of  a  siege-piece  in  lead 
of  papal  type,  with  F[orte]  V[rbano],  struck  during  a  blockade  by  the 
Imperialists  about  1706. 

Urbino,  an  imperial  mint  under  the  house  of  Hohenstaufen,  and  at  a 
later  period  of  the  independent  Dukes  of  Urbino,  of  the  Montefeltro, 
Delia  Rovere,  and  Medici  families.  See  a  note  in  Cat.  Rossi,  No.  3193,  as 
to  the  doubtless  improper  ascription  of  a  quattrino  of  Julius  II.  with  the 
Delia  Rovere  arms  to  this  place.  The  celebrated  Lorenzo  de'  Medici,  called 
the  Magnificent,  was  Duke  of  Urbino  from  1516  to  1519.  Armand  men- 
tions Paolo  di  Ragusa,  Clemente  di  Urbino,  and  Francesco  Martini  as 
artists  at  U.  about  this  date.  It  is  believed  that  the  coins  of  the  I5th 
and  1 6th  c.,  bearing  the  names  of  Castel  Durante  and  Fossombrone, 
were  really  struck  at  Urbino  itself.  Clement  XL,  1700-21,  struck  a  mezzo 
scudo  here  in  1707. 

Uri,  the  place  of  a  local  coinage  of  uncertain  antiquity  ;  the  first 
concession  was  in  1424.  There  was  a  convention  between  U.,  Schwyz, 
and  Unterwalden  in  the  i6th  c.  ;  but  coins  with  the  separate  marks  of 
Uri  and  Unterwalden  are  also  found  for  that  period.  Gold  pistoles  of 
the  St.  Martin  type  were  struck  here.  See  one  figured  in  Cat.  Robert, 
1886,  No.  2174.  Vranie. 

Utrecht,  a  mint  of  the  Merovingian  era,  of  the  ancient  Bishops  of  the 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  1 7 1 

diocese,  and  of  the  provincial  Government  during  the  republican  period. 
The  same  Merovingian  moneyer,  Adalbertus,  who  worked  at  Durstede 
and  elsewhere,  has  his  name  on  coins  belonging  to  this  place.  During 
the  1 8th  c.  Utrecht  was  one  of  the  mints  for  the  Batavian  Republic  and 
the  Dutch  Indies.  In  1812-13,  Napoleon  I.  struck  pieces  of  20  francs,  i 
fr.,  and  \  fr.  ;  at  that  time  Holland  still  formed  part  of  the  French  Empire. 
Utrecht  is  the  mint  of  the  present  kingdom  of  the  Netherlands.  There 
is  a  curious  denarius  of  Otto  van  Gueldres  (i3th  c.),  Bishop  of  U.,  as 
Advocate  of  the  See,  and  another  of  Bishop  Willem  van  Gueldres,  with  the 
bust  of  the  Bishop  on  rev.  and  that  of  the  Emperor  Henry  IV.  (1056- 
1 106)  on  obv.  A  denier  of  Willem  van  Briig,  1054-76,  presents  on  the  rev. 
one  of  the  earliest  views  of  a  city  on  a  mediaeval  coin.  There  is  a  small 
silver  piece  of  PVederic  of  Baden,  with  Mon.  Epi.  Traicc.  and  the  date  / 
1498.  Schulman,  Cat.  v.  131,  cites  an  obole  of  an  early  bishop  of  U. 
struck  in  West  Friesland.  A  botdrager  or  double  groot  of  John  of 
Virenburg,  Bp.,  1364-71,  is  termed  Moneta  de  Zalandia.  We  may  notice 
a  rare  leeuendaalder  of  1578  with  the  shield  supported  by  two  lions,  the 
original  type  of  the  denomination,  and  between  1519  and  1606  several 
unusual  varieties  of  the  daalder  and  \  daalder,  and  of  the  rose-noble  and 
\,  some  of  the  former  with  the  portrait  of  William  the  Silent ;  also  a  pie- 
fort  of  the  gold  rijder  of  1620  differing  from  the  current  issue,  and  weighing 
19  gr.,  and  varieties  of  the  double  ducat  in  gold,  1683,  1706,  1742,  etc. 

Use's.  Dept.  of  Card,  a  seat  of  Carlovingian,  if  not  of  Merovingian,  coin- 
age, and  opened  as  an  episcopal-capitular  mint  in  the  gth  c.  It  appears 
that  in  the  I2th  (1145)  the  chapter  alienated  its  share  in  part  to  the 
Seigneur  d'Uzes.  There  is  an  obole  of  Bishop  Raymond  III.,  1208-12, 
with  Use  on  rev. 

Valence  and  Die,  Dept.  of  Drome,  two  episcopal  mints  from  1157  to 
1456,  when  the  seigniorial  rights  were  ceded  to  the  Crown.  Valence  was 
united  to  Die  in  1276.  Gros,  \  gros,  carlins,  and  deniers.  The  money 
of  Die,  before  the  union  of  the  dioceses,  reads  Civitas  Diensis ;  that  of 
Amede'e  II.  of  Saluzzo,  1383-90,  has  A.  De :  Saluc.  Administrator 
Ecclesiar.  &*  Comitat.  D.  Valenc.  E.  Dn. 

Valencia,  a  Visigothic  mint,  and  one  of  the  early  Kings  of  Arragon, 
1 3th  c.  Valencie  Maioricarvm.  And  of  the  Kings  of  Spain.  V. 

Valenciennes,  an  occasional  mint  of  Louis  le  Debonnaire,  and  of  the 
Emperors  of  the  West  (i4th  c.).  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos.  31, 32.  Two 
variant  thalers  of  Louis  of  Bavaria  (1314-47)  were  struck  here.  Also  the 
place  of  coinage  of  some  of  the  Counts  of  Hainault  and  of  Flanders,  and  of 
the  Dukes  of  Burgundy.  Some  of  the  money  of  Margaret  of  Constantin- 
ople (1244-80),  and  Jean  d'Avesnes  (1280-1304)  of  Hainault,  belongs  here. 
Under  the  later  Counts  it  became  an  important  mint,  and  from  the  time 
of  Gtiillaume  III.,  1356-89,  the  sole  one.  In  1793  a  piece  of  3  livres  in 
bell-metal  was  struck  during  the  siege  of  the  town  by  the  Duke  of 

Valetta,  the  mint  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  after  their 
investiture  by  Charles  V.  in  1530  with  the  Island  of  Malta,  and  down  to 
the  close  of  the  i8th  c.  There  is  a  rare  silver  ingot  struck  as  money  of 
necessity  during  the  siege  of  1799. 

Valladolid,  a  place  which  appears  under  the  initial  V.  on  certain  coins 
of  the  Counts  of  Urgel,  I3th  c.,  with  Urgellensis,  Comes  Urgelli,  etc.  At 
a  somewhat  later  period  the  bishops  appear  to  have  had  some  interest  in 
the  coinage,  on  which  occurs  a  crozier.  Low  values  only. 

172  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Vannes,  a  mint  of  John  I. ,  le  Roux,  1237-86  ;  of  John  IV.,  1364-99  ;  and 
of  John  V.,  1399-1442,  Dukes  of  Brittany.  Veneten,  or  Urbs  Venetensis. 

Varennes,  a  mint  of  the  See  of  Verdun,  and  the  place  of  origin  of  a 
\  gros  of  Cardinal  Louis,  Duke  of  Bar,  with  Semgros.  Varen. 

Vasto,  Abruzzi,  a  fief  and  perhaps  mint  of  the  Marquis  Cesare  d'Avalos, 
1706.  Mar.  Vasti. 

Vaud,  or  Waadt,  a  separate  canton  of  Switzerland  since  the  present  c. 
The  Savoyard  deniers  and  other  money  struck  within  this  territory  from 
1273  to  1536  probably  belong  to  Geneva  or  Lausanne  ;  some  of  them  are 
marked  with  IV.  The  cantonal  coinage  dates  only  from  the  present  c. 
A  silver  ecu  of  Louis  XVI.,  1792,  is  countermarked  to  pass  for  40  batzen 
or  4  franken  within  this  district. 

Vauvillcrs,  Haute-Saone,  the  seat  of  a  seigniorial  mint,  denounced  by 
an  edict  of  1554  as  the  source  of  unlicensed  imitations  of  the  regal  and 
imperial  types  ;  the  carolus  of  Besanc.on  was  copied.  Chatelet  in  the 
Vosges  was  included  in  the  charge.  But  there  seems  to  have  been  an  exten- 
sive coinage  in  all  metals  at  the  latter  place.  A  denier  of  Gauthier  de 
Beauffremont  has  Mo.  Ar.  Sup.  Vvsis.  Nicole  1 1.  du  Chastelet,  1525-62, 
struck  t'cus  an  soldi  and  many  other  types  with  Nicolaus  du  Chastelet, 
or  Nicol.  A  Castelleto  Sup.  Vusis,  and  Moneta  Dni  DC  Vaui'illers.  The 
Hard  and  double  Hard  were  struck  here.  The  known  coinage  seems  to 
be  limited  to  these  two  persons. 

Vendomc,  originally  belonging  to  the  county  of  Anjou,  and  supposed 
to  have  been  at  one  time  an  appanage  of  the  See  of  Chartres,  whose  pre- 
lates were  seigneurs  of  the  Chateau  of  V.  Reunited  to  the  Crown  in 
1712.  In  this  town  and  district  use  was  long  made  of  the  currencies  of 
Tours  and  Angers,  and  the  autonomous  coinage  cannot  be  referred  to  a 
date  anterior  to  the  middle  of  the  I  ith  c.  The  Counts,  afterwards  Dukes, 
of  V.  did  not  place  their  name  on  the  money  till  the  I3th  c.  The  earlier 
types  are  imitations  of  those  of  Chartres  and  Blois  ;  the  later  shew  the 
influence  of  Tours.  Vindocino  Castro,  Udon  Caosto,  or  Vedome  Castr. 
An  obole,  thought  to  indicate  a  monetary  convention  between  the  Count 
of  V.  and  the  Vicomte  de  Chateaudun  in  the  I3th  or  i4th  c.,  reads  on 
obv.  Idvni  Castr.,  and  on  rev.  Vidodnensis.  The  alliance  was  probably 
of  some  duration,  as  the  crescent  of  C.  appears  on  many  of  the  ano\iymous 
coins  of  V. 

Venice,  possibly  the  place  of  coinage  of  some  of  the  numerous  (twenty- 
four)  varieties  of  danaro  published  by  our  valued  and  erudite  correspond- 
ent Count  Nicolo  Papadopoli  (whose  numismatic  labours  are  so  widely 
known),  and  issued  more  or  less  under  imperial  authority  between  the  9th 
and  1 2th  c.,  and  from  the  latter  date  till  the  close  of  the  Republic  the 
seat  of  an  autonomous  mint.  Pieces  in  all  metals  were  struck  here  in 
1848,  and  it  was  an  occasional  mint  of  the  Lombardo- Venetian  kingdom. 

Venrade,  Brabant,  a  mint  belonging  to  the  Heeren  of  Kessel.  Sch., 
Cat.  ix.  384. 

Venray,  21  m.  N.  of  Ruremonde,  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Gueldres 
and  Juliers,  I5th  c.  A  double  groot  of  Raynald  IV.,  Duke  of  Gueldres, 
1402-23,  was  struck  here.  It  was  for  some  time  an  active  mint. 

Ventimiglia,  Sardinian  States,  a  seigniorial  fief.  Gio.  Requesco, 
Count,  1725. 

Vercelli,  a  seat  of  autonomous  coinage,  i3th  c.,  under  imperial 
sanction,  and  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of  Savoy,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.  Vcr.,  or  V. 

Verdun,  France,  Dept.  of  Meuse,  a  somewhat  prominent  Merovingian 
mint,  and  subsequently  one  of  the  emperors  from  Louis  le  Ddbonnaire  to 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  173 

Henry  L'Oiseleur,  and  of  the  bishops  from  the  loth  to  the  I7th  c. 
1633).  The  original  concession  to  the  See  was  from  the  Comtes  de 
Verdun,  of  whom,  however,  no  money  is  identified.  Down  to  the  middle 
of  the  nth  c.  the  bishops  added  the  imperial  titles  to  their  money  (as 
the  Counts  indeed  may  have  done  before  them,  even  withholding  their 
own  names).  About  the  middle  of  the  I3th  c.  there  was  perhaps  the 
same  sort  of  municipal  jealousy  as  at  Metz,  and  we  hear  of  the  episcopal 
currency  of  Toul  being  confined  to  the  rural  districts,  and  possibly  it  was 
struck  out  of  the  city.  The  early  French  regal  types  (gros  tournois, 
denier,  blanc  a  la  queue,  etc.)  were  imitated  at  V.  A  very  fine  grand  ecu 
of  Charles  de  Lorraine- Chaligny,  Bp.  of  V.,  1616-22,  is  figured  in  Cat. 
Robert,  1 148  ;  this  and  other  productions  of  the  same  reign  are  attributed 
to  the  engravers  B[ailly]  and  G[ennetaire].  In  the  Merovingian  pieces 
this  place  is  indifferently  described  as  Verduno,  Vereduno,  Virdun, 
Virdimo,  Virdunum,  Virdunis  civitas,  etc.  Other  mints  of  the  See  were 
Dieulouard,  transferred  about  1616  to  Mangiennes,  Hattonchatel,  Dun, 
and  Sampigny.  Comp.  Saint-Mihiel  and  Varennes* 

Vergagni,  Genoese  territory,  a  fief  and  perhaps  mint  of  the  Spinola 
family,  iyth  c. 

Verona,  a  mint  of  the  Lombard  kings,  7th-8th  c. ;  of  the  emperors,  loth 
c. ;  of  an  autonomous  republic,  1 2th- 1 3th  c.  ;  and  of  the  successive  rulers 
of  that  part  of  Lombardy,  except  that  the  Venetians  do  not  appear  to 
have  struck  money  here.  There  are  coins  of  the  La  Scala  or  Scaliger 
family,  Lords  of  Verona  (1262-1381) — the  grosso  and  the  soldo,  both  in 

Vesteras,  an  early  Swedish  mint.      Westear. 

Vevey,  canton  of  Vaud,  a  Swiss  mint  under  the  Merovingian  princes. 

Vezelise,  Meurthe,  formerly  in  Lorraine,  and  a  mint  of  the  Dukes  of 
L.  and  Bar.  Veseli. 

Vianen,  21  m.  N.  of  Luxemburgh,  a  mint  of  the  early  Seigneurs  of 
Brederode.  We  may  call  attention  to  a  rare  daalder  of  Heinrich  van 
Brederode,  with  his  bust  to  r.,  his  gauntlets  and  plumed  helmet  in  front 
of  him.  The  legend  (Nisi  Doininvs  Frvstra)  is  divided  by  the  shields  of 
Brederode,  Vianen,  and  Mark.  On  the  rev.  is  a  quartered  escutcheon 
with  Mone>.  No\  D1.  Bred1.  Lt.  D\  Viari.  There  is  a  f  thaler  of  Fried- 
rich  Adolf,  1715,  Count  of  Lippe  and  Seigneur  of  Vianen. 

Viborg,  an  early  Dano-Swedish  mint.  Viber,  Pibr.  Probably  the 
place  of  coinage  of  the  bishops,  I2th  c.,  whose  coins  bear  Wiberga  or 
Kelil  (St.  Killian  or  Ketil). 

Vic,  near  Metz,  a  temporary  mint  of  the  Bishops  of  M.  about  1556, 
while  the  right  of  coinage  within  the  city  was  in  the  hands  of  Henry  II. 
of  France.  The  latter  complained  of  the  debased  standard  issued  at 
V.  Here  Henri  de  Vernueil,  Bishop  of  Metz  from  1612,  struck  the  last 
episcopal  money  of  that  diocese. 

Vicenza,  the  place  of  origin  of  an  apparently  autonomous  aqtiilino 
with  Vicencie  on  obv.  and  Civitas  on  rev.  I3th  c. 

Vich,  or  Ausonna  ( Vicus  Ausonice\  Cataluiia,  probably  an  early  Carlo- 
vingian  place  of  coinage,  and  a  mint  of  Wilfred  II.,  Count  of  Barcelona, 
906-13,  of  which  he  left  by  will  a  third  of  the  profits  to  the  church  here. 
There  is  an  anonymous  denier  of  one  of  the  bishops  with  Episcopi  Viet. 
and  Santi  Pctri.  V.  was  also  a  Franco-Spanish  mint  during  the  French 
occupation  of  the  province,  1642-48. 

Vienna  (Wien\  a  mint  from  the   I2th  c.,  and  a  place  of  coinage, 

1 74  The  Coins  of  Europe 

chiefly  for  lower  values,  of  the  early  Dukes  and  Arch-Dukes  of  Austria. 
The  seat  of  the  mint  of  the  Austrian  Empire  since  1806.  The  earliest 
gold  siege-piece  is  that  struck  here  on  the  occasion  of  the  blockade  by 
the  Turks  in  1529.  The  archbishop  coined  a  thaler  at  V.,  with  the 
permission  of  the  Emperor  Joseph,  in  1781.  There  is  a  superb  one  struck 
by  the  Numismatic  Society  of  V.  in  1888,  in  honour  of  Maria  Theresa,  in 
two  varieties  :  one  with  a  plain,  the  other  with  an  inscribed,  edge. 

Vienne,  Dauphiny,  formerly  a  place  of  great  consideration  and  im- 
portance, and  by  the  Council  of  892  declared  the  metropolis  of  France. 
There  was  a  Venetian  settlement  in  Haute-Vienne  in  977,  and  the  quarter 
where  the  colonists  fixed  themselves  was  known  as  the  Rue  des  Venicicns. 
The  town  of  V.  was  both  a  Merovingian,  a  Carlovingian,  and  a  Burgundian 
mint,  as  well  as,  at  a  somewhat  later  period,  a  local  one,  and  a  seat  of 
coinage  of  the  archbishops  and  dauphins.  One  of  the  archiepiscopal 
pieces  has  on  obv.  Vrbs  Vienna,  and  on  rev.  Caput  Gallic.  There  is  a 
denier  of  the  loth  c.  of  municipal  origin,  having  on  obv.  Vrbs  Vienna  and 
a  monogram  in  centre,  and  on  rev.  S.  Mai'rici-vs  and  a  cross.  Some 
pieces  of  the  same  period  indicate  a  monetary  convention  between  the 
primates  and  the  Crown  of  Provence. 

Viennois,  a  district  of  France,  in  which  formerly  existed  several  mints 
employed  by  the  Comtes  d'Albon,  I  ith-i  5th  c.,  namely  :  Sesana,  or  Sisena 
(1155),  Avisans,  Chaneuil,  Veynes,  Grenoble,  Tronche  (near  Grenoble), 
Pisangon,  Cremieu,  Serve,  and  Romans.  Humbert  II.  (1333-49)  still 
used  the  mint  authorised  by  Frederic  Barbarossa  at  Sesana. 

Vierzon,  Berri,  a  seigniorial  mint  from  the  I2th  to  the  I5th  c.,  when, 
after  several  changes,  it  was  reunited  to  the  Crown  of  France. 

Viesville,  Hainault,  a  place  of  coinage  of  the  ancient  Counts  of 
Namur,  I3th  c. 

Villa  di  Chicsa,  a  mint  of  Alfonso  IV.  and  Pedro  IV.  of  Arragon 

Ville-Franchc,  a  seat  of  the  French  coinage  under  Louis  XIII.  A 
double  tournois  of  1614  was  struck  there. 

Villeneuve.     See  Beaucaire  and  Satnt-Andr/. 

Vih'ordc,  S.  Brabant,  near  Brussels,  a  seigniorial  mint  in  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  one  of  those  of  the  Dukes  of  Brabant. 

Vimy,  Pas  de  Calais,  a  mint  under  Louis  XIV.  Liards  of  1654 
with  V. 

Visby,  an  early  Danish  mint.     Visbycensis. 

Visd.     See  Wezet. 

Visigothic  Mints.     See  Blanchet,  ii.  271-72.     Many  are  very  doubtful. 

Viterbo,  a  place  of  coinage  of  certain  pieces  in  silver  and  billon  with 
Patrimoniv.  Beati.  Petri.,  and  of  others  with  the  name  of  St.  Laurentius, 
I2th-i3th  c.  It  was  a  papal  mint  from  1303  to  1490,  and  Pius  VI.  struck 
bronze  money  here  in  1796-97.  The  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem, 
when  they  left  Rhodes  in  1522,  remained  for  some  time  at  Viterbo  and 
at  Candia,  and  may  have  struck  their  money  on  the  spot. 

Vitforia,  near  Parma,  a  supposed  place  of  coinage  of  pieces  with  the 
name  of  Frederic  II.  and  S.  Victoris.  about  1247. 

Viviers,  Dept.  of  Ardeche,  on  the  Rhone,  the  seat  of  an  episcopal 
coinage  from  the  I2th  to  the  I4th  c.  It  seems  that  in  1293  the  mint  was 
known  as  1'Argentiere.  In  1307  leave  was  given  for  the  circulation  of 
the  money  outside  the  diocese.  Vivarii,  or  Vivariensis.  Some  pieces 
have  the  initial  and  title  of  the  bishop.  Low  values  only. 

Vlissingen.     See  Flushing. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  175 

Vollenh'oom,  Overijssel,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  J  groot  of  Jan  van 
Diest,  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  1322-41. 

Volterra,  Tuscany,  a  seat  of  episcopal  coinage,  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  Only 
pieces  of  low  value  with  De.  Volterra,  or  D.  Vvlterra. 

Vroenhof.     See  Maestricht. 

Wadstena,  or  Wadstein,  E.  Gothland,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  square 
4-mark  piece  struck  by  the  Dukes  of  Finland  and  Sodermanland  during 
the  war  with  Eric  XIV.,  1568. 

Waelhem,  near  Malines,  the  mint  of  Philippe  de  Bourgogne  during  his 
administration  of  the  duchy  of  Brabant  for  Jean  IV. 

Walcheren,  Holland.  The  French  defenders  struck  a  piece  in  lead 
in  1813  with  Regiment  de  Valcheren  during  the  siege  by  the  English. 

Waldeck,  W.  Germany,  probably  the  mint  of  the  principality  of 
Waldeck-Pyrmont.  In  Sch.,  xiv.  547,  there  is  a  remarkable  gold  ducat  of 
Christian  and  Wolrath  IV.,  1616.  There  is  a  very  fine  thaler  of  1813. 
There  was  probably  a  mint  here  in  the  beginning  of  the  I3th  c.,  if  not 

Waldeck  Mints  (minor)  :  Arolsen  (1732-1840),  Corbach,  I3th  c.  (Cvr- 
bekec,  Corbeck,  or  Corbecia),  Nieder-Wildungen. 

Walincourt,  Hainault,  now  Dept.  of  Nord,  the  place  of  coinage  of 
Guillaume  I.,  Count  of  Hainault  (1305-6),  and  of  a  gros  of  Jean,  Seigneur 
de  W.,  probably  struck  in  1306-7,  when  he  received  the  authority  from 
the  Count,  as  the  See  of  Cambrai  promptly  procured  an  injunction 
against  the  mint  as  being  within  that  diocese.  The  gros  above  mentioned 
reads  Johannes  Dns.  De  Wai.,  and  on  rev.  Moneta  Nova  Waullancort. 

Wangen,  canton  of  Berne.     See  Kyburg. 

Waremme,  prov.  of  Liege,  a  mint  of  Thibaut  de  Bar,  Bishop  of  Liege, 

Warendorf,  probably  the  mint  of  the  copper  money  (kupferdreier] 
of  the  1 6th- 1 7th  c.  bearing  the  name  of  the  place.  The  earliest  which  we 
have  seen  is  a  12  pf.  of  1594  with  Stadt  Warendorp  and  a  portcullis. 

Warsaw,  formerly  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Poland,  erected  into  a 
grand-duchy  by  Napoleon  I.  under  the  government  of  the  King  of  Saxony, 
and  now  belonging  to  Russia  ;  a  mint  of  which  little  seems  to  be  known. 
A  rare  gold  ducat  of  Frederic  Augustus,  King  of  Saxony,  as  Duke  of 
Warsaw,  1812,  reads  Aurens  Nummus  Ducat.  Varsov.  The  revolution- 
ary money  of  1831  was  struck  out  of  Poland. 

Weerdt,  Limbourg,  14  miles  from  Ruremonde,  the  chief  mint  of  the 
Seigneurs  of  Homes,  1 3th  c.  Philip  de  Montmorency  struck  a  silver  piece 
here,  copied  from  the  type  of  the  Bolognese  lira,  with  Moneta  Nova 
Argen.  D\pmint\  I\n\  W\eerdt\. 

Weimar,  Saxony,  a  grand-duchy  formed  in  1484.  There  is  a  series  of 
thalers  and  other  pieces  from  the  i6th  c.  down  to  the  latter  end  of  the 
i8th  c.  There  is  a  thaler  of  Friedrich  Wilhelm  and  Johann,  1583,  with 
their  portraits,  and  thalers  and  \  thalers  of  Amalia,  Regent  of  Saxe- 
Weimar  and  Eisenach,  1763.  It  is  to  this  series  and  locality  that  we 
have  to  refer  the  curious  thaler  of  Johann  Ernst  II.  and  his  seven 
brothers  with  all  their  effigies  (1605-20).  Weimar  was  also  a  mint  of  the 
Counts  of  Orlamiinde. 

Weissenhorn,  Bavaria,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  gold  florin  of  Anthony, 
Baron  of  Fugger  (1530-60),  with  a  quartered  shield  and  Ant.  Fvgger  D. 
in  Weissenhorn.  There  is  a  series  of  coins  and  medals  of  this  great 
house  in  both  its  branches,  from  the  i6th  to  the  i8th  c.,  struck  either 

176  The  Coins  of  Europe 

here  or  at  Augsburg.  At  the  latter  place  was  published  the  well- 
known  collection  of  portraits  :  Fuggerorum  ct  Fuggerarum  Imagines, 
folio,  1593. 

Well,  near  Lidge,  the  possible  place  of  coinage  of  Jan  van  Arendal 
and  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Rheidt  and  Well  (i5th  c.). 

W els feil.     See  Laroche. 

Wendcn,  Livonia,  a  mint  of  the  Order  of  Livonia,  who  also  struck 
money  in  gold  and  silver,  sometimes  in  conjunction  with  others,  at  Riga 
and  Revel. 

Werden  and  Helmstadt,  Prussia,  in  the  circle  of  Duisburg,  an  abbatial 
mint  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  down  to  the  i8th  c.  The  schellings  of 
Campen  were  copied  here.  A  piece  of  6  sous  on  the  Dutch  model  of  the 
Abbot  Hugo  d'Assindia  is  cited  by  Sch.,  xiv.  617.  Comp.  Ludinghausen. 

Werl,  Prussian  Westphalia,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Recklinghausen 
and  of  the  See  of  Cologne.  The  latter  money  (in  copper,  1602)  bears  the 
arms  of  the  town — a  key  on  a  cross. 

Wernigcrode,  Prussian  Saxony,  a  mint  of  the  independent  Counts, 
whose  castle  lies  a  little  distance  from  the  town,  from  the  I3th  to  the 
1 8th  c.  The  earliest  issue  was  of  bracteates.  There  is  a  convention- 
gulden  of  this  place,  1 764. 

Wertheim,  Baden,  the  place  of  coinage  of  pfennigen  of  silver  struck 
by  the  Counts  by  virtue  of  an  imperial  licence  granted  in  1363,  and  of 
money  of  the  Counts  of  Stolberg  and  of  Loewenstein-Wertheim.  Werthen. 

Wesel,  a  mint  of  the  duchy  of  CleVes,  I4th-i5th  c. 

Wesscrn,  Limbourg,  a  mint  of  the  Seigneurs  of  Homes  in  the  I3th  c. 

Westphalian  Mints  (minor) :  Alen,  Anholt,  Beckum,  Eversberg, 
Halteven,  Mark,  Stadtberg,  Stromberg,  Tecklenburg,  Telger,  Vlotho, 
Vreden,  Werne,  Winterberg. 

Wezct,  a  mint  of  the  Lords  of  Reckheim.  Here  the  Netherland 
contrefa<^on  of  the  Bolognese  lira  appears  to  have  originated.  Also  a 
mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Liege  in  the  I2th  c.  We  have  a  denier  with 
Enirrdvs  Ep.,  of  which  the  identification  is  difficult.  Some  have  sup- 
posed it  to  belong  to  Bishop  Reginard  (1025-39).  Vioza,  Vicsez,  or  We. 

Wied,  Prussia,  the  ostensible  place  of  origin  of  certain  silver  and 
copper  money  in  the  last  and  present  century.  It  possesses  copper  mines 
and  a  silver  finery.  But  the  coins  were  probably  struck  at  Berlin. 

Wicdenbrtick,  Prussian  Westphalia,  probably  the  mint  of  the  copper 
money  (kupferdreier),  bearing  its  name. 

Wielun,  Poland,  the  place  of  coinage  of  money  struck  by  the  Duke 
of  Oppeln,  Governor  of  Poland  and  Red  Russia,  on  behalf  of  Louis  of 
Anjou,  1 3th  c.  Moneta  Welv.  Ct.;  Moneta  Rvssie. 

Wiesbaden,  Nassau,  a  mint  of  the  duchy  of  Nassau,  I4th-I7th  c. 

Wijk-bii-Dunrstedc,  in  the  province  of  Utrecht.     See  Durstede. 

Wijniges,  West  Friesland,  the  seat  of  a  mint  for  that  province  in 
1634.  Schulman,  xi.  91,  cites  an  inedited  variety  of  the  gold  ducat  struck 

Wilna,  probably  the  seat  of  the  coinage  of  the  Dukes  of  Courland,  as 
well  as  of  that  of  Lithuania  before  and  after  its  annexation  to  Poland. 
The  money  struck  by  the  Dukes  in  the  i6th  c.  was  on  the  model  of  the 
Polish  currency  emanating  from  Dantzic  and  Riga. 

Windisch,  canton  of  Aargau,  a  Swiss  mint  under  the  Merovingian 
princes.  Vindonissa. 

Winsum,  W.  Friesland,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  W.  F.,  nth  c. 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  177 

Wismar,  Mecklenburgh-Schwerin,  a  seat  of  coinage  in  all  metals  from 
the  i/thc.  ;  but  in  recent  times  copper  only  seems  to  have  been  struck 
there.  It  was  one  of  the  mints  in  the  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  of  the  undivided  duchy 
of  Mecklenburgh.  Moneta.  Wismar.  and  on  rev.  Civitas.  Magnop.  The 
mint  seems  to  have  produced  nothing  after  1854.  There  is  a  rare  piece 
representing  a  thaler  and  a  half,  without  date,  but  about  1680,  with  a  three- 
quarter  figure  of  St.  Laurence,  holding  the  gridiron,  a  shield  of  arms  in 
front  of  him,  and  the  legend  Fir  ma  •  Est  •  in  Domin .'.  Spes.  Et  •  Fid-vcia  • 
Nostra  • ,  and  on  the  rev.  the  outer  circle  has  a  legend  :  Wismariam  • 
A  Cvnctis  •  Protege  •  Christe  Malts.'.  The  inner  circle,  embracing  a 
quartered  shield,  reads  Devs.  Dat.  Cvi.  Vvlt.  This  coin  was  obligingly 
lent  to  us,  with  many  others,  by  Messrs.  Spink  and  Son  of  London. 
Comp.  Schulman,  Cat.  xx.  1208.  A  gold  ducat  of  Wismar,  1743,  occurred 
at  the  Reinmann  sale,  1891,  No.  867.  In  1715,  during  the  siege  by  the 
allied  Russians,  Danes,  Saxons,  and  Hanoverians,  the  town  struck  money 
of  necessity  for  I,  4,  8,  and  16  schillings. 

Wissembiirg,  Alsace,  an  abbatial  mint  from  1275,  and  a  municipal  one 
under  imperial  sanction  1 5th- 1 7th  c.  The  abbatial  money  bears  Widen- 
fire  [?  the  name  of  an  abbot — Wilfrid],  the  other  Weissenbvrg.  Am. 
Rhei.  This  is  the  place  of  origin  of  a  very  early  and  rare  denier, 
described  in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1791.  Comp.  also  Nos.  1978, 

Wittenberg,  a  mint  of  the  Electors  of  Saxony  and  of  the  town,  I3th- 
i6th  c.  Shield  with  two  swords  and  W. 

Woerden,  Holland,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  square  piece  of  4  stuivers 
in  lead,  struck  during  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1575. 

Woerth-am-Sauer,  Alsace,  a  mint  of  Lichtenberg,  1587-1632. 

Wolfenbiittel,  Brunswick,  the  seat  of  a  branch  of  the  house  of  Bruns- 
wick, and  the  place  of  origin  of  a  tolerably  long  series  of  coins.  Money  of 
necessity  was  struck  here  in  1627  by  the  commandant  of  the  fortress. 

Wohlau  or  Wohlau,  Silesia,  the  source  of  pfennigen  of  the  I4th  c. 
with  a  bull's  head  and  IV.  V.  for  Wulavia;  there  were  pieces  of  24 
kreutzer  during  the  Thirty  Years'  War  (1621-22).  It  was  also  a  mint  of 
the  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Brieg. 

Workum,VJ.  Friesland,  a  seat  of  local  coinage,  I4th  c.,  with  Wolderv. 
and  an  eagle  and  three  fleurs-de-lis. 

Worms,  Hesse  Darmstadt,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  denier  of  early 
fabric  similar  to  those  of  Louis  le  Ddbonnaire  of  the  temple  type,  and  a 
mint  of  the  Bishops  of  Worms  from  the  gth  c.,  as  well  as  perhaps  of  the 
See  of  Treves.  The  most  ancient  denier  of  the  bishops  is  one  of  Henry 
(1217-34).  There  is  also  civic  or  municipal  money  in  gold  and  silver. 

Wurtembtt-rg  Mints  (minor)  :  Aalen,  Argen,  Bartenstein,  Biberach, 
Brenz,  Buchau,  Buchhorn,  Christophstal,  Elwangen,  Esslingen,  Forchten- 
berg,  Giengen,  Gmiind,  Gnadenthal,  Goeppingen,  Heilbronn,  Helfenstein, 
Kirchberg,  Koenigsegg,  Langenargen,  Langenburg,  Limpurg,  Mainhard, 
Marbach,  Mergentheim,  Montfort,  Neckarssulm,  Neuenstein,  Oehringen, 
Ravensburg,  Riedlingen,  Rottenburg,  Siilz,  Tettnang,  Tubingen,  Unter- 
steinbach,  Waldburg,  Waldenburg,  Waldsee,  Wangen,  Weickersheim, 
Weingarten,  Weissenau,  Woellwarth,  or  Wallworth. 

Wurtzburg,  the  mint  of  the  bishops.  Money  of  necessity  has  been 
repeatedly  struck  here. 

Xeres,  a  mint  of  the  Almohades  (516-668). 


178  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Yennc,  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of  Savoy,  I4th  c. 

Ypres  (Ipra,  or  Ipre),  the  mint  of  Philippe  d'Alsace,  Gui  de  Dampierre, 
and  others,  Counts  of  Flanders  after  the  acquisition  of  Artois.  It  appears 
that  certain  English  nobles  were  struck  in  this  locality,  if  not  in  the  town 
itself,  by  a  concession  granted  to  Edward  III.  by  the  towns  of  Ghent, 
Bruges,  and  Ypres  in  1345.  The  coin  is  said  to  have  originated  in  a 
victory  by  Edward  over  the  French  in  1340  ofFSluijs. 

Yves,  Namur,  a  mint  of  Gaucher,  Count  of  Porcien  (1312-22). 

Zacatccas,  Mexico,  one  of  the  principal  colonial  mints  of  Spain  in 
former  times.  It  was  still  employed  under  the  Spanish  Bourbons  in 
1821,  and  is  said  to  be  still  in  operation. 

Zamosc,  Poland,  the  source  of  a  silver  coin  of  2  zlote",  struck  in  1813, 
as  money  of  necessity. 

Zantc,  one  of  the  places  named  on  the  Venetian  copper  gazzctte  struck 
for  the  Ionian  Isles  under  Venetian  rule. 

Zara,  Dalmatia,  the  place  of  origin  of  a  series  of  siege-pieces  in 
silver,  the  double-headed  eagle  crowned,  between  Zara,  1813,  and  on 
the  other  the  value.  There  are  pieces  of  18  fr.  40  c.,  9  fr.  20  c.,  and  4  fr. 
60  c.,  besides  a  countermarked  baiocco  of  Pius  VI.  The  Venetian  money 
for  Zara  may  have  been  struck  here  or  at  Venice  itself. 

Zator,  Galicia,  formerly  an  independent  duchy,  for  which  we  have  a 
piece  of  30  kreutzer  of  Maria  Theresa  of  1776,  with  Archid.  Avs.  Dvx 
Os-w.  Zat. 

Zicgcnhain,  Hesse,  the  mint  of  the  local  seigneurs  in  the  I3th  c.,  and 
subsequently  of  the  Landgraves  of  Hesse.  CygcnWga. 

Ziericzcc,  the  place  of  coinage  of  siege-money  in  tin  for  20,  15,  and  10 
stuivers,  and  for  i  stuiver,  in  1575-76  during  the  Spanish  siege. 

Zofingen,  Switzerland,  canton  of  Aargau,  a  place  of  independent  can- 
tonal coinage  by  a  concession  of  the  Emperor  Frederic  II.  in  1239. 
There  are  bracteates  of  the  Counts  of  Froburg,  I3th-I4th  c.,  with  Z — O; 
other  money  down  to  the  i8th  c. 

Zolder,  Limburg,  the  mint  of  Jan  van  Elteren,  Seigneur  of  Zolder, 
Zonhoven,  Vogelshanck,  and  Houthalen,  and  of  his  successor  Henri  van 
Bastogne,  I4th  c.  The  coins  are  billon,  imitated  from  the  Liege  type, 
and  read  lohs.  De  Eltcren.  Dns.  De.  Voge.,  or  Moneta.  Nova.  Svlrens. 

Zonhovcn,  Limburg,  the  place  of  coinage  of  the  Archbp.  of  Cologne, 
Engelbert  de  la  Marck,  and  of  Henri  de  Bastogne,  with  Engelb.  D.  Mar. 
Dns.  Son.,  and  Her.  DC.  Bast.  Dns.  Sonvc.  There  are  only  deniers  in 

Ziig,  the  place  of  origin  of  bracteates  of  late  date  with  the  arms  of  the 
canton  and  of  coins  of  the  I7th  c.  Tvgiensis. 

Zurich,  a  Merovingian  and  Carlovingian  mint ;  a  place  of  coinage 
of  Otho  I.  (Tvrcgvm,  or  Tvrec\  of  the  dukedom  of  Suabia,  loth 
c.,  and  the  bishops  ;  and  the  source  of  a  long  and  important  series 
of  numismatic  productions  in  gold,  silver,  and  billon,  nearly  down 
to  the  present  time.  In  1045  Henry  III.  accorded  to  the  Abbess  of 
Frauenmiinster  the  right  of  striking  money  here,  and  there  are  brac- 
teates of  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  with  a  church,  the  bust  of  St.  Felix,  that 
of  the  Abbess,  etc.  The  abbey  ceded  the  right  to  the  city  in  1514. 
There  are  some  interesting  types  of  the  thaler  (including  those  with 
the  three  martyrs  carrying  their  heads,  and  with  a  view  of  the  city) 
and  also  of  the  gold  currency.  Pieces  prior  to  the  i8th  c.  are  scarce. 
The  dicken  or  \  thaler  was  imitated  by  the  engraver  of  a  double  groat  of 

Catalogue  of  European  Mints  179 

Daventer.  Zvrich,  Zv.  Reip.  Tigvrina  or  Thvricensis,  Moneta  Tigurina. 
Among  the  rarer  products  of  this  mint  may  be  cited  a  gold  coin  struck 
in  the  reign  of  Charles  le  Gros,  with  Mon.  Nova  Av.  Thvricesis  on  obv., 
and  on  rev.  Civitas Imperial ;  a  dicken  of  1504,  a  thaler  of  1512,  of  which 
there  are  varieties,  and  others  of  1526,  1558,  and  3-thaler  klippe  of  1559. 
All  of  these  belong  to  the  imperial  epoch.  The  thaler  and  ^  thaler  of 
1773  are  also  said  to  be  uncommon,  especially  the  latter. 

Zutphen,  Gelderland,  on  the  Yssel,  the  probable  place  of  origin  of  a 
briquet  of  Charles  le  Temeraire,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  1475,  having  as  a 
mint-mark  a  lion  running  to  left.  Sch.,  xv.  200.  Other  pieces  struck  here 
in  billon  and  copper  occur.  It  was  an  occasional  mint  of  the  Spanish 
rulers.  During  the  siege  by  the  Spaniards  in  1586  the  town  issued  3 
stuivers  or  sols  in  lead  and  copper. 

Zweibriiggen,  Bavaria,  formerly  in  the  Palatinate,  apparently  the 
source  of  a  thaler  of  1623,  with  the  titles  of  the  Duke  of  Juliers,  CleVes, 
Berg,  Mark,  Ravensperg,  and  Ravenstein. 

Zwolle,  a  mint  at  which  convention-money  was  struck  in  the  i6th  c., 
prior  to  1576,  in  pursuance  of  the  treaty  between  it,  Campen,  and  Daventer. 
Also  an  imperial  and  civic  mint  in  the  i6th  and  I7th  c.  A  grosch  of 

the  German  type  was  struck  here  in  1601.  A  silver  coin  of  Zwolle, 
apparently  money  of  necessity,  struck  on  a  square  flan,  bears  on  obv. 
Zwollae  96  [1596],  and  on  rev.  a  shield  with  the  legend  Devs.  Refvgivm 


The  items  marked  *  have  been  taken  from  Mr.  Peter  Whelan's  Numismatic 
Dictionary  (1856),  as  they  stand,  the  writer  not  having  met  with  them.  He 
regards  many  as  very  doubtful,  and  others  are  almost  certainly  incorrect ;  the 
latter  category  we  have,  as  a  rule,  rejected. 

Abbaze,  a  special  silver  currency  struck  by  Russia  for  Georgia,  con- 
sisting of  5,  i,  and  2  abb.     i8th  c. 
*Abra,  Polish  silver,  value  is. 

Achtentwintig,  a  silver  coin  worth  28  stivers.  There  is  also  the  half. 
1 7th  c.  W.  Friesland,  Emden,  etc.  There  is  an  Italian  imitation  of  the 
Emden  type.  See  Sch.  v.  582. 

Achtstuiverstuk,  a  piece  of  8  stivers.  i6th  c.  Brabant.  There  is 
also  the  tienstuiverstuk  or  10  stivers,  etc. 

Achtsehner.     See  Zeyner. 

Affonsim  or  grosso  affonsim,  the  4-dinheiro  piece  of  Alfonso  V.  of 
Portugal,  1438-81.  There  is  the  half. 

Agnel.     See  Mouton  and  Lam. 

Albertin,  a  silver  coin  so  called  from  Albert,  Archduke  of  Austria, 
Governor  of  the  Netherlands,  in  conjunction  with  his  consort  Isabella. 
The  busts  are  either  accollated  or  vis-a-vis.  There  is  the  double. 

Albertin,  a  gold  coin  of  the  same  princes  and  type,  with  the  two 
busts  facing  each  other  on  the  Spanish  model. 

Albulo  da  S.  Pietro,  a  billon  coin  of  Lucca  under  republican  rule,  of 
the  Of  to  type.  The  rev.  has  a  full-length  figure  of  St.  Peter  with  the 

Albus,  i.q.,  blanque,  blanc,  bianco,  bianco,  witpenning,  a  billon  or  plated 
coin,  current  in  Germany  and  the  Low  Countries  from  the  I5th  c.  A 
mannheimer  gulden  of  1608,  of  which  there  is  the  half,  is  described  as 
being  worth  26  albus.  Apiece  of  two  albus  of  Orange-Nassau,  1684,  is 
cited  by  Schulman,  Cat.  v.,  No.  494.  Comp.  Raderalbus.  The  city  of 
Cologne  struck  pieces  of  4  and  8  albus. 

Alfonsino,  a  name  by  which  the  gold  florin  of  Alfonso  I.,  King  of 
Arragon,  Sicily,  and  Naples  (1433-58),  is  supposed  to  have  been  known  or 

Alfonso,  the  gold  Spanish  piece  of  25  peseta  struck  under  Alfonso 
XII.,  1871,  etc. 

*Allevure,  Swedish  copper,  the  lowest  value. 

1 82  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Alpha  et  Omega,  an  allegorical  or  figurative  emblem,  which  presents 
itself  on  many  mediaeval  coins  of  bishops  and  secular  rulers,  and  which,  like 
other  Western  types,  was  imitated  in  a  more  or  less  degenerate  form  by 
the  moneyers  of  Northern  and  Eastern  Europe.  See  p.  61. 

Altininck,  a  Russian  silver  or  billon  piece  of  three  kopecks  struck 
under  Peter  the  Great  and  his  immediate  successors. 

Alttnichlic,  Turkish  silver,  value  35.     60  para. 

Ambrosino,  a  name  of  the  silver  Florentine  grosso  of  the  first  republic 
(1250-1310),  derived  from  the  figure  and  name  of  the  patron-saint  on  rev. 

Angelet,  a  gold  coin  belonging  to  the  Anglo-Gallic  series.  The  half- 
salute.  Comp.  Engels. 

Angevin,  the  term  by  which  the  money  struck  at  Angers  was  known, 
as  distinguished  from  that  of  Tours.  One  of  the  earliest  modern  coins 
with  the  denomination  expressed  is  a  double  angevin  of  Charles  de 
Valois,  Count  of  Maine,  with  Anicvins.  Dobles.  on  rev. 

Angcvinc,  or  double  gros,  a  denomination  used  for  the  double  gros  in 
the  diocese  of  Metz,  1 4th- 1 5th  c.  It  was  imitated  at  Verdun  and  in  the 

Anglo-Gallic  money,  a  very  extensive  series  in  gold,  silver,  and  billon, 
struck  by  the  Kings  of  England  as  sovereigns  of  France  from  Henry  II. 
to  Henry  VI.,  by  the  Black  Prince,  and  by  the  Regent  Duke  of  Bedford. 

Angster,  a  Swiss  denomination  (cantons  of  Schwyz  and  Lucerne),  igth 

Anselmino,  a  silver  type  of  Mantua,  i6th  c.,  from  the  effigy  and  name 
of  St.  Anselm  on  rev.     It  seems  to  have  been  struck  only  under  Vincenzo 
and  Francesco  IV.  Gonzaga  (1587-1612). 
*Aperbias,  Maltese. 

Aquilino,  a  small  silver  coin  struck  at  Padua  during  the  republican 
epoch  (1200-1300).  It  reads  Padva  Re&ia  CIVITAS,  and  owes  its  name 
to  the  eagle  significant  of  imperial  suzerainty.  The  same  denomination 
was  struck  at  Treviso  by  the  Count  of  Goritz  (1319-1323). 

Aquilino,  a  silver  coin  of  Genoa  of  the  i4th  or  I5th  c.  with  Fidclivm 
Imperii  and  an  eagle  with  outstretched  wings  on  obv.,  and  on  rev. 
lanve  et  District.  Remedi  Cat.  1884,  No.  1447,  320  lire. 

Ardite,  Spanish  and  Franco-Spanish  currency  of  very  low  value,  I7th 
c.  The  Spaniard  used  to  say  :  "  No  vale  un  ardite." 

Arcndes  groot.  A  Brabantine  and  Dutch  coin  of  the  I4thand  follow- 
ing centuries.  Schulman,  Cat.  v.,  No.  228,  cites  the  quarter  of  Louis  IV. 
of  Loos. 

Arendeschclling,?*.  Dutch  and  Flemish  coin  of  the  i4th,  1 5th,  and  i6th 
c.  See  Sch.,  Cat.  4,  No.  297.  There  is  the  half. 

Arendesrijksdaaldcr,  a  Low  Countries  denomination,  like  the  preced- 
ing, issued  during  the  i6th  c.,  probably  from  an  Arensberg  model. 
There  is  one  with  the  titles  of  Rudolph  II.  (1576-1612). 

Argento,  the  name  conferred  on  a  silver  coin  struck  by  Pope  Clement 
V.  at  Carpentras,  near  Avignon,  early  I4th  c.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  793, 
and  comp.  No.  888,  where  a  piece  of  similar  appellation  is  cited  as  struck  by 
the  Prince  of  Castiglione  (Francesco  Gonzaga,  1593-1616).  The  latter 
seems  to  have  been  =  ^  scudo  d'oro. 

Armellino,  a  silver  coin  of  Guidobaldo  II.,  Duke  of  Urbino  (1538-74), 
with  an  ermine  to  r.  on  obv.  and  the  figure  and  name  of  St.  Crescentius 
on  rev. 

*Armoodi,  Turkish  gold. 

Arnaldus  or  Arnaldensis,  a  small  billon  coin  of  the  See  of  Auch  or 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations          183 

Agen  in  Aquitaine.     Five  a.  were  =  4  deniers  tournois  ;  it  corresponds  to 
the  pite  or  pougeoise.     Agenensis. 

Arnoldusgulden,  a  copper  weight  of  the  type  of  the  gold  ducat  of 
Arnould,  Duke  of  Gueldres,  1423-73.  Apparently  of  the  period. 

Artesienne  (Monnaie),  the  generic  appellation  bestowed  in  public  acts, 
as  it  may  have  been  in  contemporary  parlance,  on  the  money  of  Artois, 
more  especially  the  commercial  currency  of  mailles,  which  were  struck 
with  local  differences  at  nearly  all  the  towns  in  this  district,  as  well  as  at 
Antwerp,  Brussels,  etc.  Comp.  Maille. 

Artilitk=T,  Italian  grossetti,  a  silver  coin  of  the  republic  of  Ragusa. 
The  word  is  said  to  be  of  Turkish  origin. 

Asper  or  Aspar,  a  Turkish  billon  coin  current  in  Asia  Minor,  in  the 
time  of  Byron  and  Hobhouse,  for  about  the  3oth  part  of  a  penny.  In 
Barbary  they  used  to  have  the  ^  asper  or  bonrbe. 

Aspro,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  at 
Rhodes,  I4th  c.  The  Rhodian  danaro. 

Assis,  a  silver  coin  =  6  kreutzer  or  a  schilling  in  the  old  monetary 
systems  of  Basle  and  Strasburgh-in-Elsas.  There  were  the  a.,  the 
double,  and  the  half.  A  double  a.  of  Basle  is  dated  1624,  and  a.  of  the 
same  city,  1695,  1697,  and  1708.  In  1795  a  siege-piece  of  72  a.  was 
struck  for  Luxemburgh.  The  Strasburgh  series  of  this  type  is  a  tolerably 
numerous  one,  and  includes  some  well-executed  pieces  ;  the  three  faurs- 
de-lis  were  introduced  after  the  French  occupation  in  1681,  in  lieu  of  the 
ancient  Us;  but  the  legend  still  preserved  for  some  time  the  word 

*Attine,  Turkish  silver,  value  5d. 

Aubonne,  a  silver  crown,  with  the  half  and  quarter,  of  Lorraine,  i8th 
c.  It  owed  its  name  to  M.  d'Aubonne,  the  director  of  the  mint  from 
1724  to  1728,  in  which  year  he  was  succeeded  by  M.  Masson. 

Augustale,  a  gold  coin  of  Sicily  under  Henry  VI.  and  Frederic  II. 
(1194-1250),  modelled  on  the  ancient  Roman  aurei.  It  occurs  with  the 

portrait  of  Frederic  II.  (1197-1220).    There  is  the  half,  which  is  the  scarcer 
of  the  two. 

Ausbeutethaler,  a  silver  mining  thaler  of  Saxony,  Brunswick- Luneburg, 
Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel,  Anhalt-Bernberg,  etc.  Some  of  these  pieces, 
more  especially  those  of  Brunswick,  are  very  striking  and  very  admirably 
executed.  They  often  occur  of  a  large  module,  and  are  marked  with 
values  from  i^  to  4  thalers.  There  is  a  particularly  fine  one  of  1657  for 
Brunswick- Luneburg,  with  the  head  of  the  Hanoverian  Horse  turned  back. 

*Bache,  Zurich,  billon,  value  ifd. 

Baer-pfenning,  a  billon  coin  of  St.  Gall,  Switzerland,  i$th  c.,  with  the 
gold-collared  bear  rampant. 

Baetsner=&  deniers,  a  small  billon  coin  of  Strasburgh-in-Elsas,  the 

184  The  Coins  of  Europe 

6th  part  of  a  dick-pfenning.     There  are  also  the  drei  baetzner  or  \  dick- 

Bagattino,  bagai,  a  trifle,  a  small  bronze  coin  of  Venice,  first  struck  in 
the  earlier  half  of  the  I5th  c.,  and  largely  employed  for  the  colonies. 
The  type  varied  according  to  circumstances.  Nicolo  Trono  (1471-3) 
struck  the  double.  The  piece  with  Trono's  name  has  the  special  interest 
and  importance  of  possessing  a  portrait  of  the  Doge,  attributed  by 
Armand  to  Antonello,  and  different  from  that  on  the  lira  Tron.  The 
bagattino  was  the  Venetian  unit  in  copper.  There  is  the  half  of  some 
reigns.  A  bagattino  of  the  I5th  c.  struck  for  Zara  has  a  half-figure  of  St. 
Simeon  and  Simeon  Ivsti's  Prof  eta.  The  remarkable  bagattino  of  Nicolo 
Trono,  1471-1473,  is  conjecturally  attributed  to  Luca  Sesto  or  to  Antonello, 
contemporary  moneyers  at  Venice  ;  and  the  same  origin  is  claimed  for 
the  lira  Tron.  Comp.  Lira. 

Baioccbella,  a  small  billon  coin  of  Fano  under  papal  government. 
There  are  several  varieties. 

Baiocchetto,  a  small  silver  coin  of  the  Farnesi,  Dukes  of  Castro,  i6th 
c.,  with  the  effigy  and  name  of  St.  Savinus  on  rev. 

Baiocco,  the  papal  centime.  100  baiocchi  are=i  scudo.  In  1712 
Clement  XI.  issued  a  silver  piece  of  80  bai.  During  the  revolutionary 
periods,  1796-99  and  1848-49,  a  very  varied  series  of  baiocchi  was  struck  by 
Pius  VI.,  Pius  IX.,  the  Roman  republic,  etc.  That  on  circular  flans  in 
white  metal  is  said  to  have  been  struck  at  Paris. 
*Bajoire,  Genevese  silver,  value  45.  6d. 

Banco,  a  standard  of  currency,  which  virtually  came  into  operation  in 
the  1 6th  c.  when  the  Venetian  banks  were  obliged  to  seek  from  the 
Government  power  to  avert  failure  by  reducing  the  weight  of  the  gold 
ducat.  In  West  Friesland,  during  the  troubles  with  France,  the  autho- 
rities instituted  an  artificial  monetary  standard  termed  Bank-paiement  or 
Bank-gelt,  analogous  to  Banco.  The  latter  expression  constantly  occurs 
on  the  copper  coinage  of  the  north  of  Europe,  and  seems  to  be  employed 
as  a  mark  of  distinction  from  Courant.  Schulman,  xi.  95,  cites  a  curious 
piece,  which  he  describes  as  a  proof  in  piedfort,  belonging  to  the  West 
Friesland  series.  It  bears  date  1677,  and  is  inscribed  with  6  Sittivers 
Bank  Payement.  It  has  been  the  practice  of  all  countries  for  the  Govern- 
ment or  Crown  to  tamper  with  the  current  silver  and  copper  coin,  and 
profit  by  the  difference  in  weight  or  alloy.  English  history  has  a  fair 
share  to  shew  under  this  head,  and  a  late  Jewish  Chancellor  of  the 
Exchequer  even  went  so  far  as  to  suggest  an  experiment  on  the  gold  by 
introducing  a  half-sovereign  token  worth  8s.  Comp.  Bursarienzeichen. 

Bano,  the  unit  of  the  copper  currency  of  the  kingdom  of  Roumania. 
There  are  pieces  of  i  bano  ;  2,  5,  and  10  bani.  The  bano  =  centime. 

Barbarin,  from  barbe,  in  reference  to  the  bearded  face  of  St. 
Martial,  a  billon  coin  of  the  Abbey  of  Saint-Martial,  first  struck  at  the 
commencement  of  the  i2th  c.,  and  copied  by  the  Vicomtes  de  Limoges. 
Obv.  Scs.  Marcial.  Rev.  Lemoricensis.  Gui  VI.  V.  de  Limoges  (1230-63) 
endeavoured  to  replace  it  by  an  altered  type  with  his  own  name  in  1263  ; 
and  both  were  eventually  replaced  in  the  Viscomtd  by  an  improved  and 
varied  coinage,  copied  from  the  royal  or  the  Breton  money.  See 

Barbone,  a  silver  coin  of  Lucca,  i7th  c.,  with  the  crowned  and 
bearded  Sanctus  Vultus. 

Barbuda,  a  piece  of  3  dinheiros,  struck  under  Fernando  I.  of  Portugal, 
1367-83,  representing  on  obv.  a  profile  of  the  king,  crowned  and  visored, 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations          185 

and  on  rev.  a  cross  surcharged  with  the  besanted  shield,  and  cantoned 
with  four  castles.  The  king  bears  on  his  shoulder  a  similar  shield,  and 
before  and  behind  the  bust  occur  L.P.  in  a  monogram,  surmounted  by  a 

Barile,  a  silver  type  used  by  Alexander  de'  Medici,  first  Duke  of 
Florence,  1531-7.  It  has  the  figure  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  to  r. 

Barrinba,  a  gold  colonial  coin  of  Portugal  of  low  standard,  struck 
for  Mozambique,  and  reckoned  as  =  2^  meticaes  or  66  cruzados  de  conta, 
each  cr.=  loo  reis.  There  was  the  half,  igth  c.  (1847-53). 

Bastido,  bastioes,  a  silver  denomination  of  the  Portuguese  Indies  =  300 
reis,  and  struck  at  Goa  under  Sebastian  about  1551-54,  deriving  its  name 
from  the  figure  of  the  cognominal  saint  on  obv. 

Batz,  a  small  plated  or  copper  coin  of  Switzerland  and  Germany  (Baden, 
Wiirtemburg,  etc.),  but  (from  the  name)  probably  originating  in  Berne. 
There  are  pieces  of  from  2  to  48  batzen,  the  higher  values  being  in  fine 
silver.  10  batzen  =  I  frank. 

Bazaruco,  a  billon  Portuguese  coin  of  the  I7th  c.  (1617),  apparently 
struck  at  Goa  under  the  authority  of  the  Viceroy  of  India,  having  on 
obv.  F\ilippus\  II.  R\ex~\  P\prtugalli<z\,  and  on  rev.  /[»]  H\pc\  S[fgno] 
V\inces :]  =  60  reis.  There  were  the  2.\  and  the  5  b.  pieces  of  similar  fabric, 
but  of  variant  type.  The  b.  itself  and  the  2^  b.  bore  on  obv.  a  St.  Cathe- 
rine's wheel,  and  the  latter  was  on  that  account  termed  a  roda. 

Beard-money.     See  Borodoraia. 

Beguinette,  the  specific  name  of  the  maille  blanche  struck  by  Villaume 
de  Nancy,  moneyer  to  the  Count  of  Bar,  1370-74. 

Beichlinger  thaler,  a  denomination  current  in  Poland.  There  is  one 
of  Augustus  II.,  1702. 

Berlinga,  a  silver  toin  of  Filippo  Maria  Visconti,  Duke  of  Milan 
(1412-47),  with  the  duke  on  horseback  galloping  to  r.  ;  on  rev.  St. 
Ambrosius  seated. 

*Besklie)  Turkish  silver,  value  35.  2d. 

*Beslic  or  Bestic,  Turkish  silver,  value  5  aspers,  3d. 

Bezzo  or  quattrino  bianco,  a  small  silver  coin  of  Venice,  somewhat 
similar  to  the  older  soldino.  One  of  Andrea  Gritti  (1523-39)  reads 
Andreas.  Griti.  Dvx.,  and  on  rev.  is  the  lion. 

Bianchetto,  a  billon  coin  of  the  Marquisate  of  Monteferrato,  under  the 
Palaeologi  (1380-1480),  who  also  had  the  maglia  (or  maille)  di  bianchetto 
in  bronze  or  copper. 

Btssolo,  a  billon  piece  of  the  Duchy  of  Milan  under  Gio.  Maria  Ettore 
and  Giancarlo  Visconti,  1402-12.  It  probably  owed  its  name  to  the 
bisda  or  viper,  the  cognisance  of  the  family,  on  the  rev.,  the  obv.  being 
occupied  by  a  bust  of  St.  Ambrosius,  the  crosier  in  his  r.  hand,  and  the 
1.  raised  in  the  act  of  benediction.  It  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
reissued.  The  word  is  a  corrupt  form  or  contraction  of  bisciolo.  A 
descendant  of  the  Dukes  used  to  reside  in  the  mansion  now  converted 
.into  the  Biscione  Hotel  at  Milan. 

Bissona,  a  silver  coin  of  Louis  XII.  of  France,  struck  at  Milan  as 
Duke  (1502-12).      On  obv.  occurs  :  Lvdovicvs.  D.G.  Francor.  Rex  and 
the  arms  of  France  between  two  crowned  vipers. 
*Blaffert,  Cologne,  a  small  coin. 
*Blamneer,  Westphalia,  money  of  account. 

Blanca,  a  plated  coin  of  Castile  and  Leon,  I5th  c.,  corresponding  to 
the  French  blanque,  and  German  albus,  witpenning,  breite-grosschen, 
and  silber-groschen. 

1 86  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Blanque,  and  detni-blanque,  and  grand-blanquc,  a  billon  coin  of  the 
French  and  Anglo-Gallic  series.  These  coins  continued  in  use  till  1791. 
Sch.,  Cat.  4,  No.  460,  where  is  cited  a  piece  of  six  blancs  de  Montagny. 
A  grand-blanque  Tournaisis  was  struck  by  Charles  VII.,  1422-61,  for 
France,  and  a  denier  =  two  blanques  or  albi  by  Charles  V.  for  the  county 
of  Holland. 

Blutzger,  an  episcopal  type  formerly  current  in  the  Swiss  cantons  of 
Orisons,  Coire,  and  Haldenstein.  They  are  known  of  many  years  from 
1644  to  1842.  They  were  also  struck  for  the  town  of  Coire  or  Chur. 

Bokmisch,  a  coin  belonging  to  the  former  bishopric  of  Fulda,  now 
part  of  Hesse-Cassel. 

Bolognino,  a  silver  coin  of  Bologna  from  the  autonomous  republican 
period  (nth  c.)  to  the  last  century.    There  is  the  half  as  well  as  the  double. 
Comp.  Fcrrarino. 
*Bon-gros,  Hesse-Cassel,  silver,  value  2d. 

Borodoraia,  the  popular  name  given  to  the  Russian  beard-money,  of 
which  there  are  existing  specimens  in  copper  of  various  dates,  1699, 
1705,  1725,  etc.  The  obv.  bears  the  Russian  eagle  and  the  date,  the  rev. 
a  nose  and  mouth  with  the  beard  and  moustache,  with  the  legends  dengui 
usiafi  (money  received),  sborodi pochlina  usiata  (beard-tax  received),  or 
dague  platchena  (tax  paid).  This  species  of  currency  was  really  a  token. 

Bossonaya,  a  billon  coin  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Barcelona. 

Botdrager,  Holland,  episcopal  money  of  Utrecht,  a  type  of  the  double 
groot  or  gros,  silver,  I4th  c.  There  is  the  \  and  ^,  otherwise  the  groot 
and  \  groot. 

Bourbe.     See  Asper. 

Bourbonnais,  a  type  of  the  French  denier  under  Louis  VII.  (1137-80), 
King  of  France,  of  which  there  were  at  least  three  varieties  :  the  B.  a  la 
tete,  the  B.  a  la  tete  barbue,  the  B.  i\  la  main  bdnissante,  from  the  mints 
at  Bourges  and  Mantes. 

Bourdelois,  a  variety  of  the  French  denier  struck  under  Louis  XI. 

Bourgeois,  a  term  for  the  Toulouse  denier  of  Philip  le  Hardi  (1270- 
85).  It  was  called  the  Bourgeois  de  la  langue  d'Oc  or  Languedoc. 

Bourgeois,  a  term  applied  to  two  or  three  kinds  of  billon  currency 
under  the  prolific  reign  of  Philip  le  Bel  (1285-1344).  We  find  the  b.  fort, 
the  b.  simple,  and  the  maille  bourgcoisc.  The  Dukes  of  Lorraine  adopted 
it ;  there  is  an  inedited  variety  of  Ferri  IV.  (1312-28)  struck  at  Bruges  ; 
and  Bruges  itself  preserved  the  type  and  name  under  the  Spanish  rule, 
calling  it  the  Burgensis  Novus. 

Box-thaler,  a  coin  formerly  struck  in  several  parts  of  Germany,  and 
enclosing  a  series  of  pictures,  sometimes  not  of  a  very  conventional 
character.  One  of  the  posthumous  thalers  of  Charles  V.  for  Besangon, 
1660,  is  of  this  type. 

Bracteate,  from  Gr.  ppdxciv,  to  crackle,  or  Latin  bractea,  metal  foil, 
a  peculiar  uniface  species  of  money  current  in  N.  Germany,  Switzerland, 
the  N.  Netherlands,  and  Lombardy  from  a  period  of  unknown  antiquity 
in  the  middle  ages  down  to  the  i6th  c.  It  exists  in  gold,  silver,  and 
copper,  of  which  the  silver  types  are  the  commonest.  It  is  nearly,  if  not 
quite,  always  anepigraphic  (one  of  Pertarit,  King  of  the  Lombards,  671- 
686,  struck  at  Pavia,  has  Per.},  and  many  specimens  and  types  are  of  a 
very  rudimentary  style.  Sometimes,  however,  the  bracteate  occurs  with 
the  appearance  of  having  been  the  product  of  a  carefully  and  artistically 
prepared  die,  and  we  have  before  us  one  of  Mayence  of  quite  an  elaborate 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         187 

pattern,  though  uninscribed  and  uniface.  When  we  look  at  their  flimsy 
and  fragile  texture,  it  becomes  a  source  of  surprise  that  such  large 
numbers  should  have  survived.  The  precise  place  and  office  of  the 
bracteate  in  the  extensive  area  over  which  it  once  circulated  are  not 
readily  determined.  It  possessed  scarcely  any  intrinsic  value,  nor  was 
its  current  rate  expressed  ;  and  although  it  was  light  to  excess,  it  was  not 
portable  without  risk  of  injury  even  in  the  small  wallets  used  in  the 
middle  ages  as  receptacles  for  specie  carried  on  the  person.  It  was  cer- 
tainly not  available  for  ornamental  purposes.  Yet  that  it  was  used  in 
commerce,  and  even  broken  into  halves  and  quarters,  appears  to  be  cer- 
tain. The  purchasing  power  of  such  money  was  of  course  much  greater 
in  former  times,  and  the  rate  at  which  it  and  its  fractions  were  accepted 
was  probably  understood.  In  Bavaria  a  modification  of  this  form  of 
currency  took  place  in  the  I2th  c.,  retaining  the  flimsy  fabric,  but  adding 
a  rev.  There  are  varieties  of  this  species  of  coin.  In  one  the  obv.  has 
a  coiffed  head,  and  the  rev.  an  angel  carrying  a  cross.  The  peculiar  cur- 
rency of  Mantua  and  Aquileia  in  the  middle  ages  was  a  direct  evolution 
from  the  bracteate. 

Braspenning,  a  copper  penning  or  pfenning  of  the  1 5th  c.  Fricsland. 
Comp.  Jager. 

Bravuda,  a  Portuguese  denomination  mentioned  in  official  regulations 
belonging  to  the  reign  of  Duarte  I.,  1433-38,  and  apparently  =  3  dinheiros. 

Breite-groschcn,  a  term  for  a  plated  or  billon  groschen  of  Mansfeld, 

Briquet  or  Vnurijzer,  and  the  half,  a  silver  coin  of  the  I5th  c.  current 
in  Holland,  and  so  called  from  the  short  thrusting  sword  (briquet}  in  the 
lion's  claw.  Schuhnan,  Cat.  v.  1883,  cites  a  half  vuurijzer  of  the  I5th  c. 
of  one  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht. 

Briquet,  double.     The  double  of  the  foregoing. 

Brod,  a  copper  mining  piece  of  Dortmund  of  the  i8th  c.,  is  termed  a 
Paderborner  Brod. 

Bruit,  a  piece  of  four  stuivers,  current  in  the  bishopric  of  Liege, 
1 6th  c. 

Bryman,  the  double  gros,  I4th  c.,  billon.     Brabant. 

Bugue,  a  small  silver  coin  of  Metz  in  Lorraine,  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  There  is 
the  half.  A  remarkable  series  is  described  in  Cat.  Robert,  671-698. 

Bursarienzeichen,  a  copper  piece  of  3  pfenningen,  1608.     Munster. 
*Bushe,  Aix-la-Chapelle,  value  4  hellers. 

Butken,  a  name  given  to  the  half-groot  of  Groningen,  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  A 
butken  appears  to  have  been  =  2  plakken. 

Cadiere,  a  name  given  to  the  gold  currency  of  Brittany  and  to  a  billon 
type  struck  under  Charles  VI.  of  France  for  Dauphiny.  There  is  a  cele- 
brated c.  d'or  of  Anne  of  Brittany,  1498,  the  earliest  French  coin  with  a 
.date,  where  she  styles  herself  Queen  of  France  and  Dux  Britonum.  This 
royal  lady  was  naturally  very  proud  of  her  Breton  origin  and  rank. 
*Cagliaresco,  Sardinian  copper,  value  6  to  a  soldo. 

Cagliarese,  a  copper  coin  of  Cagliari,  Sardinia,  struck  by  the  Kings  of 
Spain  as  Kings  of  Sardinia,  by  the  Emperor  Charles  VI.,  and  by  the 
Kings  of  Sardinia  of  the  House  of  Savoy.  There  is  also  in  copper  a  piece 
of  3  cagliaresi. 

*Calderilla,  Spanish  copper,  the  Cuarto,  value  4  maravedis. 

Camillino,  a  silver  denomination  of  Correggio,  near  Modena ;  it 
derived  its  name  from  Camillo,  Count  of  Correggio  (1580-97). 

1 88  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Canello.     See  Patacdo. 

Cantem,  the  Bulgarian  centime.  There  are  bronze  pieces  of  10  kantem, 
1 880  and  1887. 

Cantonal,  the  name  engraved  on  the  rev.  of  two  silver  Spanish  coins 
of  five  peseta  and  ten  reales  struck  at  Cartagena  in  1873  during  the  siege 
by  the  Centralists. 

*Capfllone,  Modena,  silver,  value  3d. 
*Caragronch,  mod.  Greece,  silver,  value  55. 

Carambole,  the  e"cu  de  Flandre  struck  by  Louis  XIV.  for  80  sols,  with 
the  quartered  arms  of  France  and  Burgundy.  There  are  several 
varieties  :  c.  aux  palmes,  aux  insignes,  etc. 

Carlino,  a  small  silver  coin  of  Bologna  under  papal  sway  and  of  the 
Two  Sicilies.  A  piece  of  12  carlini  =  5  lire.  Also  a  coin  of  Vianen  in  the 
Netherlands,  struck  on  the  Italian  model.  The  short-lived  Neapolitan 
Republic  struck  a  piastra  of  20  carlini  and  two  varieties  of  pieces  of  6 

Carlino,  a  gold  denomination  of  Carlo  Emmanuele  III.,  King  of 
Sardinia  (1730-73).  The  rev.  bears  the  annunciation. 

Carlino,  a  copper  as  well  as  a  silver  denomination  at  Malta,  i6th  c. 

Carlino  nuov>o,  a  gold  coin  of  Sardinia,  1786-93  =  ,£4  :  i6s.  or  120 
francs.     There  was  no  subsequent  issue  of  it ;  but  in  later  reigns  we  have 
nearly  equivalent  values  under  other  names. 
*Carlo,  Lombardy,  silver,  value  53. 

Carlovingian  money,  the  name  by  which  we  generally  understand  the 
coinage  of  the  Franco-German  empire  from  the  time  of  Pepin  le  Bref, 
A.D.  752,  to  the  death  of  Louis  V.,  A.D.  986.  The  mints  at  which  this 
coinage  took  place  are  neither  so  numerous  nor  so  doubtful  as  in  the  case 
of  the  Merovingian  series,  many  of  the  names  which  we  find  in  the  earlier 
list  present  themselves  in  the  later  one.  Pepin  alone  is  shewn  to  have 
had  35  mints.  M.  Blanchet  assigns  to  Charlemagne  82  ;  and  to  this 
additions  might  be  made.  So  it  is  with  some  of  the  other  emperor- 
kings  ;  and  it  appears  to  be  evident  that  the  system  of  production  was 
different  from  our  own  ;  for  we  must  recollect  that  the  royal  or  im- 
perial money  formed  only  part  of  the  whole  body  of  currency,  and 
did  not  perhaps  amount  to  nearly  as  much  as  the  aggregate  feudal 

Carnabo  or  Cornabo,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Marquisate  of  Monteferrato 
(i5th  c.)  and  of  the  feudal  lords  of  Desana  of  the  Tizzone  family  (early 
i6th  c.). 

Carolin,  half,  and  quarter,  gold  coins  of  Wiirtemberg,  i8th  c.,  so  called 
from  Charles  Alexander,  Duke  of  Wiirtemberg.     The  same  denomination 
existed  in  Sweden  under  Charles  XII.  (1697-1718) ;  there  were  pieces  of 
i  and  2  caroliner. 
^Caroline,  Swedish  silver,  value  is.  6d. 

Carolus,  a  billon  coin  of  Charles  VIII.  of  France,  of  which  there  were 
3  or  4  varieties  and  the  half ;  the  ordinary  type,  that  for  Dauphiny  and 
that  for  Brittany.  The  piece  was  =  10  deniers  tournois. 

Carolus  gulden.  Silver  gulden  of  Charles  V.  struck  for  the  Nether- 
lands, 1543-55.  The  same  name  was  given  to  the  piece  struck  by  him  or 
in  his  name  at  Besan^on,  of  which  imitations  were  made  at  Vauvillers  in 


*Castellano,  Spanish  gold,  the  ancient  coin  [?  same  as  Castillon\. 
Castillon,  Spanish  gold,  probably  from  bearing  the  arms  of  Castile. 
Catechismus  or  Glaubensthaler,  a  variety  of  1668  in  the  Saxon  series, 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations          189 

with  portions  of  the  catechism  upon  it,  possibly  designed  for  presentation 
to  children. ' 

Cavallo,  a  copper  coin  struck  by  Ferdinand  I.,  King  of  the  Two 
Sicilies  (1458-94),  having  a  standing  horse  on  the  rev.  It  continued  in 
circulation  down  to  the  igth  c.,  and  retained  its  old  name  even  when  the 
horse  was  replaced  by  other  types.  In  1781  it  is  said  on  a  grano  of 
Ferdinand  IV.  that  it  is  =  12  cavalli. 
*Cavallucci,  Naples. 

Cavalot,  a  silver  or  billon  coin  struck  by  Charles  VIII.  of  France  at 
Naples  and  Aquila  in  three  varieties. 

Cavalotto,  a  small  silver  coin  struck  at  Asti  by  Louis  XII.  of  France 
during  his  occupation  of  the  Milanese. 

Ceitil  or  Ceptil,  early  Portuguese  copper  currency,  1 5th- 1 6th  c.  =  6th 
of  a  copper  real,  w.  18  gr.  Also  a  denomination  in  copper  of  the  Bishops 
of  Aquila  in  the  Abruzzi  in  the  i6th  c. 

Cent,  a  Danish  copper  coin,-  with  its  multiples  in  silver,  struck  for  the 
Danish  West  Indies. 

Centesimo,  a  copper  coin  equal  to  the  hundredth  part  of  an  Italian 

Centime,  the  looth  part  of  the  French  franc  of  the  latest  type.     The 

first  centime  was  struck  under  the  First  Republic. 

Centime,  the  Spanish  equivalent  of  the  centime.  It  is  the  denomina- 
tion employed  for  home  use  and  the  colonies  (Philippines,  etc.).  There 
is  a  piece  of  10  centimes  for  the  miniature  republic  of  Andorra  in  the 

central  Pyrenees,  1873.  It  was  probably  struck  at  Paris.  The  republic 
is  now  under  French  protection. 

Cervia,  a  silver  coin  of  Massa-Carrara  or  Di  Lunigiana,  the  princely 
fief  of  the  Malaspina  family.  A  piece  of  4  cervie,  1610,  which  occurs  in 
Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  No.  1752,  appears  to  be  an  instance  in  which  the 
denomination  was  independent  of  the  type,  which  properly  has  a  stag  or 
hind  on  rev.  and  the  motto  Velocivs  Ad  Coelvm.  See  ibid.  No.  1753. 

Chaise,  a  gold  coin  in  the  early  French  series,  representing  on  the 
obv.  the  monarch  seated  on  his  throne  or  chair.  Comp.  Clinckaert. 

190  The  Coins  of  Europe 

*Chclon,  Polish  billon. 

C/tiavarino,  a  copper  or  bronze  coin  of  Frinco  under  the  Mazzetti 
family  (i6th-i7th  c.),  owing  its  name  to  the  papal  type  of  the  keys  and 

Chipotois,  perhaps  an  alternative  name  for  the  \  obole  of  the  Bishops 
of  Auch  or  Agen  in  Aquitaine,  otherwise  known  as  an  arnaldus,  and  =  a 
denier  tournois,  less  a  fraction. 

*Choustack,  Polish  billon,  value  2d. 

*Christian  [Christiern],  Danish  gold,  value  i6s.  5d. 

Christiana  Religio,  a  legend  and  (with  the  usually  accompanying 
Temple)  type  introduced  into  European  coinage  by  the  moneyers  of 
Louis  le  Ddbonnaire.  The  denarii  with  this  distinctive  feature  were 
extensively  copied  both  in  Western  and  Eastern  Europe,  and  acquired 
in  some  cases  a  very  degraded  form.  The  imperial  money  itself  retained 
the  symbol  and  motto  during  centuries  ;  there  is  a  denarius  or  obolus  of 
the  Emperor  Henry  II.,  1002-24,  struck  for  Lucca,  bearing  the  temple  on 
a  contracted  scale  without  the  Christiana  Religio.  The  sacred  edifice 

itself  had  been  a  constant  feature  in  the  pagan  coinage,  and  the  words 
were  almost  requisite  to  indicate  a  new  cult. 
* Christine,  Swedish  silver,  value  is.  2d. 

Cinquantina,  the  piece  of  50  reales  in  silver  struck  by  Philip  III. 
and  IV.  and  Charles  II.  of  Spain,  with  the  value  expressed  on  the 

Cinquina,  =  5  grani,  a  silver  denomination  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John 
at  Malta  and  of  other  Italian  states,  i6th  c.  There  is  a  very  rare  one  of 
Pietro  del  Monte,  Grand  Master  at  Malta,  1568-72.  Em.  de  Roban 
(1775-97)  struck  the  moiety. 

CinquinliOi  the  Portuguese  piece  of  5  reis  under  John  III.  (1521-57). 

Clemmergulden,  the  term  applied  to  a  gold  ducat  of  the  Dukes  of 
Gueldres,  i5th  c.  There  are  several  varieties. 

Clinckaert,  \  clinckaert,  and  £  clinckaert,  a  gold  coin,  with  its 
divisions,  answering  to  the  French  chaise.  1 4th- 1 5th  c.  Holland.  The 
earliest  was  probably  that  struck  at  Antwerp  by  the  Emperor  Louis  IV. 

Cnapkoeck,  the  \  goudgulden  or  gold  ducat  of  the  Low  Countries 
(Groningen,  etc.)  in  the  I5th  and  i6th  c. 

Cob.     See  Duro. 
*Colon\n\ato,  Spanish  silver  ;  the  Pillar  Dollar  is  so  called. 

Compagnon,  a  term  applied  to  a  type  of  the  gros  blanc  struck  under 
Jean  le  Bon  of  France  (1364-80)  ;  the  two  sides  divide  the  titles  ;  and  on 
rev.  is  a  castle  surmounted  by  a  Us. 

Conceic^do,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  =  4800  reis,  struck  by  Joiio  IV. 
(1640-56)  in  1648,  having  the  scriptural  legend  on  rev.,  and  on  obv.  a  cross, 
of  which  one  of  the  limbs  is  screened  by  a  crowned  shield.  In  the  mint 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         191 

at  Lisbon  is  a  pattern  of  one  with  the  name  of  Pedro  II.;  it  was  perhaps 
ordered  and  withdrawn,  as  no  such  coin  is  known. 

Constantin,  the  name  applied  to  the  gold  money  of  Louis  Constantin 
De  Rohan,  Bishop  of  Strasburgh,  i8th  c. 

*Conto,  Portuguese  computation,  1000  millreis. 

Convention-money,  a  principle,  analogous  to  that  of  certain  states  of 
ancient  Greece,  by  which  a  currency  was  tolerated  or  recognised  within 
a  stipulated  radius  at  a  fixed  standard.  The  practice  does  not  seem  to 
have  come  into  vogue  in  the  Low  Countries  till  the  I4th  c.  (see  Drielander* 
Jager,  Rozenbeker,  and  Vierlander).  The  earliest  trace  of  this  sort  of 
treaty  was,  we  believe,  in  the  monetary  arrangement  in  1240  between 
the  town  of  Lindau,  Bavaria,  the  Bishop  of  Costanz,  and  others.  This 
was  long  prior  to  that  between  John  I.,  Count  of  Namur  (1297-1331),  the 
Count  of  Flanders,  and  the  Duke  of  Gueldres  ;  and  we  are  not  to  forget 
the  somewhat  later  compact  of  Edward  III.  of  England  (1345)  with  the 
Emperor  Louis  of  Bavaria  and  the  Duke  of  Brabant  at  a  time  when  the 
extension  of  English  commerce  and  coinage  rendered  such  facilities  of 
peculiar  importance  to  that  country.  There  are  very  curious  types  of 
1479  for  Daventer,  Campen,  and  Groningen,  and  of  1488  for  Daventer, 
Campen,  and  Zwolle  ;  the  latter  convention  appears  to  have  been  still  in 
force  in  1588.  A  proof  \  daalder  on  a  square  flan,  and  daalders  of  1584 
and  1588,  with  the  titles  of  the  Emperor  Rudolph  II.,  were  struck  for  the 
three  towns  in  common.  The  majority  of  the  German  princes,  both  lay 
and  ecclesiastical,  used  convention-money  during  the  i8th  and  even 
igth  c. 

Coquibus,  a  denomination  in  silver  of  the  Bishops  of  Cambrai,  I3th- 
I4th  c.,  and  also  current  in  the  diocese  of  Metz  and  in  the  Netherlands. 
The  name  is  said  to  have  been  a  popular  sobriquet,  occasioned  by  the 
eagle  on  the  piece  being  mistaken  by  the  common  people  for  a  cock — a 
not  improbable  error,  as  that  bird  is  frequently  delineated  on  coins  of  all 
ages  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  mistaken  for  a  pigeon  or  a  sparrow. 

Cornabo,  a  silver  coin  of  the  marquisate  of  Saluzzo,  I5th-i6th  c. 

Cornado,  a  billon  coin  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of  Castile  and  Leon, 
1 3th  c. 

Coroa  de prata,  a  piece  of  1000  reis,  struck  under  Maria  II.  of  Portugal 


Coronato,  a  silver  coin  of  low  standard  of  Ferdinand  I.  of  Arragon, 
King  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  1458-94,  so  called  from  the  legend  :  Coronatvs 
Qu\f\a  Legitime  Certavi.  There  are  at  least  two  types  of  this,  and  one  of 
the  following  reign,  that  of  Alfonso  II.,  1494-95.  Of  those  of  Ferdinand, 
one  has  on  obv.  the  portrait,  and  on  rev.  a  cross  ;  the  other  has  on  rev. 
St.  George  and  the  Dragon,  and  behind  the  bust  on  obv.  T.  for  Trinacria. 
The  Alfonso  coin  has  the  St.  George  reverse  with  the  Z1.,  and  on  the 
other  side  the  ceremony  of  coronation  as  in  the  engraving.  The  type  of 
the  coronato  struck  by  Ferdinand,  probably  the  latest  one,  has  the  portrait 
on  obv.,  and  the  St.  George  and  Dragon  on  rev.  Behind  the  bust  occurs 
T.  for  Trinacria,  as  on  some  of  the  money  of  the  Norman  Kings  of 

*Coronilla,  Spanish  gold.     Vientin  D'Oro,  value  20  reals. 

Coronnat,  a  name  officially  applied,  from  a  large  crown  in  the  field, 
to  a  type  struck  at  Marseilles  in  and  after  1186  by  the  Counts  of  Pro- 
vence, Kings  of  Arragon,  and  Counts  of  Toulouse.  The  piece,  of  which 
six  went  to  the  gros  d'argent  in  1230,  occurs  in  a  document  of  1186  as 
Novus  Regalis  Coronatus,  or  Regalis  Massilie  Coronatus  j  it  may  probably 

1 92  The  Coins  of  Europe 

have  led  to  the  introduction  of  the  coronato  into  Sicily,  though  the  legends 
and  types  differ. 

Cotale,  a  silver  coin  of  Florence  under  the  republic,  with  S.  Joannes 
Batista,  and  the  saint  seated,  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Florentia  and  the  lily. 

Cotrim,  a  billon  Portuguese  coin  of  the  i$th  c.  =  5  ceitis. 

Courant.     See  Species  and  Banco. 

Couronne,  a  term  improperly  applied  to  coins  otherwise  than  of 
French  origin,  and  in  that  series  there  is  no  such  denomination,  except 
the  gold  ecu  a  la  couronne,  first  issued  under  Philip  VI.  (1328-50). 

Courtisson,  a  coin  of  Charles  le  Chauve,  840-75,  noticed  by  Schulman, 
Cat.  in,  No.  345. 

Crabbelaer,  the  same  as  the  Vlieger.     A  piece  of  four  patards. 

Crazia,  a  billon  denomination  of  Medicean  Florence  under  Cosmo  I. 
(1537-74).     There  is  also  the  piece  of  2  crazie  or  the  doppia  crazia. 
*Croat,  Spanish  silver.     The  gros  d'argent  of  Arragon. 

Cromstcert,  or  Kromstaert,  the  Dutch  groot  or  gros  with  the  lion. 
1 5th  c.  Holland. 

Crosazzo,  a  Genoese  silver  coin,  I7th  c.  The  reverse  has  the  usual 
Conrad  titles,  accompanied  by  a  cross  with  four  stars.  There  are  the 
double  and  quadruple  crosazzo,  as  well  as  the  crosazzo  di  stampo  largo,  or 
the  coin  on  a  larger  flan.  See  Remedi  Cat.,  1884,  Nos.  1480-1517,  for  a 
probably  unique  series  of  crosazzi.  No.  1480,  a  piece  of  6  cr.,  weighing 
230  gr.,  brought  280  lire. 

*Cruchc,  Swiss  billon,  value  W. 

Cruzada  and  dobra  cr.,  a  gold  denomination  of  Castile  under  Pedro  I., 
1350-68,  weighing  (the  cr.)  92^  gr.,  and  of  fine  standard.  The  titles  are 
on  both  sides  :  the  obv.  exhibiting  the  bust  of  the  king  crowned  ;  the  rev. 
the  arms  of  Castile  and  Leon.  The  m.m.  is  S- — probably  Saragossa. 
The  cr.  was  =  75  reaes  or  reales  in  1451,  but  the  value  fluctuated.  It  was 
one  of  the  pieces  admitted  into  circulation  in  Portugal. 

Cruzado,  Crusatus,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin,  so  termed  from  the  share 
borne  by  Alphonso  V.  (1438-81)  in  the  Turkish  Crusade.  There  is  a 
variety  designated  the  Calvario  Cruzado.  Philip  II.  of  Spain,  after  his 
occupation  of  Portugal,  issued  a  rare  piece  of  four  cruzados,  of  which 
there  are  at  least  two  varieties.  Those  of  Henry  the  Cardinal,  1578-80, 
are  also  rare.  John,  Prince  Regent,  1799,  afterward  John  VI.,  issued  a 
cruzado  of  a  new  type,  called  the  cruzado  nuevo  =  400  reis.  Comp.  Pinto. 

Cruzado,  a  silver  coin  of  Portugal  =  4  tostdes,  or  400  reis,  with  the  half. 
First  struck  under  Antonio  (1580),  and  again  introduced  after  the  restora- 
tion of  independence  by  John  IV.  Pedro  II.  in  1688  had  a  cr.  novo  = 
480  reis,  instead  of  400,  weight  347  gr. 

Cuartilla,  a  copper  coin  =  j  real,  struck  in  1860  for  the  Spanish 
colony  of  Chihuahua. 

Cuarto  and  double  c.,  copper  denominations  of  Spain  under  Ferdinand 
and  Isabella  (1476-1504),  Joanna,  Queen  of  Castile,  her  son  Charles  V., 
and  the  later  monarchs  of  that  country.  The  word  is  sometimes  spelled 
Quarto,  q.v.  The  most  usual  type  bears  the  Castle  and  Lion  on  either 
side  for  Castile  and  Leon.  Originally  =  j  and  \  real. 

Da  Venti,  da  Sedici,  da  otto,  da  quattro,  da  due,  a  term  employed  at 
Venice  and  elsewhere  in  Italy  to  denote  multiples  of  the  mint  according 
to  the  metal — in  the  gold  the  ducat,  in  the  copper  the  bagattino.  The  \ 
giustina  maggiore  is  sometimes  termed  the  Da  Quaranta,  the  whole 
being  =  160  soldi. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         193 

Dalar,  the  Polish  form  of  thaler,  first  struck  under  Sigismund  III., 
1587-1632,  and  =  30  groschen. 

Daler,  a  copper  coin  of  fictive  value  in  the  Swedish  series,  1715-19. 
There  are  pieces  of  this  character  struck  in  the  lifetime  of  Charles  XII. 
anonymously,  the  majority  under  the  auspices  of  Baron  Gorst,  who  ended 
by  placing  his  head  on  one  of  them,  and  subsequently  on  the  block. 
The  daler  with  the  baron's  portrait,  1719,  is  scarce. 

Danaro,  the  Italian  form  of  denier,  and  current  in  the  Peninsula  in 
various  States  or  other  centres  with  local  modifications.  At  Venice 
alone,  in  the  course  of  about  200  years,  as  many  as  24  varieties  of  the 
coin  were  struck  under  imperial  authority,  or  at  least  with  the  titular 
sanction  of  successive  emperors.  The  danaro  and  its  moiety  continued 
to  be  the  sole  ordinary  currency  till  the  grosso  was  introduced.  Multiples 
of  the  d.  itself  were  struck,  however,  long  after  that  period.  As  late  as 
1755,  Honore  III.  Grimaldi,  Prince  of  Monaco,  issued  a  piece  of  8 
danari  in  copper.  Comp.  Denariits  and  Denier. 

Dauphin,  grand  and  petit,  two  denominations  in  billon  struck  under 
Charles  VII.  of  France  for  Dauphiny.  The  legend  adds  to  the  titles  Et. 
Dalphs.  Vienesis. 

Davidsharp,  the  gold  florin  or  goudgulden  struck  by  David  of 
Burgundy,  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  1455-96,  with  the  effigy  of  St.  David  and 
his  harp.  There  is  the  double  florin  of  this  type. 

Decime,  a  French  revolutionary  copper  coin,  of  which  several  patterns 
exist,  equal  to  10  centimes.  One  was  issued  for  Louis  XVIII.  at  Stras- 
burgh  in  1815.  It  was  also  struck  in  1838  for  Monaco,  and  in  1840  for 
France,  as  a  pattern  for  a  proposed  new  copper  coinage  under  Louis 
Philippe.  Comp.  Dixain. 

Dei  Gratia,  a  formula,  which  appears  on  the  legends  of  mediaeval 
coins  at  least  from  the  9th  c.  Eudes,  King  of  France,  887-98,  styles 

himself  Gratia  Domini  Rex.  A  gros  tournois  of  Gui  de  Luxemburgh, 
Count  of  St.  Pol,  goes  somewhat  farther  than  usual,  and  completes  the 
self-complacent  assumption  by  reading  on  the  obv.  in  an  inner  circle 
Gracia  Domini  Dei  nri :  Factvs  Sum,  which  may,  after  all,  refer  to  the 
fabrication  of  the  coin.  It  was  a  phrase  which  originated  in  the  politic 
alliance  between  Church  and  State,  and  which  recommended  itself  to 
the  secular  authority  as  a  strengthening  influence  and  an  unimpeachable 
sanction.  Yet  it  never  became  general,  and  is  frequently  absent  from 
the  currencies  of  those  princes  who  nominally,  at  all  events,  exercised  a 
vicarious  office  under  the  Crown. 

Delia  giustizia,  a  silver  type  of  the  Rep.  of  Lucca,  1 8th  c.,  having  on 
rev.  Ivstitia.  Et.  Pax. 

Denar,  the  modern  Serbian  franc  or  lira  =  the  Roumanian  lev.    Comp. 

Denaretto,  a  name  given  at  Arezzo  and  elsewhere  to  the  denaro  or 
danaro  of  small  module.     It  is  virtually  =  obolo. 


194  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Denarius,  a  name  found  on  the  silver  pieces  of  Boleslav  III.  of 
Poland,  1102-39,  and  on  some  of  those  of  Orange,  I2th-I3th  c.,  corre- 
sponding to  the  French  denier.  It  is  also  a  term  used  in  a  generic  sense 
on  a  silver  piece  of  30  stufer  of  Batenborg,  i6th  c.  The  obv.  reads 
Dene?  NOTJVS  D.  Batenb0.  Triginta  Stvfer.  It  is  described  in  the  Rein- 
mann  Cat.,  1891-92,  Part  ii.  4966,  as  a  thaler.  Probably  denarius  was 
understood  in  the  Netherlands  and  the  German-speaking  countries  as  the 
name  of  the  French  denier.  A  double  denarius  of  Orange  (Raymond  III. 
or  IV.,  1314-93)  reads  :  R.  Dei.  Gra.  Princps.,  and  on  rev.  Ai>r\isci\ 
Du\_plex~\  D\enarius\  III.  G\rana\  XX.  These  pieces  weigh  in  fact  23 

Denga  (token),  a  small  amorphous  billon  coin  of  the  Dukes  of  Kief, 
Vladimir,  and  Muscovy,  struck  as  early  as  the  I5th  c.,  if  not  before,  at 
Kief  and  Novgorod,  subsequently  at  Moscow  down  to  1704  or  later  ;  and 
in  copper,  of  a  regular  and  larger  module  =  \  kopeck  piece.  It  is  no 
longer  current. 

Denier,  denarius,  danaro,  dinheiro,  dinero,  dinar,  etc.,  a  silver  billon 
and  copper  denomination  current  throughout  Europe  in  and  after  the 
Middle  Ages.  It  was  an  inheritance,  and  generally  a  declension,  from 
the  Roman  coin.  The  Carlovingian  deniers,  even  before  the  reform  of 
the  system  under  Charlemagne,  were  of  good  standard  and  workmanship, 

Early  denier  of  Charlemagne. 

and  so  continued  till  the  close  of  the  9th  c.  Schulman,  iv.  399,  cites  a 
grand  denier  of  Charles  le  Chauve  struck  for  Luxemburgh.  The  French 
denier  tournois  in  copper  first  appeared  under  Henry  III.  (1574-89),  and 
was  =  \  Hard  or  double.  As  the  value  differed  in  various  localities,  the 
French  acquired  the  habit,  as  with  the  Hard,  of  distinguishing  their  issues 
as  Denier  de  France.  Pieces  of  3,  6,  and  12  d.  were  struck  from  the  time 
of  Louis  XIV.  to  the  Revolution,  but  the  weight  was  apt  to  fluctuate.  In 
Lorraine,  under  Leopold  I.,  1690-1729,  appeared  billon  pieces  of  12,  15,  30, 
and  60  d.  In  Metz  the  denomination  was  equally  adopted  ;  and  there 
is  a  billon  piece  of  early  date  called  Quartus  Denar.  In  Brunswick- 
Liineburgwe  meet  with  a  minute  variety  so  termed,  and  said  to  be  =  I3th 
part  of  a  mattier.  The  Strasburgh  thaler  contained  144  d. 
*Denushka,  or  Dengop.  Russian  copper,  the  half  kopeck. 

Diamante,  a  silver  type  of  Alfonso  II.,  Duke  of  Ferrara,  1559-97, 
deriving  its  name  from  the  diamond  ring  enclosing  a  flower  on  obv. 
There  seems  no  reason  for  ascribing  this  name  to  the  St.  George  type 
of  the  grosso  of  Ercole  I.,  1471-1505. 

Dicken,  a  Swiss  silver  coin  of  the  ijjth,  i6th,  and  I7th  c.,  the  fourth 
of  a  thaler.  Perhaps  so  termed  from  its  thicker  fabric  in  comparison 
with  other  pieces.  There  is  the  half.  A  dicken  of  Berne,  1492,  is  the 
earliest  which  we  have  hitherto  noticed.  The  type  was  imitated  in  the 

Catalogue  of  Eiiropean  Denominations          195 

Dicken  of  Schaffhausen,  1633. 

Dickgroschen,  the  thick  type  of  the  grosschen. 

Dickpfenning,  a  billon  coin  of  Strasburgh-in-Elsas,  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  =  6 
baetzner,  and  apparently  =  48  deniers. 

Dickthalcr,  the  Austrian  thaler  of  small  and  thick  fabric,  dated  1484, 
with  the  portrait  of  the  Archduke  Sigismund.  There  is  the  half  of  the 
same  type.  Later  thalers  of  Mansfeld,  etc.,  bear  the  same  designation. 
There  is  a  dickthaler  of  Schaumburg-Lippe,  1765.  A  double  dickthaler 
of  Munster,  1647,  is  cited  by  Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  606.  A  most  rare  dickthaler 
of  Hamburgh,  1505,  is  described  as  being  a  i^  markstiick. 

Dijonnois,  the  local  term  assigned  to  the  Burgundian  money  struck  at 

Dinar,  pi.  dinara,  silver  currency  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Serbia  or 
Servia.  A  dinar  is  =  100  para.  There  are  pieces  of  5,  2,  and  i  dinar 
and  50  para  in  silver,  and  of  10  and  20  dinara  in  gold. 

Dinerillo,  a  small  copper  coin  of  Philip  III.  and  IV.  of  Spain,  and  of 
Louis  XIII.  and  XIV.  of  France,  struck  for  Valencia,  I7th  c.  It  seems 
to  be  identical  with  the  dineruelo,  said  by  Whelan  to  be  current  in 

Dinero,  the  Spanish  denier,  struck  for  Navarre,  I7th  c.,  and  the 
Balearic  Isles,  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  The  term  was  employed  in  Spain  to  signify 
money  generally,  like  the  French  argent. 

Diiilieiro,  the  Portuguese  denier.  A  copper  coin  of  the  1 5th- 1 6th  c. 
One. of  John  III.  (1521-57)  is  offered  by  Schulman,  Cat.  xi.  774.  But  the 
piece  was  struck  by  Alfonso  V.  (1438-81).  It  was  suggested,  perhaps,  by 
the  copper  currency  of  Castile  and  Leon  under  John  II. 

Dinher,  a  gold  coin  of  the  Arab  Emirs  of  Sicily,  nth  c. 

DioboloS)  two  oboloi.     Currency  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Greece 
=  10  lepta. 
* 'Ditto  Bolo  [?  diobolo\  Ionian  Islands,  copper. 

Dixatn,  a  billon  coin  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XII.,  equivalent  to  the 
Karolus  of  his  predecessor.  A  piece  struck  in  bell-metal  in  1791  during 
the  French  Revolution  =  -fa  of  the  Itvre,  and  the  prototype  of  the  decime. 

Dobla,  a  double  scudo  or  piece  =  16  silver  lire  of  Genoa,  I7th  c.  On 
the  obv.  the  Virgin  is  crowned  by  two  angels. 

Doblen^a,  or  duplo,  a  denomination  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Barce- 

Dobler,  a  copper  coin,  double  dinero,  of  Spain,  struck  for  the  Balearic 
Isles,  1 6th- 1 8th  c. 

Doblon,  the  double  escudo,  a  familiar  Spanish  gold  coin  =  5  silver 
piastre.  There  are  the  doblon  de  a  cuatro  and  the  d.  de  a  ocho  or  onza 
=  about  ^3  : 45.  Said  to  have  been  struck  for  Mexico. 

196  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Doblon  scncillo,  in  the  old  Spanish  monetary  system  a  phrase  used  to 
express  the  value  of  60  reales,  although  no  coin  of  such  a  denomination 
has  ever  existed.  A  sort  of  money  of  account,  like  the  mark  and  the 
livre,  or  the  Venetian  lira  di  piccoli  and  /.  di  grossi. 

Doblone,  a  denomination  applied  to  a  pattern  piece  in  bronze  of 
Clement  XI.  (1700-21)  with  Doblone  Doppio  D'ltalia,  the  papal  arms, 
and  Clement  XI.  Pont  Ma.r. 

Dobra,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  struck  under  Pedro  I.,  1357-67  =  82 
soldi,  and  weighing  92-3^  gr. — the  5oth  of  the  marc  of  gold. 

Dobra,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin,  struck  in  and  after  1732,  and  =  4 
escudos,  or  6400  reis.  There  is  the  half  and  quarter.  The  d.  was  =  64 
tostoes  of  silver. 

Dobra  de  Banda,  a  gold  Castilian  coin  of  Juan  I.  [John  of  .Gaunt], 
1379-90=120  reaes,  with  the  usual  rev.,  and  on  obv.  a  shield  bearing  a 
transverse  band.  It  was  current  in  Portugal. 

Dobrao,  dobrdcs,  a  gold  Portuguese  piece,  originally  worth  20,000  reis 
=  about  ^6':  125.  English.  There  is  the  meo-dobrao  or  half.  But  the 
later  dobrao  was  reduced  to  12,800  reis.  The  dobrao  appears  to  have  been 
first  coined  under  John  V.,  and  to  have  acquired  the  name  of  a  Joamcse. 

Dodkin.     See  Suskin. 

Doppelschilling,  a  copper  coin  of  Soest.     A  double  schilling. 

Doppcl-thalcr,  a  double  thaler. 

Doppia,  a  Venetian  gold  coin  of  the  I7th  c.,  equal  to  12  lire  or  2  gold 

Doppia,  a  gold  coin  of  Mantua,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.     Equal  to  2  gold  scudi. 

Doppio  grosso,  or  double  groat,  a  silver  denomination  issued  at 
Venice  under  Francesco  Foscari  (1423-57),  with  a  half-length  figure  of 
St.  Mark  on  rev. 

Doppionc,  a  gold  coin  struck  by  Louis  XII.  of  France  during  his 
occupation  of  the  Milanese  (1500-12);  a  piece  of  10  gold  scudi  or  5 
doppic,  struck  in  1641  by  the  Duke  of  Savoy  during  the  siege  of  Coni. 
Comp.  Coni. 

Donzain,  a  plated  or  billon  French  piece,  the  twelfth  of  the  franc 
d'1  argent  under  the  Valois  Kings,  and  the  twelfth  of  the  silver  ecu  d' argent 
under  Louis  XIII.  and  his  successors.  There  are  various  types,  as  the 
douzain  au  croissant  of  Henry  II.  of  France.  The  older  type  was  also 
current  in  Burgundy  under  its  autonomous  Dukes. 

Drachma,  a  silver  coin  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Greece.  100  lepta 
=  i  drachma  ;  5  lepta  =  i  obolos.  There  are  pieces  of  5  and  2  drachmai, 
i  drachma,  and  \  drachma  or  50  lepta. 

Dreibatzner,  a  silver  piece  of  3  batzen  current  in  the  city  of  Stras- 

Dreier,  a  copper  coin  of  Weidenbruck  (i7th  c.),  Wurtzburg,  etc. 

Dreilander,  a  type  of  gros  and  double  gros  current  in  three  States. 
Comp.  Vierlandcr  and  Snaphaan. 

Dreiling,  a  billon  or  copper  coin  of  the  Archbishopric  of  Treves  (i5th 
c).,  of  Hamburg,  and  Schleswig-Holstein.  There  is  a  dreiling  of  Otto 
von  Ziegenhain,  Archbp.  of  Treves  (1418-30).  In  Schleswig  it  was  the 
half  of  the  sechsling. 

Dreipolker  (3-polker  piece),  a  billon  coin  struck  by  the  Margraves  of 
Brandenburg  for  East  Prussia,  and  by  the  Kings  of  Sweden  for  Poland. 
There  are  3-polker  pieces  of  Swedish  origin  struck  at  Riga  of  1622,  1623, 
1624,  and  1644. 
*Drittel,  Mecklenburgh  silver,  value  is.     One-third  of  Rix  dollar. 

.    Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         197 

Duarius,  a  piece  of  two  kraicjars  or  kreutzers  struck  for  Hungary, 
1 7th  c.  Base  silver  or  plated. 

Ducat,  dukaat,  a  gold  denomination  strictly  applicable  only  to  a  very 
limited  range,  and  probably  of  Venetian  origin.  It  was  introduced  at 
Venice  under  the  Doge  Giovanni  Dandolo  (1280-9),  and  underwent  two 
or  three  changes  of  type.  It  is  sometimes  erroneously  used  in  reference 

Gold  ducat  of  Ferdinand  II.,  1636. 

to  the  German  and  Netherland  series  ;  yet  a  few  cases  are  known  where 
a  German  coin  is  expressly  so  called.  A  double  ducat  of  the  Palatinate, 
struck  by  Frederic  V.,  1610-23,  reads  on  rev.  Moneta.  Nova.  Avrea. 
1612,  and  in  an  inner  circle  II.  DV.  CA.  TI.  Reinmann  sale,  1891,  No. 
646,  805  marks  =  .£40  :  55.  There  is  one  of  George  III.  for  Hanover, 
1815,  and  of  Stolberg,  1818.  Of  the  Venetian  ducat  in  gold,  in  a  few  of 
the  later  issues,  there  are  the  \  and  the  j  ;  the  latter  differs  in  having  on 
the  rev.  the  legend  Ego  Svm  Lvx Mvn  \di\  This  numismatic  term  is  also 
found  in  Lorraine  in  the  i6th  and  I7th  c.  Charles  III.,  Duke,  1545-1608, 
struck  the  single,  double,  and  quadruple  ducat.  See  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  Nos. 
1448-50,  wherein  the  two  latter  are  figured  ;  the  quadruple  is  dated  1587. 
Charles  IV.  of  Lorraine  had  a  double  ducat.  During  the  revolutionary 
crisis  of  1831,3  gold  ducat  was  struck  at  Brussels  for  Poland.  Comp.  Grosz. 

Ducat,  a  silver  denomination  of  Venice,  first  struck,  it  appears,  under 
Girolamo  Priuli  (1559-67),  with  the  \  and  \.  On  the  rev.  we  read 
Dvcatvs  Venetvs,  and  124  for  the  value — 124  soldi.  The  silver  ducat 
was  also  modified  from  time  to  time  ;  it  was  continued  down  to  the  close 
of  the  republic. 

Ducat,  a  silver  coin  of  Walmoden-Gimborn,  1802.  Equal  in  module 
and  weight  to  an  ordinary  gulden. 

Ducatdo,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin,  to  which  reference  is  made  by  the 
authorities  as  ordered  by  Sebastian  (1557-78),  when  he  was  at  Guada- 
lupe  ;  but  no  specimen  is  known. 

Ducaton,  or  Ducatoon,  the  \  and  the  double,  a  name  conferred  on  the 
larger  silver  coinage  of  the  Low  Countries  during  the  I7th  and  i8th  c., 
and  corresponding  to  the  English  crown  and  French  grand  ecu.  It  was 
also  struck  for  the  Dutch  Indies  with  the  special  colonial  mark  below 
the  shield.  The  ducaton  and  even  the  double  are,  for  the  most  part, 
very  common,  the  half  much  less  so.  A  ducaton,  double  d.,  etc.,  were 
struck  at  Amsterdam  in  1672-73,  during  the  siege  by  the  French,  from  the 
plate  of  the  burghers.  There  is  a  very  carefully  engraved  and  struck  d. 
of  1727  for  W.  Friesland  by  Knol,  with  a  turnip  as  a  m.m. 

Duetto,  a  billon  coin  of  Lucca  =  2  quattrini,  with  Otto  Imperator  and 
Lvca  on  obv.,  and  S.  Petrus  and  a  standing  figure  of  the  saint  on  rev. 

Diiit,  or  Doit,  a  Dutch  copper  coin  =  8th  of  a  stuiver.  There  are  in- 
numerable varieties,  as  well  for  the  home  currency  as  for  the  colonies. 

Duplone,  the  Swiss  double  ducat  or  florin  =16  francs.     It  has  been 

198  The  Coins  of  Europe 

struck  for  several  of  the  cantons  and  for  the  Confederation.  In  1800  a 
piece  of  32  francs  —  a  quadruple  ducat  or  double  duplone,  was  issued  in 
the  name  of  the  latter. 

Duro,  or  Douro,  the  name  of  a  silver  piece  =  about  5  peseta,  struck  at 
Granada  by  Ferdinand  VII.,  1808,  as  money  of  necessity.  Also  part  of 
the  monetary  system  of  Spain  under  the  law  of  the  26th  June  1864. 
Whelan  says  that  the  d.  was  known  at  Gibraltar  as  the  Hard  Dollar  or  Cob. 

Dtitgen,  Dantzic  silver,  value  3  groschen. 

Dvougrivenik)  the  Russian  20-kopeck  piece  or  double  grivenik. 

*Ebroeer,  Danish  silver,  value  14  skillings.  The  Justus  Judex.  [The 
type  is  also  found  in  gold.] 

Ecu,  the  gold,  old  Fr.  escu,  a  French  coin  struck  under  the  Valois 
and  earlier  Bourbon  kings,  and  presenting  at  different  times  several 
types,  as  the  porc-tpic,  a  la  couronne,  au  soleil,  au  bandeau,  aux  lunettes, 
etc.  In  1625,  during  the  suspension  of  the  Tower  mint  at  London,  owing 
to  the  Plague,  the  French  quart  d^ecu  or  cardecu  (as  it  is  said  to  have  been 
spelled)  was  made  for  a  short  time  legal  tender  by  proclamation. 

Ecu,  the  silver,  a  French  coin  first  struck,  with  the  half  and  other 
divisions,  under  Louis  XIII.,  1642.  There  are  cssais  of  1641.  This 
belonged  to  the  scheme  for  the  general  improvement  of  the  coinage. 
The  old  franc  d'' argent,  however,  continued  to  appear  even  so  late  as  the 
reign  of  Louis  XIV.  The  Spaniards  term  this  denomination  the  escudo, 
the  Italians  the  scudo,  the  Hollanders  the  schild,  pi.  schilden. 

Ecu  du  Parlcmcnt,  the  silver  e"cu  of  Louis  XIV.  with  the  aged  bust, 
curled  peruke,  and  embroidered  cravat,  published  about  1709. 

Engcls,  the  Teutonic  Angel  or  Angelet,  a  Saxon  denomination  for  a 
kipper  or  plated  thaler  of  40  groschen,  with  an  angel  as  part  of  the  type. 
There  is  an  engel-groschen  of  Saxe-Weimar,  1567.  In  the  Low  Coun- 
tries, a  gold  piece  of  the  same  character  was  struck,  and  is  generally 
described  as  an  angelot. 

Engelsk,  a  Danish  esterling  =  3  penningen.     Early  I5th  c. 

Engcnhoso,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin,  first  struck  in  or  about  1561  by 
Sebastian  (1557-78),  and  worth  500  reis.  It  is  said  to  have  been  engraved 
by  Joao  Gongalves  of  Guimaraes,  and  is  remarkable  as  the  first  piece  in 
this  series  bearing  a  date,  which  occurs  in  the  angles  of  the  cross  on  rev., 
and  as  having  the  legend  on  that  side  in  an  inner  circle.  The  novelty 
of  the  type  suggested  the  name.  Fernandes  (Mem.  1856,  p.  143)  figures 
one  of  1 563. 

Engroigne,  a  small  coin  of  Burgundy.     Blanchet. 

Ephraimitc,  a  byword  for  the  pieces  of  8  groschen  struck  at  Berlin 
by  Frederic  the  Great  about  1759,  from  the  name  of  one  of  the  directors 
of  the  mint. 

Equipaga,  the  \  macuta  or  \i\  reis.     Portuguese  colonial  currency. 

Erncstiis  and  half  ernestus,  a  type  of  denier  struck  by  Ernest  of 
Bavaria,  Count  of  Loos  and  Bishop  of  Lie"ge,  1582,  with  the  imperial  title 
on  rev. 

Escalin,  schelling,  or  schellinck,  a  silver  or  billon  coin  of  various 
types  struck  during  a  lengthened  period  in  the  Low  Countries,  and  =  3 
stuivers.  There  are  the  half  and  double.  The  roosschelling  bears  a 
floriated  cross,  the  hoodjeschelling  the  stadtholder's  bonnet  or  hood  on  a 
staff  in  the  claw  of  a  lion  rampant.  A  third  variety  bears  a  ship,  and  a 
fourth  (of  Albert  and  Isabella,  1598-1621)  a  peacock.  Comp.  also  Snap- 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         199 

Escalin,  a  copper  denomination  struck  by  Russia  during  the  period  'of 
occupation  for  Prussia,  1759-61. 

Escalin,  a  plated  coin  struck  by  the  third  French  Republic  for  the 
colony  of  St.  Domingo,  with  the  emblem  of  Liberty  on  one  side  and  the 
value  on  the  other. 

Escndillo,  a  gold  coin  struck  in  Spain  under  Charles  IV.  (1793),  and 
probably  =  10  reales.  Isabella  II.  issued  a  similar  piece  in  1857,  which 
was  perhaps  suggested  by  the  French  5  francs  in  gold. 

Escudo,  the  Spanish  equivalent  for  the  Italian  scudo  and  French  fau, 
and  the  Spanish  monetary  basis  under  the  law  of  1864,  which  made 
it=  10  reales.  Among  the  patterns  struck  in  or  about  1864  we  meet  with 
a  piece  of  4  reales  or  40  cent5-  de  escudo  ;  there  appears  to  have  been 
a  twofold  method  of  computation  or  subdivision,  by  the  escudo  and  real. 

Espadim,  a  Portuguese  coin — (i)  in  billon,  (2)  in  gold — of  the  I5th  c., 
which  owed  its  name  to  the  hand  grasping  a  sword  on  obv.  in  a  tressure, 
with  four  besants  in  the  curves.  The  rev.  has  the  shield  in  a  similar 
enclosure.  The  billon  piece  belongs  to  the  reign  of  Alfonso  V.,  the  gold 
one  to  that  of  John  II.  They  differ  in  type,  and  there  are  varieties,  again, 
in  the  gold  coin,  which  usually  weighs  from  58  to  65  gr. 

Esphera,  (i)  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  of  fine  standard,  weight  32^  gr., 
struck  under  Emmanuel  (1495-1521)  for  the  colonies,  with  the  half.  An 
example  of  the  latter,  figured  by  Fernandes,  has  on  obv.  Mea,  crowned, 
and  on  rev.  a  globe  traversed  by  a  band.  (2)  A  silver  P.  coin,  struck  at 
Goa  in  the  i6th  c. 

Estenevant,  a  very  early  denomination  for  the  money  of  Besancon, 
from  the  bust  or  effigy  of  St.  Etienne  or  Estienne  placed  upon  it.  We 
find  the  livre  estenevant  mentioned  in  1 507.  The  type  was  imitated  by 
the  Princes  of  Orange  and  the  Seigneurs  of  Charenton ;  and  the  money 
itself  was  long  current  in  Burgundy  and  the  Viennois. 

Etschkreutzer,  the  name  given  in  the  Tyrol  to  the  kreutzer,  which  is 
said  to  have  owed  its  origin  to  that  region,  and  to  have  been  current 
there  in  the  I3th  c. 

Fanain  and  half  fanain  of  silver  struck  under  Louis  XIV.  for  Pondi- 
chery  and  the  Isle  de  Bourbon,  as  well  as,  perhaps,  for  the  other  French 
colonies  in  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  f.  of  smaller  module  continued  to  be 
struck  under  Louis  XV.  and  XVI.;  the  flan  is  usually  too  small  for  the 
die,  owing  possibly  to  the  employment  of  that  of  the  grand  fanam  for 
the  more  diminutive  coin. 

Fanam,  a  copper  coin  known  as  the  f.  an  cog,  struck  under  Louis 
Philippe,  1836,  for  Pondichery. 

Pel, ,3.  Moorish  billon  or  base  silver  denomination  belonging  to  the 
coinage  of  the  Kings  of  Granada.  Coins  of  irregular  form,  often  de- 
noting where,  if  not  at  what  date,  they  were  struck.  Comp.  Granada  in 
C.  of  Mints. 

Feldthaler,feldklippe,  the  German  expressions  for  siege-pieces  struck 
in  the  course  of  a  campaign  by  the  besiegers. 

Fennig.     See  Pfenning. 

Ferding,  a  silver  coin  struck  at  Riga  and  Revel  in  the  i6th  c.,  and  be- 
longing to  the  currency  of  the  Order  of  Livonia  =  \  thaler.  Whelan  adds 
that  it  was  used  as  money  of  account  at  Libau,  and  as  Russian  currency. 

Ferrarino,  a  billon  piece  =  \  bolognino,  struck  at  Ferrara  during  the 
republican  epoch  with  the  sanction  and  name  of  the  Emperor  Frederic  II. 

Pert  (or  Fort\   a  small  billon  coin  of  Savoy,    I4th  c.  =  4  pites  or  2 

2oo  The  Coins  of  Europe 

oboles.  The  equivalent  of  the  Savoyard  denier.  Originally  12,  subse- 
quently 8  fert,  made  a  grosso  or  gros,  and  12  gros  were  reckoned  to  the 
florin  de  petit  poids. 

Fert,  the  name  apparently  given  to  a  gold  coin  of  Louis,  second  Duke 
of  Savoy  (1440-65),  from  the  motto  over  the  shield— one  used  by  the  family 
at  least  since  the  ijth  c.  The  fiction  as  to  the  word  representing  the 
initial  letters  of  a  legend  relevant  to  the  defence  of  Rhodes  by  Count 
Amadeus  IV.  can  no  longer  be  entertained.  See  Mrs.  Bury  Palliser's 
Historic  Devices,  etc.,  1870,  p.  230.  The  motto,  which  is  of  course  sig- 
nificant of  fortitude  or  endurance,  does  not  seem  to  have  been  employed 
after  the  i6th  c.  A  silver  scudo  of  Carlo  II.,  1504-53,  exhibits  a  shield 
on  the  reverse,  dividing  the  wordfe — rt. 

Filippo,  a  name  applied  to  the  silver  testone  of  Milan  under  the  reign 
of  Philip  III.  of  Spain,  and  continued  by  his  successors.  There  is  the  i, 
\,  and  \  of  the  later  princes  ;  and  Charles  II.  of  Spain  struck  a  \  filippo 
on  a  larger  flan. 

Filippo,  a  gold  coin  of  Milan  under  Spanish  rule.  Philip  IV.  struck 
the  filippo  and  double  filippo.  On  the  reverse  occurs  Mcdiolani. 

Fiordaliso,  a  gold  coin  of  the  Two  Sicilies  under  Joanna,  Queen  of 
Naples  (1343-81).  The  obv.  has  her  title  as  Queen  of  Sicily,  Jerusalem, 
etc.,  and  the  field  is  strown  with  lilies.  It  is  virtually  the  gigliato  type, 
common  to  this  region,  in  gold  with  certain  differences. 

Flabbe,  a  piece  of  4  stivers.  The  \  snaphaan,  i6th  and  i;th  c.  Base 
silver.  There  is  the  double  flabbe.  Groningen,  etc. 

Flindrich,  a  piece  of  3  stivers  or  sous,  struck  for  Jever  and  for  East 
Friesland,  i6th  c. 

Flitter,  an  early  copper  coin  of  Lippe,  Germany.  Whelan  adds  that 
it  was  small  copper  of  Brunswick,  and  that  the  word  imports  a  spangle. 

Florette,  a  variety  of  the  French  gros  struck  under  Charles  VI.  (1380- 
1422)  =  20  deniers  tournois  or  16  d.  parisis.  The  name  arose  from  the 
three  fleurs-de-lis  crowned  on  the  obv. 

Florim,  an  Arragonese  gold  coin,  I4th-i5th  c.,  modelled  on  the  Italian 
original.  It  was  also  current  in  Portugal,  where  it  seems  to  have  been 
=  70  reis. 

Florin,  fiorino^  from  fare,  a  flower,  a  silver  coin  of  Florence,  prob- 
ably of  as  early  a  date  as  the  I2th  c.  It  was  continued  during  the 
whole  of  the  republican  epoch  with  sensible  modifications  and  varieties. 
Comp.  Guelfo  grosso.  The  prevailing  type  is  the  bust,  seated  figure,  or 
standing  one,  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  the  lily. 

Florin,  a  gold  coin  of  the  same  State,  introduced  about  1250,  and 
executed  on  the  model  of  the  silver  piece,  of  which  it  represented  the 
multiple  often.  It  acquired,  like  its  successor  at  Venice,  a  great  repute, 
and  was  extensively  copied  in  Italy,  Germany,  and  even  France  (at  Bar- 

Florin,  a  gold  coin  of  the  duchy  of  Berg,  or  s'  Heerenberg,  West- 
phalia, copied  from  the  Metz  type.  One  of  Hermann  Friedrich  has  on 
the  rev.  Florenvs.  Dni.  Montensis. 

Florin,  a  gold  coin  in  the  French  and  Anglo-Gallic  series,  1 3th- 1 4th 
c.  Of  the  latter  there  are  the  half  and  quarter. 

Florin,  a  name  found  on  the  first  silver  coinage  of  Louis  Napoleon, 
King  of  Holland,  1807.  It  was  subsequently  altered  to  the  gulden.  The 
gold  pieces  of  the  Netherlands  are  sometimes  loosely  described  as 
florins.  A  very  singular  one  of  Raymond  IV.,  Duke  of  Gueldres,  with  the 
Bolognese  type  on  rev.  is  still  preserved  in  the  original  gold  box,  and  is 

.  Catalogue  of  Eiiropean  Denominations         201 

supposed  to  have  been  carried  on  the  person  of  the  ancient  owner  as  a 
charm ;  the  obv.  has  the  Madonna  and  Child. 

Follaro,  fromfollts,  a  wallet  or  purse,  a  copper  coin  of  the  Byzantine 
Emperors,  7th-8th  c.,  if  not  later,  and  of  the  Norman  Kings  of  Sicily 
and  Sicily  and  Naples,  Iith-I2th  c.,  struck  at  a  variety  of  places  (Naples, 
Gaeta,  Messina,  Ravenna,  Ragusa  in  Sicily,  Amalfi,  Brindisi,  etc., 
and  by  the  Princes  of  Taranto  (1100-31).  Both  the  Byzantine  and 

Sicilian  follaro,  ut 

Norman  coins  present  the  effigy  of  St.  Januarius,  and  probably  these 
were  from  the  Naples  mint.  One  of  the  smaller  module  (if  it  really  is 
of  this  type  at  all),  perhaps  a  ^  or  J,  belonging  to  Ragusa  in  Sicily,  bears 
on  obv.  a  head  in  the  ancient  Greek  style,  intended  for  the  Tyche  of  the 
city.  The  follaro  seems  to  have  varied  in  weight  and  value,  and  to 
have  been  worth  at  different  times  20  and  40  nnmmi.  See  Nummiis. 

Fort,  the  term  assigned  by  the  French  numismatists  to  a  rare  gold 
coin  of  Charles  de  France,  Duke  of  Aquitaine,  struck  at  La  Rochelle, 
with  the  quartered  shields  of  France  and  England  and  the  legend 
Karolus.  Regis.  Francr.  Films.  Acqiritanor.  Dux,  and  a  ship  on  both 
sides.  Comp.  La  Rochelle  in  Cat.  of  Mints.  The  specimen  of  the  fort 
examined  by  Blanchet  weighed  7  gr.  76.  There  is  also  a  silver  gros  of 
Charles  with  the  quartered  arms. 

Fort,  a  silver  type  of  Lyons  in  and  after  1368  =  2  deniers  viennois. 

Fort.     Comp.  Fert. 

Fort  bourgeois.     See  Bourgeois. 

Forte,  a  term  applied  rather  to  the  standard  than  to  any  particular 
coin  in  the  Portuguese  monetary  vocabulary,  to  distinguish  the  internal 
from  the  colonial  currency.  The  phrase  probably  had  the  same  origin 
in  France  and  Savoy. 

Franc,  a  gold  coin  of  France  of  two  distinct  kinds  :  faefranc-d-ptedaad. 
franc-a-cheval,  current  in  France  and  Brittany  during  the  Valois  period, 
and  originally  designed  to  represent  a  figure  on  foot  or  on  horseback. 
Both  types  were  imitated  in  Flanders,  Holland,  and  the  Two  Sicilies. 

Franc,  a  silver  French  coin  of  the  later  Valois  kings,  and  of  the  house 
of  Bourbon,  being  nearly  equal  in  size  to  an  English  crown.  The  decree 
calling  it  into  existence  bears  date  Mar.  31,  1575.  There  is  the  half. 
Improved  patterns  of  both  were  submitted  by  Briot  in  1618,  but  were  not 
adopted.  It  was  superseded  in  1642  by  the  grand  ecu. 

Franc,  a  silver  coin  of  the  See  of  Metz,  I7th  c.,  but  at  present  only 
known  in  the  £  and  j ;  1621-60. 

Franc,  a  silver  coin,  only  preserving  the  name  of  the  original  pieces, 
and  first  introduced  in  a  multiple  of  five  during  the  French  Revolution. 
The  earliest  modern  piece  appears  to  be  that  of  Napoleon  as  First 
Consul,  An.  xi. 

Francescone,  the  name  received  by  the  scudo  of  silver  on  the  acces- 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

sion  of  Francis  of  Lorraine  to  the  throne  of  Etruria  in  1737.     There  is 
the  half.     The  designation  was  retained  by  his  successors  for  some  time. 

Franc/io,  a  form  of  the  French  franc  used  in  the  Napoleonic  kingdom 
of  Etruria,  and  in  that  of  Westphalia,  1806-13. 

Francois  (for,  the  name  given  to  the  gold  ducat  of  Lorraine  under 
Francois  II.  (1726-37).  Comp.  Francesconc. 

Frank,  a  form  of  the  franc  struck  in  Switzerland  in  silver,  and  in  gold 
in  5  and  10  frank  pieces  for  the  Napoleonic  kingdom  of  Westphalia. 

Frignaccho,  fricaccnse,  or  frisaccho,  the  name  given  in  public  docu- 
ments to  the  danaro  of  the  patriarchate  of  Aquileia,  c.  1410. 

Froedrich,  the  name  sometimes  given  to  the  gold  ducat  of  Frederic 
II.  of  Prussia.  It  was  also  struck  by  his  father  Frederic  William 
(1713-40).  There  is  the  half  of  the  former  and  the  third  of  the  latter. 

Funfer,  a  Swiss  billon  piece  =  5  haller,  struck  by  a  convention  in  1450 
between  Berne,  Fribourg,  Lausanne,  Solothurn,  and  Wiflisburg. 

.  Fusil,  a  silver  coin  of  the  i$th  c.  belonging  to  Hasselt,  near  Lille,  and 
to  the  See  of  Liege  (isth  c.)  with  the  half  and  double. 

Fyrke,  the  name  on  a  small  copper  coin  of  Gustavus  Adolphus,  King 
of  Sweden,  1627. 

Galley  halfpence.     See  Suskin. 

Callus-pfenning,  a  billon  coin  of  St.  Gall,  Switzerland,  with  the  bust 
of  a  saint,  struck  either  for  the  abbey  or  city,  or  both,  1373-1415. 

Gazzcfta,  a  Venetian  copper  coin  =  2  soldi,  of  which  variant  types  were 
struck  for  the  several  colonies  of  the  republic— probably  in  most  cases  at 
home.  One  has  Corf.  Zant.  Cef.  for  Corfu,  Zante,  and  Cephalonia  ; 
another  Dalma.  Et  A/dan.  Of  the  latter  there  are  pieces  marked  /.  and 
//.,  and  varieties.  The  gazzetta  seems  only  another  name  for  the  earlier 
colonial  tornesc.  These  pieces  rarely  occur  except  in  the  issues  of  the 
last  century,  and  even  then  in  sorry  state.  They  were,  as  a  rule,  very 
roughly  struck.  They  covered  the  whole  area  of  the  Venetian  colonial 
possessions  :  Candia,  Cyprus,  the  Morea,  the  Ionian  Isles,  Istria,  Dal- 
matia,  and  Albania  ;  and  those  for  the  Isles  and  the  Morea  include  the 
word  Armata  in  the  legend,  as  though  they  were  also  applicable  to  the 
pay  of  the  ships  on  foreign  stations. 

Gazseffino,  the  name  borne  by  a  small  Venetian  coin  under  the  Doge 
Leonardo  Loredano  (1501-21).  A  diminutive,  perhaps,  for  domestic  use  of 
the  colonial  gazzetta. 

Gchelmdcdaalder,  a  silver  coin  with  the  helmeted  shield,  i6th  c. 
s'  Heerenberg,  Batenborg,  etc. 

Gehelmde  groot,  a  groat  of  the  same  type.     Holland.     i6th  c. 

Gcnevoise,  the  ecu  of  Geneva  =  80  sols  or  1 2  florins  of  the  old  standard. 
1 8th  c.  (1794). 

Genovino,  a  gold  coin  of  Genoa  dating  back   to   the   imperial   or 

Conrad  period  (i3th-i4th  c.).     There  is  the  |  and  the  j.     It  corresponds 

'Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         203 

to  the  Venetian  and  Florentine  gold  currency  in  value  and  weight.  At 
the  Dillon  sale  in  London,  1892,  No.  575,  occurred  a  piece  QilQgenovini 
d'oro,  weighing  2  oz.  2  dwt.  23  gr.,  with  the  date  1641,  and  of  the  usual 
type.  It  was  perhaps  the  same  as  that  which  sold  at  Remedi  sale,  1884, 
No.  1479,  for  130  lire. 

-  Genovino,  a  silver  coin  of  the  same  republic  of  later  origin,  with  the 
£,  j,  and  \.  In  Remedi  Cat.  1884,  1523,  a  mezzo  genovino  of  silver  of 
1577  occurs. 

Gentil,  a  gold  coin  of  Fernando  I.,  King  of  Portugal  (1367-83), 
apparently  suggested  by  the  French  chaise,  but  exhibiting  on  rev.  the 
usual  arms  of  Portugal  in  an  inner  circle,  and  in  an  outer  one  eight 
castles  disposed  round.  Weight,  63^  gr. 

Georges,  the  gold  florin  with  the  dragon  type  which  appeared  in 
France  in  1340,  but  was  not  reissued. 

Georgino,^.  silver  Genoese  coin  of  the  i8th  c.  with  the  saint  on  horse- 
back on  rev.,  and  Est.  Probitate.  Robvr.  Comp.  Luigino. 

Gigliato  (gtglto,  lily)  and  the  half,  a  silver  coin  equal  in  weight  and 
dimensions  to  a  grosso  or  ^  grosso,  belonging  to  the  Sicilian  series,  and 
to  that  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  at  Rhodes,  and  of  the 
Kings  of  Cyprus  of  the  Lusignan  line.  The  word  is  due  to  the  terminal 
embellishments  of  the  cross  on  rev.  Some  of  the  g.  of  Sicily  represent 
on  obv.  the  king  seated  in  a  chair,  of  which  the  arms  are  formed  of  lions. 
The  early  gigliati  of  Rhodes  are  rare,  especially  in  fine  state.  There  was 
a  find  at  Ephesus,  however,  of  those  of  Helion  di  Villa  Nova  (1319-46). 

Gigot  and  half  gigot,  copper  coins  of  Brabant.     i6th  and  I7th  c. 

Giiilio,  with  the  £,  \,  and  j,  a  silver  coin  of  the  papal  and  other  Italian 
series,  apparently  so  called  from  the  Pope  Julius  II.  One  of  the  most 
interesting  relics  of  this  type  is  the  Giulio  struck  in  1 586  by  Cesare  d'Este, 
Duke  of  Modena,  on  the  occasion  of  his  marriage  with  Virginia  de' 
Medici,  and  bearing  both  their  arms.  In  A  mittimus  to  the  Jiibilee  at 
Rome,  1625,  a  giulio  is  said  to  be  worth  8  soldi,  and  10  g.  to  be  =  a  gold 

Giustina  maggiore=  160  soldi,  a  large  Venetian  silver  coin,  with  its 
numerous  divisions,  first  struck  in  1571,  and  so  termed  from  St.  Giustina, 
on  whose  name-day  (October  7)  the  Battle  of  Lepanto  was  fought  in  that 
year.  There  are  the  \,  \,  £,  TV,  and  -5^. 

Giustina  minore,  a  similar  piece  in  the  same  metal,  but  of  smaller 
module,  also  with  its  divisions.  Both  types  have  the  legend  Memor 
Era  Tvi  Ivstina  Virgo.  The  minore  was  imitated  by  Cesare  d'Este, 
Duke  of  Modena  (1597-1628).  The  Modenese  giustina,  which  had  no 
actual  fitness  of  nomenclature,  was  =  20  bolognini. 

Glocken-gulden,  the  familiar  type  of  Brunswick,  etc.,  with  the  bell, 
which  is  found  both  with  and  without  the  clapper. 

Glocken-thaler,  the   same   denomination   and   type.     There   are  the 
divisions  down  to  the  7th.     All  are  rare  in  really  fine  state. 
*Goesgen,  Hanoverian  money  of  account. 

Gosseler,  a  silver  denomination  current  at  Daventer  in  1534,  with  the 
double,  and  at  Campen  in  1561.  40  gosseler  were=i  silver  daalder. 
See  Goslar  in  Cat.  of  Mints. 

Goudgulden,  or  Gold  Gulden,  a  gold  gulden  or  florin,  1 5th- 1 8th  c.,   ' 
Germany  and  Low  Countries  ;  it  occurs  in  the  Anglo-Hanoverian  series. 
Some  of  the  feudal  potentates  imitated  the  type.     It  is  in  fact  a  form  of 
the  gold  ducat. 

Gouden  Rijder.     See  Rijder. 

204  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Grano  and  half  grano,  copper  currency  of  the  Knights  of  Malta  and  of 
the  Two  Sicilies  under  the  Bourbons  and  Murat.  The  former  had  it  in 
the  1 6th  c.  Twelve  Sicilian  cavalli  were  =  i  grano  =  i  centime  and  a 
fraction  ;  there  were  multiples  of  2,  3,  5,  and  10  gr.  in  that  series  in 
copper,  and  of  10,  15,  and  20  gr.  in  silver.  The  silver  scudo  was  =120 
gr.,  and  that  of  Francesco  I.,  1825-34,  is  scarce.  The  Maltese  standard 
was  much  lower  than  the  other. 

Grave,  a  Portuguese  silver  coin  of  the  I4th  c.  =  3  dinheiros. 

Greivinik,  a  Russian  coin  of  base  silver  =  10  kopecks,  struck  under 
Peter  the  Great  and  his  immediate  successors.  There  is  a  rare  copper 
one  of  Catherine  I.,  1726. 

Greschen,  a  copper  coin  of  Transylvania  and  Hungary,  ijth  and  iSth 
c.  The  Magyar  gros. 

Griffon,  a  Brabantine  and  Dutch  term  for  the  double  gros  or  groot  in 
the  1 5th  c.,  derived  from  the  type,  a  griffin  holding  in  its  claw  a  short 
sword  or  briquet.  Schulman,  Cat.  v.,  No.  208,  notices  the  double,  dated 
1487,  with  the  name  and  titles  of  Philip  the  Bold.  There  is  also  the 
half.  See  also  Sch.,  xv.  203,  for  an  account  of  an  inedited  griffon  of 
Philip  le  Bel,  1482-92.  Comp.  Briquet. 

Gros,  Groot,  Grosch,  Greschc,  Grosz,  Grosso,  Grote,  a  coin  apparently 
of  Italian  origin,  and  equal  to  four  danari  or  deniers,  the  highest  denomi- 
nation previously  available.  The  Venetian  grosso  or  matapan,  struck 
under  the  Doge  Arrigo  Dandolo  (1192-1205),  was  the  pioneer  in  this 
direction,  and  was  followed  at  intervals  by  similar  multiples  in  other  parts 
of  Europe,  especially  in  France  by  the  famous  and  popular  gros  tournois. 
Its  success  proved  the  importance  of  it  at  the  time  of  its  original  issue  ; 
it  was  the  great  piece,  as  distinguished  from  the  danaro  or  penny.  The 
same  notion  underlay  the  primary  gulden  -groschc n  of  Saxony.  The 
early  Dukes  of  Milan  issued  silver  grossi  both  of  5  and  8  soldi.  In  the 
French  series,  under  the  Capetian  dynasty,  there  were  two  or  more 
varieties  of  the  gros  tournois  which,  as  we  shall  see,  was  freely  copied  by 
other  States.  Mary  of  Burgundy  (1476-82)  struck  one  variety  known  as 
\.\\Qgros  a  I  M.  from  that  letter  occupying  the  obverse,  as  in  one  of  the 
Mary  Stuart  series.  It  appears  that  in  the  province  of  Zeeland  in  1602  a 
daalder  was  =  60  grooten  ;  in  1657  an  ort,  struck  at  Elbing  under 
Swedish  authority,  was  said  to  be  =  18  groschen  of  Polish  standard. 
There  is  a  copper  grosch  of  Catherine  I.  of  Russia,  1 727  =  i  kopeck.  The 
town  of  Utrecht  formerly  coined  a  billon  piece  as  low  in  value  as  the  8th 
of  a  groot.  For  further  particulars  of  the  Venetian  grosso  see  the  writer's 
"  Coins  of  Venice"  in  Antiquary,  1884,  and  grosso  'infra. 

Grosch,  the  German  groat  or  gros.     See  Gros. 

Grossetto,  a  copper  coin  of  Venice  =  4  soldi,  introduced  under  the 
Doge  Antonio  Veniero  (1383-1400),  and  weighing  38  gr.  9  car.  A 
triple  gr.  of  the  following  reign  (1400-13)  weighs  100  gr.  The  i  gros- 
setto  was  struck  under  Andrea  Gritti  (1523-38).  The  piece  of  analogous 
character  current  in  Dalmatia  and  Illyria  was  worth  only  f  of  the  Vene- 
tian grossetto. 

Grosso,  the  Italian  form  of  gros.  The  Venetian  grosso  was  sometimes 
called  a  matapan,  from  the  Cape  of  that  name,  where  the  fleet  of  the 
Republic  had  at  that  juncture  won  a  success.  Compare  Giustina.  The 
coin  was  appointed  to  weigh  44  gr.,  and  was  of  fine  silver.  The  Milanese 
grosso  was  practically  in  currency  down  to  the  last  century,  but  instead 
of  being  worth  8  soldi,  as  under  the  autonomous  Dukes,  passed  for  5 
only,  the  value  being  usually  expressed. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         205 

Grossone,  a  Venetian  silver  coin  =  8  grossi,  introduced  under  Fran- 
cesco Foscari  (1423-57),  and  existing  in  two  types.  See  Antiquary,  ix. 


Grossone,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Two  Sicilies  under  Ferdinand  and 
Isabella.  The  obv.  and  rev.  divide  the  names  and  titles.  On  the  latter 
is  a  yoke  and  a  sheaf  of  arrows. 

Grossone,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Republic  of  Pisa  under  the  Emperors, 
but  sometimes  with  autonomous  legends.  One  has  on  obv.  Popvli 
Pisani,  and  on  rev.  the  Virgin  and  Child  with  Protege.  Virgo.  Pisa. 
Charles  VIII.  of  France  also  struck  a  grossone  here  with  his  titles  and 
the  arms  of  France,  but  with  Pisanorvin  Lib.  in  the  obv.  legend. 

Grosz,  pi.  groszy,  the  Polish  form  of  grosch,  and  a  very  early  deno- 
mination in  that  country.  A  \  grosz  of  Sigismund  I.  occurs  with  the 
date  1509.  The  coin  remained  in  use  under  the  later  kings,  and  under 
Russian  rule,  in  pieces  of  J,  i,  and  3  gr.  There  is  a  10  groszy  Pols  in 
poor  silver  and  a  3  gr.  in  copper,  apparently  struck  at  Brussels,  and 
issued  during  the  political  disturbances  of  1831. 

Grote,  a  billon  or  silver  coin,  with  its  multiples  and  moiety,  of 
Bremen,  Oldenburgh,  etc.  It  was  also  struck  by  the  Seigneurs  of 
Jever,  Oldenburgh,  etc.,  and  by  the  Counts  of  Bentinck  at  Knijphausen, 
down  to  the  present  century.  A  piece  of  9  gr.  is  cited  by  Schulman, 
ix.  514. 

*  Grouch,  Turkish,  silver,  the  piastre.     Guerche,  Goorooch. 
*Groupe,  Turkish  computation.     A  bag  of  money. 

Guelfo  grosso,  a  term  applied  to  a  variety  of  the  silver  fiorino  of 
Florence,  with  the  standing  figure  of  St.  John.  There  are  several 
varieties.  This  coin  appears  to  have  been  struck  in  1363,  and  one  type 
has  a  fox  under  the  saint's  feet,  significant  of  Pietro  Farnese,  general-in- 
chief  of  the  Florentine  forces  ;  it  is  said  to  have  been  struck  under  the 
walls  of  Pisa.  Cat.  Rossi,  i.  1880,  Nos.  1290-95.  Instead  of  the  usual 
legend  on  the  rev.  of  the  silver  fiorino  it  reads  Dct  Tibi  Florere  Christus 
Florentia  Vere. 

Guenar  and  demi-guenar,  a  name  applied  to  the  blanque  for  Dauphiny, 
with  a  cross  on  rev.  cantoned  with  two  Its,  a  crown,  and  a  dolphin.  A 
blanc  and  i  blanc  of  the  same  reign  for  ordinary  circulation  followed  the 
type  with  variations  ;  and  Charles  VI.  issued  other  patterns  for 
Dauphiny  itself.  Henry  V.  of  England,  also  had  the  blanc  gue"nar. 
There  was  a  curious  trouvaille  a  few  years  ago  at  Vucht,  near  Bois-le- 
Duc,  of  a  type  of  this  denomination,  suspected  to  be  the  work  of  a 
coeval  forger. 

Guiennois,  a  gold  coin  in  the  Anglo-Gallic  series. 

Guiennois,  a  silver  piece  in  the  same  series  =  10  guiennois  noirs. 

Guiennois,  a  billon  piece  in  the  same  series,  the  loth  of  the  g. 

Guiennois  esterlin,  a  silver  piece  in  the  same  series  —  5  g.  noirs,  or  \ 
g.  d'argent. 

Guillemin,  a  term  applied  to  the  municipal  currency  of  Forcalquier, 
Provence,  in  the  I2th  c. 
*Guillot,  Brabant,  copper,  value  one-sixth  of  a  [sol  or  stuiver]. 

Guinea,  the  name  which  appears  on  the  face  of  a  commemorative  gold 
coin  struck  at  Christiania  on  the  accession  of  Christian  VI.,  1730. 

Guishem  or  Guillem,  a  species  of  currency  in  billon  of  low  standard 
struck  by  Jean  de  Grailly,  Comte  de  Foix,  and  interdicted  in  1421-22  by 
the  Crown. 

206  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Gulden,  a  coin  of  the  Low  Countries  and  of  Germany,  apparently 
originating  in  the  Gildepenningen  or  money  of  the  trading  corporations  or 
gilds,  which  were  formerly  very  numerous.  The  word  is  derived  iromgeld, 
money,  and  the  form  gulden  and  guilder  (applied  to  the  British  currency 
for  Guiana)  are  alike  incorrect.  The  value  of  the  gulden  has  fluctuated. 
The  modern  Dutch  piece  is  =  is.  8d.  English,  and  is  indifferently  termed 
a  gulden  and  a  florin.  A  pattern  silver  piece  of  Louis  Napoleon,  1807,  is, 
however,  expressly  described  on  the  face  as  a  florin.  In  the  iyth  and 
1 8th  c.  pieces  of  7,  14,  30,  and  50  g.  in  gold  were  struck  for  the  United 
Provinces.  That  of  50  g.  with  the  posthumous  portrait  of  William  the 
Silent,  1687,  is  an  ordinary  daalder  struck  in  the  superior  metal  ;  it  was 
probably  a  piece  de  plaisir.  See  Goudgulden. 

Guldcngroschcn,  or  great  gulden.     See  Klappciniinze. 

Guldenthaler,  a  term  applied  in  some  of  the  German  series  to  a 
thaler  of  smaller  module  and  lighter  weight  =  §  of  the  higher  standard — 
a  piece  between  the  gulden  worth  2od.  English  and  the  thaler  worth 
about  35.  Both  the  guldenthaler  and  the  \  were  current  at  Niirnberg  in 
the  1 6th  c. 

Guldenthaler  and  the  half,  silver  coins  =  60  and  30  kreutzer  respec- 
tively, of  the  Swiss  canton  of  Basle,  i6th  c.  The  rev.  bears  the  imperial 

Halbbatzen,  or  half  batzcn,  money  of  convention,  1628,  between  May- 
ence,  Hesse,  Nassau,  and  Frankfort-on-Main. 

Halbling,  a  small  coin  of  the  Swiss  canton  of  Basle,  as  well  as  of 
other  Swiss  and  German  States  under  that  or  a  similar  name.  Comp. 
Helbelin,  Haller,  Heller,  and  Scherfe. 

Haller,  a  small  copper  coin  of  the  Swiss  canton  of  Zug.  A  plated  or 
washed  piece  of  3  haller  scarcely  equals  a  centime  in  dimensions.  It 
appears  probable  that  this  piece  and  the  heller  or  £  pfenning,  first  intro- 
duced at  Halle  in  Swabia,  were  identical  ;  both  succeeded  the  haclbling, 
helbclin,  or  scherfe,  which  had  itself,  under  one  or  other  of  those  names, 
appeared  at  Brunswick  and  elsewhere,  and  superseded  the ;  archaic 

Hardit,  or  hardi  (?)  from  Fr.  hardes,  a  gold  coin  of  the  French  and 
Anglo-Gallic  series.  Charles  VII.  of  France  struck  one  at  La  Rochelle 
as  Duke  of  Aquitaine  (1451-61). 

Hardit,  or  hardi,  a  billon  coin  of  the  same  series.  The  Scotch  hard- 
head appears  to  be  a  corruption  of  hardit, 

Heaume,  a  name  for  the  double  groot  in  the  Bishopric  of  Liege, 
1 5th  c. 

Helbelin,  the  \  pfenning  of  Strasburgh,  I4th  c. 

Heliens,  deniers  current  in  Perigord  in  the  time  of  Count  Helie  II. 
(nth  c.).  Blanchet.  Comp.  also  id.  i.  288. 

Heller,  a  billon  or  copper  coin  of  small  value,  introduced  at  a  very 
early  date  into  the  currencies  of  Hesse,  Treves,  etc.  The  most  ancient 
are  of  the  bracteate  or  semi-bracteate  fabric,  and  in  fact  the  heller  is  an 
evolution  from  the  haelbling.  8  hellers  =  i  kreutzer,  and  i  heller  =  ^ 

Henri,  the  name  given  to  a  gold  florin  struck  at  Bayonne  by  Henry 
II.  of  France  in  1553.  The  rev.  has  Dvm  Totvm  Compleat  Orbem. 
1553.  There  is  the  double. 

Henriques,  a  gold  Castilian  coin  of  Henry  or  Henriques  IV.  of 
Castile,  1454-75,  with  the  usual  rev.,  and  on  obv.  the  figure  of  the  king 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         207 

seated  on  his  throne  ;  it  was  a  copy  of  the  French  chaise.  The  piece 
was  current  in  Portugal. 

Hirschguldcn,  a  denomination  of  Wiirtemburg,  I7th  c.,  from  the  stag 
on  rev.  There  is  the  half. 

Hoedjeschelling,  a  schelling  or  escalin  with  the  stadtholder's  bonnet, 
1 7th  c.  Zceland,  etc.  See  livid-penning. 

Hohlpfenning,  a  billon  uniface  coin  of  German  origin,  allied  in  fabric 
to  the  bracteate. 

Huitain,  a  copper  coin  of  the  canton  of  Geneva,  belonging  to  the 
class  of  money  of  necessity,  and  made  to  pass  current,  1602,  for  twelve 
instead  of  eight  sols.  The  obv.  reads  Geneva  •  Civitas  •  1602  ;  the  rev. 
Post  •  Tenebras  •  Lvx  •  Povr  •  XII  •  Sols. 

Hvid-penning,  a  piece  of  4  penningen,  current  in  Denmark,  I5th  c. 
Comp.  Hoedjeschelling.  The  interest  of  these  two  terms  appears  to  lie 
in  the  circumstance  that  they  shew  the  contemporary  designation  for 
what  we  are  wont  to  call  the  bonnet. 

Imperial,  a  gold  coin  of  Catherine  II.  of  Russia  =  10  roubles.     There 

Imperial  of  Catherine  II.  of  Russia,  1767. 

is  the  double.     It  is  one  of  the  handsomest  types  in  the  Russian  gold 

Imperial,  half,  a  Russian  gold  coin  of  a  different  type  =  5  roubles,  1 5 
kop.  ;  first  struck  in  1801. 

Imperiale,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Del  Carretto  family,  Marquises  of 
Cortemiglia.  There  is  one  of  Ottone,  1300-14,  with  Odonvs  Marcho.  de. 
Char.  Reto.  The  same  denomination  was  used  by  the  earlier  Visconti  of 
Milan,  I4th  c.  One  of  Barnabo  Visconti  has  on  rev.  Imperialis  in  three 
lines,  the  word  Vicecomes  being  understood.  The  family  name  was 
originally  an  official  vicariat. 

India,  a  silver  Portuguese  coin  ordered  to  be  struck  in  1499  on  the 
model  of  the  Venetian  marcella,  weighing  60  gr.,  and  =  33  reaes  or  reals. 
It  seems  to  be  known  only  from  a  history  of  the  reign  of  King  Emmanuel 
by  Damiao  de  Goes.  See  Fernandes,  Memoria,  p.  116. 

Irakli,  special  copper  currency  struck  by  Russia  for  Georgia. 

Isabella,  the  name,  rather   popular   than  official,  conferred   on    the 
doubloon  or  ico-reales  piece  in  gold  struck  under  Isabella  II. 
*Izelotte,  German  silver,  value  2s.  gd. 

Jager,  or  halve  braspenning,  a  piece  of  2  stivers,  billon  or  copper, 
1 5th  c.  Groningen.  There  is  the  double  jager  =  4  stivers,  and  a  j  jager, 
convention-money  between  the  town  of  Groningen  and  the  Count  of  East 
Friesland  in  1507.  See  Schulman,  Cat.  v.  No.  681.  There  are  early 
dated  jagers  and  double  jagers  of  Groningen  from  1455  downward. 

208  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Jaques,  the  name  of  a  Spanish  copper  coin,  said  to  owe  its  name  to 
Jaca  or  Jacca  in  Arragon,  which  may  be  they  indicated  on  some  of  the 
money  of  Ferdinand  VII.,  otherwise  identical  with  the  pieces  of  8  mara- 
vedi.  But  it  seems  to  be  open  to  doubt  whether  the  \vordjagites  was  in 
general  acceptance,  although  the  initiaiy  may  signify  the  Jaca  mint. 

Jeton,  a  production  generally  to  be  regarded  as  distinct  from  a  coin, 
and  owing  its  name  to  its  office  as  a  token  cast  among  the  crowd  on 
special  occasions,  yet  in  certain  cases  very  probably  used  as  money. 
Such,  for  instance,  appear  to  be  those  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain,  struck  at 
various  places  in  the  Spanish  Netherlands,  and  known  as  oorts  ;  and  we 
engrave  one  of  the  same  monarch,  1582,  which  may  have  been  struck  in 

Spain,  as  it  differs  from  others  of  Flemish  origin  in  our  hands.  It  was 
perhaps  accepted  in  payment  as  a  double  Hard  within  the  precincts  of 
the  palace — formerly  a  wide  radius.  There  is,  however,  an  immense  body 
of  these  monuments,  issued  on  all  sorts  of  occasions,  and  the  greater  part 
must  be  clearly  distinguished  from  the  normal  currency. 

Joamese,  Portuguese  gold,  value  ,£3:11:2.  So  called  from  John  V. 
The  \  dobra.  The  popular  name  in  England,  where  great  numbers  of 
this  and  the  dobra  have  been  melted,  \vasjoey. 

Jubelgroschcn,  a  groschen  struck  in  commemoration  of  any  event. 

Jubiletuns  thaler,  a  commemorative  thaler. 

Jultusloeser,  money  of  necessity  struck  by  Julius,  Duke  of  Brunswick, 
1574-80  ;  there  are  groschen  and  thalers  (with  the  multiples  to  10)  in  silver. 

jus/o,  a  gold  coin  struck  by  Joao  II.  of  Portugal,  1481-95,  apparently 
=  from  540  to  600  reis,  and  first  issued  in  1490.     Its  name  was  suggested 
by  the  reverse  legend  Justus  Ut  Palma  Florebit. 
*Jux,  or  Juck,  Turkish,  100,000  aspers. 

Kaiserthaler,  the  silver  thaler  without  date  of  Maximilian  I.  (1493- 
1519),  having  on  obv.  a  three-quarter  portrait  of  the  Emperor  or 
Kaiser  to  1. 

Kanna  Drick,  an  oval  copper  coin  struck  for  the  Swedish  miners  of 
Trollhatta,  W.  Gothland  ;  there  is  an  octagon  piece  of  2  kannor  dricka. 

Kipperthaler,  or  copper-thaler,  a  plated  or  billon  thaler  of  Bavaria  and 
Saxony.  But  the  latter  seems  to  have  varied  from  the  Bavarian  piece, 
and  to  have  been  current  for  4  grosschen  only. 

*Kitzc,  Turkish  gold.     A  Bag,  value  30,000  piastres. 

Klappemunze  or  guldengroschen,  the  name  conferred  on  the  earliest 
silver  thaler  of  Saxony  (1486-1500).  There  are  at  least  two  varieties.  In 
the  Reinmann  Cat.,  1891-92,  Part  ii.,  No.  4432,  where  a  specimen  sold  for 
245  marks,  or  ,£12  :  55.,  it  is  described  as  "Aeltester  Giildengroschen." 

.Catalogue  of  E^tropean  Denominations         209 

Klippe,  a  generic  term  for  pieces  of  money  struck  abroad  on  a  square 

Klippingcr,  Swedish  square  coins,  generally  money  of  necessity.  The 
face-value  is,  of  course,  irregular  and  arbitrary.  A  piece  of  8  ore  of  John 
III.,  1591,  is  of  the  size  and  weight  of  a  £  or. 

Koertling,  a  species  of  groschen  struck  at  Osterode  in  Hanover  for 
the  Dukes  of  Brunswick-Celle  or  Zell  in  the  I5th  c. 

Koggerdaalder,  a  silver  coin  worth  30  stivers,  ryth  c.  IV.  Friesland. 
There  is  a  triple  koggerdaalder  of  1601,  struck,  as  it  is  supposed,  expressly 
for  the  Diet  or  Congress  of  that  year.  A  20  ducat  piece  in  gold  prob- 
ably refers  to  the  same  occasion. 

Kopek  (Russ.  kapeek\  the  unit  of  the  later  Russian  coinage.  100  k. 
=  I  rouble. 

Kopfchcn,  the  name  conferred  on  a  billon  coin  of  Juliers  and  Berg, 
1 5th  c. 

Kopfcr  doppelschilling.     See  Doppelschilling. 

Kopferzivolfer,  a  billon  coin  of  Hamm  and  Osnabruck,  iyth  c. 

Kopf stitch,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Diocese  of  Treves,  i8th  c. 
*Kopy,  Bohemian  money  of  account. 

Kornthaler,  a  silver  coin  of  Hesse-Cassel,  I7th  c. 

Korsvide,  a  Danish  silver  coin,  I5th  c. 

Kreutzer,  or  Kraicjar,  a  billon  or  copper  coin,  originally  reckoned  as 
=  4  pfenningen  or  8  heller,  and  widely  diffused  through  Northern  Ger- 
many, Hungary,  etc.,  and  even  found  at  Batenborg  and  elsewhere.  It 
is  said  to  have  had  its  genesis  in  the  Tyrol.  At  a  very  early  date  two 
standards  were  recognised,  the  heavy  and  the  light  kreutzer  :  the  former 
being  reckoned  48  to  the  gulden  and  72  to  the  thaler ;  the  latter  60  and 
90  respectively.  The  as  sis  of  Strasburgh  and  Basle  was  =  6  kreutzer. 
A  piece  marked  60  kr.  was  struck  for  Strasburgh-in-Elsas  about  1685 
with  the  three  fleurs-de-lis,  and  one  of  80  for  Anhalt-Bernburg,  as  money 
of  necessity,  in  1592. 

Krona,  a  silver  coin  of  Sweden  and  Norway,  equal  to  a  franc.  It 
occurs  in  the  former  series  in  the  I7th  c.  The  old  krone  was  =  4  marks. 

Kroncnthaler,  a  silver  denomination  of  Nassau,  igth  c.,  and  of 
Bavaria,  id.  =  5  francs. 

Kruisrijksdaalder,  or  Kruisdaalder,  silver  crown  or  e"cu  with  the 
Cross  of  Burgundy,  struck  by  Philip  II.  for  the  Netherlands.  It  is  also 
known  as  the  Bonrgonsche  Knits  Rijksdaalder. 

Kwartnik,  the  j  groschen  of  Poland,  struck  under  Casimir  the  Great, 
I333-7O»  an(i  Vladislas  II.,  Jagellon,  1399-1434,  as  well  as  by  Louis  of 
Anjou  for  Poland  and  Red  Russia. 

Lam,  the  Flemish  imitation  of  the  French  mouton  and  agnel  cTor. 
The  former  was  known  in  the  Low  Countries  as  the  groot  lam. 

Lammpfenning,  a  class  of  copper  coins,  slightly  varying  in  the  de- 
tails in  different  issues,  struck  by  the  Swiss  canton  of  St.  Gallen,  I4th  c. 
See  Poole's  Cat,  1878,  p.  155. 

Land Munze, money  belonging  to  a  particular  province,  as  distinguished 
from  scheide  munze,  or  money  qualified  to  pass  throughout  the  empire  or 

Laub-thaler,  the  name  by  which  the  Germans  christened  the  French 
ecu  of  6  livres  from  the  laurel  branches  within  which  the  shield  is  enclosed. 
Whelan  says  that  it  was  also  applied  to  the  Prussian  thaler  with  a  similar 

2 1  o  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Leal,  (i.)  a  silver  denomination  of  Portugal,  I5th  c.=  10  reaes  or  reals, 
of  which  repeated  mention  is  made  in  documents  of  that  period.  In  one 
of  1441  it  is  said  that  the  coin  was  to  pass  for  12  r.  (ii.)  A  copper 
denomination  of  the  same  country,  i6th  c.,  belonging  to  the  Indian 
series,  and  struck  at  Goa  ;  apparently  =  the  dinheiro. 

Leeitendaalder,  silver  crown  with  the  lion  (/cu  au  lion}.  There  is  a 
rare  variety,  struck  for  the  town  of  Utrecht  in  1578  during  the  troubles 
with  Spain.  See  Cat.  Cisternes,  1892,  No.  1608  of  Part  i.,  for  a  leeuen- 
daalder  apparently  imitated  by  an  Italian  moneyer. 

Leeuengroot,  a  groot  or  gros  of  the  same  type.  Louis  of  Maele,  Count 
of  Flanders  (1346-84),  struck  a  copper  piece  of  the  same  pattern  as  this 
variety  of  the  gros. 

Leijcesterdaalder,  the  popular  name  given  to  the  silver  crown  with  the 
reputed  head  of  Dudley,  Earl  of  Leicester,  1 586-96.  There  is  a  stuiver 
of  same  dates  ;  and  the  half,  fifth,  tenth,  twentieth,  and  fiftieth  parts  as  in 
the  ecu  Philippus,  except  that  there  is  no  fiftieth  of  the  latter. 

Lonona,  or  Lcmocia,  an  altered  type  of  the  old  barbarin  of  Limoges, 
introduced  by  Gui  VI.,  Vicomte  (1230-63),  just  prior  to  his  death,  with 
his  own  name  on  the  face,  and  rejected  by  his  vassals  or  subjects,  who 
made  a  treaty  with  his  representatives  to  call  in  the  obnoxious  currency, 
"  licet  esset  legalis." 

Leone  Mocenigo,  a  silver  coin  of  80  soldi  struck  for  Dalmatia  and 
Albania  by  the  Venetian  Government  under  Alvigi  Mocenigo  II.,  1706. 
The  rev.  has  Dal  mat.  Et.  Alb.  80.  There  are  the  i,  j,  and  \. 

Leone  Morosino,  a  silver  Venetian  coin  struck  under  the  illustrious 
Doge  Francesco  Morosini  (1688-94),  perhaps  in  commemoration  of  his 
military  exploits  in  the  Morea.  On  obv.  he  appears  kneeling  before  St. 
Mark  with  a  spear  in  his  hand,  and  on  the  rev.  is  Fides.  Et.  Victoria. 
There  are  the  divisions. 

Leonina,  the  2-scudi  d'oro  piece  struck  by  Leo  XII.,  1823-29.  The 
scudo  d'oro  was  perhaps  also  known  by  the  same  name. 

Leopard,  a  gold  coin  in  the  Anglo-Gallic  series. 

Leopold,  the  appellation  bestowed  on  the  Lorraine  gold  ducat  under 
Duke  Leopold  (1690-97).  There  is  the  double  and  half. 

Lcopoldone,  a  silver  type  of  Pietro  Leopoldo  I.  of  Lorraine,  1765-90, 
Grand-Duke  of  Tuscany  =  10  paoli.  It  is  a  name  for  the  silver  scudo 
of  this  reign. 

Lcpton,  the  unit  in  the  copper  coinage  of  the  Ionian  Isles  under 
British  rule  ;  of  the  Greek  Republic  under  Capo  d'Istria,  1828-31  ;  and 

Lepta  of  Greek  Republic  and  the  Ionian  Isles. 

of  the  kingdom  of  Greece,  when  it  became  the  5th  of  an  obolos.  The 
word  signifies  something  very  flimsy  or  thin.  The  3O-lepta  piece, 
struck  by  the  British  Government  for  the  Ionian  Isles,  1819,  was  the 
prototype  of  the  English  groat  of  1836.  Capo  d'Istria  issued  a  piece  of  20 
lepta  in  copper. 

Leu,  or  Lew  \livre\  a  silver  coin  of  the  independent  Governments  of 

•  Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         2 1 1 

Bulgaria  and  Roumania,  equal  to  a  franc  or  lira  and  100  bani.  There 
are  of  Roumania  the  5  leua,  the  2  leua,  the  i  leu,  the  \  leu  (50  bani),  and 
a  2o-leua  piece  or  Alexander  in  gold. 

Liard  (?)  from  Fr.  Her,  to  bind,  a  copper  or  billon  coin  struck  in  the 
Netherlands  and  in  France  in  the  I7th  c.,  and  down  to  the  close  of  the 
1 8th,  generally  without  note  of  denomination.  There  is  also  the  double  ; 
and  one  of  Philip  V.  of  Spain,  1709,  struck  for  Brabant,  is  very  unusually 
marked  2  L.  for  the  value.  There  are  ^  liards  of  Luxemburgh,  Reck- 
heim,  and  many  other  places  ;  and  a  |  1.  of  the  Abbey  of  Thorn  in 
Brabant.  In  France,  on  the  introduction  of  the  coin  under  Louis  XIV.  to 
supersede  the  double,  it  was  called  on  the  rev.  in  some  of  the  issues,  for 
the  sake  of  distinction,  Liard  de  France. 

*  Libra  Jaqnesa,  Spanish,  silver,  value  y>.  id.,  money  of  account  in 
Arragon  and  the  Balearic  Isles.  Comp.  Jaca  in  Cat.  of  Mints,  and 
Jaques  supra. 

Lira,  a  silver  denomination  of  several  of  the  Italian  republics  in  the 
1 5th  c.  and  down  to  the  present  time.  The  Genoese  scudo  of  silver  was 
=  8  lire.  The  Venetian  lira  Tron  (1471-73)  is  remarkable  as  being  one  of 
the  very  few  coins  of  this  State  with  the  likeness  of  the  doge.  Giovanni 
Cornaro  II.  (1709-22)  struck  a  pattern  lira  of  the  ancient  type,  with  his 
titles,  and  his  figure  kneeling  to  r.,  the  ducal  bonnet  at  his  feet,  and 
above,  the  Virgin  and  Child  in  clouds.  The  rev.  corresponds  to  the 
current  liretta;  but  the  piece,  as  a  whole,  was  not  circulated.  Rossi 
Cat.,  1880,  No.  5436.  In  1800-2  the  Austrian  masters  of  Venice,  pur- 
suant to  the  Treaty  of  Campo-Formio,  struck  there  pieces  of  2  lire,  \\ 
lire,  i  lira,  and  f  lira,  in  silver  of  low  standard.  Alberico  Cibo  Mala- 
spina,  Prince  of  Massa-Carrara  (1559-1623),  struck  the  terzo  di  lira,  1587 
and  1592,  with  In  Mac  Gloriari  Oport.  on  rev. 

Lira  Dalmata,  the  lira  current  at  Zara,  Cattaro,  etc.,  and  throughout 
Servia  and  the  adjacent  regions.  It  was  probably  worth  a  third  less 
than  the  Venetian  one.  The  term  is,  of  course,  the  Italian  form  for  the 
local  appellation. 

Lira  di piccoli,  grossi,  or  perperi,  Venetian  money  of  account,  prob- 
ably calculable  by  weight,  according  to  the  number  of  pieces  coined  to 
the  pound  in  billon,  silver,  and  gold  respectively,  as  the  gold,  and  not 
silver,  perpero  was  doubtless  here  understood. 

Lirazza,  the  name  of  a  silver  type  current  at  Venice  in  the  latter  half 
of  the  1 8th  c.  (1762-97).  It  was  =  io  gazzette.  The  rev.  has  Diligite 
Ivstitiam  and  a  seated  figure  facing  ;  in  the  exergue,  X.  for  the  value. 
Comp.  Traro. 

Liretta,  and  the  half,  a  silver  Venetian  coin  struck  under  Domenigo 
and  Aloysio  or  Alvigi  Contarini  (1679-83),  and  down  to  the  close  of  the 
republic.  The  later  issues  are  of  very  base  metal.  On  rev.  occurs 
Ivstitiam  Diligite,  and  a  figure  of  Justice  with  the  scales.  Domenigo 
Contarini  struck  pieces  in  silver  of  20,  18,  and  4  lirette  for  Zara. 

Lis,  a  name  applied  to  a  gold  piece  of  Raymond  IV.,  Prince  of 
Orange,  1340-93.  Sch.,  xv.  1763,  varied  from  Duby. 

Lis,  a  silver  denomination  of  France  in  1655,  with  its  divisions,  and 
at  the  same  time  (1655-57)  a  gold  one,  with  two  angels  on  rev.  supporting 
the  shield.  The  lis  d'argent  was  =  20  sols  ;  on  the  rev.  of  one  occurs 
Domine.  Elegisti.  Lilivm.  Tibi.  There  was  the  \  and  the  \.  Neither 
metal  appears  to  have  been  reissued  after  1657. 

Lisbonino,  a  gold  coin  of  Portugal,  I7th  c.  =  4000  reis.  There  are 
the  and  . 

212  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Livonese,  a  special  currency  for  Livonia  and  Essthonia,  struck  by  virtue 
of  an  ukase  of  the  Czarina  Elizabeth,  25th  October  1756.  It  consisted  of 
pieces  of  96,  48,  24,  4,  and  2  kopecks. 

Livra,  with  its  divisions  to  the  i6th,  a  monetary  value  or  weight, 
current  in  the  South  of  France,  at  Toulouse,  Bordeaux,  Cahors,  Rodez, 
Orthez,  etc.,  from  the  middle  of  the  i3th  to  the  I5th  or  even  i6th  c.  ; 
chiefly  struck  in  bronze,  and  perhaps  to  be  distinguished  from  the 
ordinary  series  of  these  monuments,  which  expressly  state  their  object 
and  equivalent. 

Livre,  a  term  for  money  of  account  in  France,  or  at  least  in  Paris, 
in  the  nth  c.,  where  we  hear  of  a  payment  of  100  libra  auri.  This, 
like  the  mark,  was  an  idea  borrowed  from  Italy,  probably  from 

Livrc,  or  Livre  Tournois,  the  same  as  the  Italian  lira,  a  French  silver 
denomination  or  unit  superseded  at  the  Revolution  of  1792  by  the 
modern  franc.  The  old  silver  tcu  was  =  6  livres  tournois.  We  have  not 
seen  the  unit  except  as  a  siege-piece  struck  at  Aire-sur-la-Lys  in  1641. 
The  piece  of  10  livres,  coined  by  General  Decaen,  Governor  of  the  He  de 
Bourbon  in  1810,  was  known  as  \.\ie  piastre  Dccacn. 

Louis,  the  name  of  the  gold  coin  first  struck  in  1640  at  the  reforma- 
tion of  the  French  currency  under  Louis  XIII.  There  is  the  half,  the 
double,  the  quadruple,  and  the  octuple  louis.  The  last  two  are  of  excess- 
ive rarity.  The  type  and  denomination  continued  in  vogue  till  the 
Revolution  of  1791.  At  the  Reinmann  sale  in  1891-92,  Part  i.,  No.  155, 
a  piefort  of  the  ^  louis  of  1644  (misprinted  in  Cat.  1614)  /etched  560 
marks  —  about  £28. 

Louis  XV.     Louis  U'or,  1717. 

Luigino,  a  silver  coin  of  Genoa,  1668,  of  which  one  type  is  varied 
from  the  georgino;  see  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  1638  ;  a  second  has  a 
wholly  different  reverse  with  a  Janus  head  and  the  value,  (ii.)  A  silver 
coin  of  Maria  Maddalena  Malaspina-Centurioni,  Marchesa  di  Fosdinuovo, 
1667,  with  M.  Mad.  Mai.  S.  O.  W.  Dei.  Fosd.,  with  a  portrait  to  r., 
and  on  rev.  Et.  Redem.  Mevs.  Dns.  Adiutor.  1667,  with  shield,  (iii.)  A 
silver  coin  of  Gerardo  Spinola,  Marchese  di  Arquata,  1682-94.  Cat. 
Rossi,  1880,  Nos.  196,  1458. 

*Lunga,  the  currency  of  Leghorn,  as  distinguished  from  that  of 

*Lusbnrger  [or  rather  Lticeburger\,  Luxemburgh  silver  penny  [denier], 
temp.  King  Edward  I.  ;  forbidden  in  England,  temp.  Edward  III. 

Macuta,  mea  macuta,  and  2  to  12  macutas,  etc.,  Portuguese  colonial 
currency  struck  for  Guinea  and  Mozambique,  and  probably  indebted  for 
its  name  to  the  Makua  or  Makuana,  the  tribes  behind  Mozambique.  See 
an  interesting  note  in  Fernandes,  p.  266. 

'Catalogite  of  European  Denominations         213 

Madonnina,  the  5-baiocchi  piece  of  Pius  VI.  (1796).  There  are 
several  varieties. 

Madonnina,  a  silver  coin  of  Genoa,  i8th  c.,  with  the  double  and  half. 

Magdalon,  a  gold  type  of  the  Counts  of  Provence,  1434-86,  bearing 
the  effigy  of  St.  Mary  Magdalen. 

Maglia.     Comp.  Rianchetto. 

Maille,  a  small  coin  of  base  silver  common  to  Antwerp,  Brussels, 
Ghent,  Alost,  Bruges,  Courtrai,  Douai,  Lille,  etc.,  during  a  lengthened 
period.  It  was  =  £obole. 

Maille,  blanche,  noire,  parisis,  poitevine,  tournois,  bourgeoise,  dif- 
ferent varieties  issued  under  Philip  le  Bel  of  France  (1285-1314)  and 
some  of  his  successors. 

Maille  tierce,  another  name  for  the  third  of  the  gros  tournois,  struck 
under  Philip  IV.,  both  of  the  O  long  and  O  round  types. 

This  piece  was  also  struck  by  Ferri  IV.,  Duke  of  Lorraine  (1312-28). 

Maille  (for,  a  denomination  struck  in  1347  for  the  See  of  Cambrai  by 
Jehan  Bougier  of  Arras,  the  bishop's  moneyer,  in  imitation  of  the 
Florentine  type,  with  a  legend  resembling  the  original  coin. 

It  is  to  be  generally  observed  that  the  occasional  issue  of  the  maille,  denier,  or 
obole  in  the  superior  metal  has  been  thought  to  proceed  from  the  usage  of  com- 
pleting by  this  more  convenient  method  some  large  transaction  on  the  part  of  a 
ruler  or  other  prominent  personage. 

*Malla,  Spanish,  copper,  2  Mallas  =  I  Denier  [dinhero].  The  smallest 
coin  at  Barcelona.  [The  Spanish  maille.] 

Maley-groschen,  a  type  of  the  German  imperial  series  in  the  i3th  c. 
=  two  Bohemian  groschen  of  debased  standard. 

Malnco,  the  popular  name  for  the  cast  bronze  or  mixed  metal  pieces 
of  80  reis  struck  for  the  Aqores  in  1829  as  money  of  necessity.  They 
were  made  current  for  100  r.,  but  were  soon  superseded.  See  Fernandes, 
p.  312,  where  a  specimen  is  figured  and  the  circumstances  explained. 

Mancoso,  a  gold  type  of  Lucca  under  republican  rule,  with  the  name 
of  Charles  IV.  and  the  shield  bearing  Libertas.  The  rev.  has  the  Sanctus 

Mancusus,  a  gold  coin  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Barcelona,  nth  c., 
when  they  abandoned  the  use  of  the  Arabic  currency. 

Mantelet,  another  name  for  the  petit  royal  d'or. 

Marabotin,  struck  by  the  Almoravides  and  Almohades,  453-539,  a 
name  given  to  the  Arabic  dirhem  or  dinar,  which  circulated  in  the  South 
of  France  so  late  as  the  i  ith-i2th  c. 

Maravedi,  (i.)  a  gold  coin  of  Sancho  I.  of  Portugal,  1185-1212;  (ii.) 
the  unit  of  the  Spanish  copper  money  from  the  time  of  Ferdinand  arid 
Isabella.  Philip  II.  issued  pieces  of  i,  2,  3,  4,  and  6  m.  But  the  more 
usual  divisions  under  the  later  sovereigns  are  i,  2,  4,  and  8.  Many  of  the 
earlier  issues  are  countermarked  with  higher  or  lower  values.  The  term, 
like  marabotin,  is  doubtless  Moorish,  and  the  currency  may  well  have 
been  an  inheritance  from  the  Mohammedans.  Ferdinand  VII.  struck  a 
piece,  corresponding  to  the  8  maravedi,  for  Majorca,  1812,  with  12  for  the 

Marc,  a  term  given  in  France  and  Italy  to  money  of  account.  In 
1093,  9  marcs  of  silver  were  given  by  the  King  to  rebuild  a  church  which 
had  been  burned.  The  French  probably  derived  this  sort  of  computation 
from  the  Italian  traders.  They  substituted  the  marc  for  the  livre  as 
m.  of  a.  under  Philip  I. 

2 1 4  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Marcella,  or  lira  marcello,  the  name  given  to  the  Venetian  silver  lira 
or  Da  dieci  [soldi]  after  the  death  of  Nicolo  Trono  and  accession  of 
Nicolo  Marcello  (1473),  when  the  short-lived  practice  of  placing  the 
portrait  of  the  chief  magistrate  on  the  coinage  determined.  The  designa- 
tion was  continued  in  later  reigns,  and  under  Agostino  Barbarigo  there 
was  the  i  marcella  for  colonial  circulation.  But  under  Marcello's  imme- 
diate successor,  Pietro  Mocenigo  (1474-76),  the  mint  struck  two  types  of 
the  lira — the  marcella  and  the  moceniga  or  lira  moccnigo. 

Marcello,  the  name  which  is  attached  to  a  silver  coin  of  Francesco 
III.,  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua,  1540-50.  Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  1704. 

Marchesino,  a  small  silver  type  of  Ferrara,  1 4th- 1 5th  c.,  under  the 
house  of  Este,  Marchesi  di  Ferrara.  The  rev.  has  a  small  shield  with 
DC.  Fcrari.  A, 

Marchctto  and  half  marchctto,  a  small  copper  type  struck  under  the 
Venetian  Doge  Antonio  Priuli  (1618-23)  and  some  of  his  successors.  It 
reads  on  rev.  Nosier.  Defensor. 

Marcuccio,  a  Venetian  copper  coin  of  low  value,  struck  under  the 
Doge  Bertuccio  Valier  (1656-58). 

Mariengroschcn,  a  variety  of  this   denomination,   probably  derived 
from  Marienburg  in  Prussia  or  Marienthal  in  Franconia.     Several  of  the 
German  States  struck  it  and  its  multiples  up  to  24. 
*Maricn  Gulden,  Brunswick. 

Mark,  Venetian  money  of  account.     See  Marc. 

Mark,  money  of  the  Prussian  abbey  of  Essen  =  26th  part  of  a 

Mark,   a  coin  of  Sweden,   either  of  copper  or  of  silver,  but   more 

Charles  XII.     Silver  mark. 

usually  the  latter.  There  is  a  copper  mark  of  1591,  struck  on  a  broad 
and  thin  flan.  Small  pieces  in  the  same  metal  were  issued  for  the  mines 
of  Hogenas. 

Mar  A,  a  coin  of  Denmark.  There  is  a  piece  of  Frederic  III.,  1651, 
called  ////.  Marck  Eben-czer.  In  1670,  4  marks  were  =  i  daler,  12  to  a 
gold  ducat. 

Mark  (or  marque},  copper  money  of  Mayence,  running  from  I  to  12 
kreutzer,  with  various  initials  :  N\ieues\  T\hor\,  G\roszes\  T\lior\,  R\ani\ 
T\Jwr\  etc.  One  has  Holzzeichen.  These  strange  pieces  are  circular, 
oblong,  and  octagonal.  They  seem  to  belong  to  the  iSth  c.  See  Cat. 
Cisternes,  1892,  Part  i.,  Nos.  2217-20.  A  piece  of  3  marks  was  struck  at 
Aix-la-Chapelle  in  1670  as  money  of  necessity. 

Mark,  a  modern  German  denomination  and  the  money  of  account  of 
the  empire.  It  is  worth  rather  less  than  an  English  shilling.  There  are 
the  2  and  5  in  silver  and  the  10  and  20  in  gold. 

Marka,  pi.  markaa,  the  Russian  currency  in  silver  for  Finland.  There 
are  pieces  of  2  markaa,  I  marka,  and  50  pennia. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         2 1 5 

Marque,  a  special  designation  for  coins  struck  at  Bellac  by  Hugues, 
Comte  de  la  Marche,  in  and  after  1211,  with  Ugo  Conies  Marchie. 

Masse  (for,  a  French  gold  coin  first  introduced  under  Philip  III. 
(1270-85),  and  owing  its  designation  to  the  mace,  which  the  king  holds  in 
his  right  hand.  The  type  was  continued  by  Philip  IV.  only.  Comp. 
Reine  d'or.* 

Masson,  a  silver  coin  of  Lorraine,  i8th  c.  It  was  struck  under 
Leopold  I.,  1690-1729,  but  only  between  1728-29,  as  its  name  was  derived 
from  Masson,  the  director  of  the  mint  in  succession  to  D'Aubonne 

Matapan,  the  Venetian  grosso.     See  Grosso. 

Matthiasgroschen,  a  billon  coin  of  Goslar,  Hanover. 

Mattier,  a  coin  of  Brunswick- Luneburg  =13  deniers  of  copper  of 
small  module,  i8th  c.  Whelan  says  that  it  was  =  ^  mariengroschen. 

Mechalaer,  a  Brabantine  .coin  of  the  I5th  c.,  equal  to  i  groot. 
There  was  the  double. 

Afedaglia.      At  Bologna  under  the   Bentivoglio   family  (i5th    c.)   it 
seems  to  have  been  the  practice  to  combine,  as  in  Germany,  the  medal 
with  the  coin.     See  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  Nos.  no,  773-74. 
*Medjedeer,  Turkish,  silver,  value  35.  5d.,  20  piastres. 
*Meissner  Gulden,  Saxony,  money  of  account  at  Leipsic. 

Merovingian  money,  a  term  somewhat  loosely  applied  to  an 
extensive  series  of  coins,  usually  of  barbarous  fabric,  and  in  gold,  the 
metal  often  of  a  pale  colour,  which  was  concurrent  with  the  Byzantine 
gold  solidi  and  besants,  and  evidently  aimed  at  copying  the  types  of 
Justinian  and  other  emperors.  They  are  uniformly  thirds  of  the  solidus 

(tiers  de  sot),  and  vary  more  or  less  in  execution.  They  were  very  widely 
diffused  over  the  western  portion  of  the  continent  of  Europe,  and  were 
intended  to  supply  a  convenient  medium  of  exchange  for  higher  values. 
In  Southern  Italy  and  in  Visigothic  Spain  the  same  type  was  current  in 
silver.  But  the  Greek  besant  itself  was  also  employed  for  special  pur- 
poses at  Venice,  and  possibly  elsewhere.  There  is  a  piece  of  this 
kind  wjth  the  name  of  Canterbury  as  the  place  of  mintage.  One 
result  of  a  comparative  absence  in  England  of  the  Merovingian  system 
on  any  appreciable  scale,  and  of  the  apparent  failure  to  employ  the 
Roman  small  brass,  was  that  in  that  country  the  indigenous  silver  penny 
and  copper  styca  commenced  at  a  far  earlier  date  than  on  the  Continent, 
and  in  Southern  Britain  were  probably  supplemented  by  the  plentiful 
remains  of  the  anterior  British  money  in  copper,  tin,  and  billon.  See 
Merovingian  Mints  in  Cat.  of  M. 

Merovingian  moneyers.  See  Blanchet  tibi  supra.  The  names  are 
extremely  numerous,  and  many  more  or  less  doubtful.  In  Blanchet's 
list  the  same  person  is  often  cited  under  variant  forms  of  his  name. 

Metica,  a  native  African  denomination,  adopted,  like  the  parddo,  by 
the  Portuguese  Colonial  Government  in  some  of  the  currency  for  Mozam- 
bique or  for  East  Africa.  Compare  Barrinba. 

2 1 6  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Mezzanine,  a  silver  coin  of  Venice,  first  struck  under  Francesco 
Dandolo  (1328-54).  There  are  varieties. 

Michaels  gulden,  a  silver  denomination  of  Bernmunster. 

Mijn  Heerens  -  stuiver,  a  billon  coin  of  the  Bishops  of  Utrecht, 
1 5th  c. 

Millares,  or  Moneta  miliarensis,  silver  pieces  =  10  deniers,  struck  by 
Berenger  de  Fredol,  Bishop  of  Maguelonne  in  1262-63,  for  the  benefit  of 
those  in  his  diocese  trading  with  the  East.  They  were  imitations  of  the 
Arabic  dirhem,  and  in  1266  drew  from  the  Holy  See  a  bull  rebuking  the 
bishop  for  his  impiety. 

*Milrea,  Portuguese,  gold,  value  45.  5d. 

*Milrei,  Portuguese,  silver,  value  45.  5d.,  1000  or  960  reis.     Whelan 
adds  that  in  Brazil  the  value  was  reduced  to  2s.  id. 

Mining-pieces,  money  of  two  classes  :  (i.)  that  coined  for  mines,  and  (ii.) 
for  the  miners.  The  former  are  generally  of  silver,  and  often  of  large 
size  and  elaborate  and  artistic  design.  They  occur  in  the  Brunswick, 
Saxon,  and  Sicilian  series.  The  latter  are  usually  of  copper  and  of  low 
values,  and  belong  to  Sweden,  the  North  of  France,  etc.  The  earliest 
coin  of  this  widespread  fabric  which  we  have  seen  is  an  extremely 
rare  2-thaler  piece,  with  the  name  and  titles  of  John  Casimir,  Duke  of 
Saxe-Coburg,  Juliers,  CleVes,  and  Berg,  1629.  The  obv.  has  the  Duke 
on  horseback,  and  the  rev.  the  usual  many-quartered  shield.  There  is 
another  of  later  date  belonging  to  Wismar  =  \\  th.,  and  we  have 
engraved,  for  the  beauty  of  its  condition  and  the  uncommon  type,  one  of 
Brunswick,  1657.  Probably  the  view  of  Blanchet  {Manuel,  1890,  i.  105), 
that  the  coins  of  the  Carlovingian  epoch  with  Metal.  German,  are 
ascribable  to  the  product  of  the  mines  of  Bohemia  and  the  Hartz,  is 

Minuta,  apparently  the  recognised  appellation  of  a  small  billon  coin 
of  Genoa,  i5th  c. 

Minuta,  or  Menut,  a  small  copper  piece  struck  by  Louis  XIII. 
and  XIV.  of  France  during  the  occupation  of  Cataluna  (1642-48)  at 
Oliana,  Puigcerda,  Vique,  Agramont,  Perpignan,  and  in  several  varieties. 

*Miobolo,  Ionian  Islands,  copper  [?  the  £  obolos]. 

Mirtilon,  the  epithet  for  a  double  louis  of  Louis  XV.,  with  the  two 
interlaced  cursive  Ls  between  two  palm-branches. 

Mistura,  the  name  assigned  to  billon  money  struck  at  Avignon  under 
Gregory  XIII.,  Sixtus  V.,  and  Clement  VIII.  (1572-1605). 

Mite,  a  copper  or  billon  coin  of  very  small  value  current  in  Brabant 
and  Holland.  Louis  of  Maele,  Count  of  Flanders,  1346-84,  struck  a 
billon  mite  with  Fl.  There  are  the  multiples  of  three,  four,  six,  and 

Miten  of  Ghent,  1583-84. 

twelve.     A  piece  of  12  miten  or  myten  of  Ghent  in  copper  is  cited  by 
Sch.,  Cat.  ix.  420,  and  another   of  Brussels,   1593,  xiv.   290^.     Comp. 


Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         2 1 7 

Mitte  royal  tournois,  a  French  billon  coin  struck  under  Philip  III. 
and  IV.,  1270-1314,  with  the  titles  and  a  forked  cross  on  obv.,  and  on 
rev.  a  castle  without  a  legend. 

Mocenigo,  the  name  given  to  the  Venetian  lira  or  silver  piece  of  10 
soldi  (Da  Dieci)  after  the  Doge  Pietro  Mocenigo  (1474-76),  and  appar- 
ently continued,  like  the  marcello,  in  the  following  reign. 

Moidore,  or  Moeda  (Moneta,  money),  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  struck 
both  for  the  home  currency  and  for  the  colonies.  It  seems  to  have  been 
recognised  as  a  name  for  a  definite  piece  in  the  i8th  c.,  and  was  equal  to 
4000  reis,  or  about  275.  English.  There  is  the  ^  (mimoeda)  and  the  j 
or  qitartinho. 

^Monaco,  Italian,  silver,  value  45.  4d.     [The  local  name  Tor  the  scudo 
at  Monaco.] 

Moneta,  a  token  of  value  issued  under  recognised  or  asserted  authority. 
It  is  a  term  which  is  common,  with  slight  modifications,  to  all  the 
European  languages  of  Latin  origin  ;  and  the  idea  is  also  found  in  the 
most  ancient  Oriental,  Arabic,  and  Mongolian  systems  of  currency  or 
exchange,  as  in  the  Tartar  word  tengha,  an  emblem,  which  is  reproduced 
in  the  Russian  tantgha,  the  source  of  the  well-known  piece  called  a 

Moneta  palatina,  or  palaci,  a  silver  denier,  sometimes  erroneously 
ascribed  to  Charlemagne,  but  more  probably  belonging  to  the  reign 
of  Charles  the  Simple  (898-923),  bears  on  reverse  this  reading.  The 

words  may  have  originally  referred  to  the  old  rank  of  the  house  of  Pepin 
as  mayors  of  the  palace,  and  illustrate  the  importance  of  the  royal 
precincts  even  down  to  a  much  later  epoch.  The  Palace  is  specified 
among  the  Carlovingian  mints  in  the  Edict  of  Pitres,  864,  and  at  that 
period  signified  the  royal  abode  for  the  time  being.  The  elaborate  and 
far-stretching  system  germinating  and  centring  in  the  residence  of  the 
prince  was  the  basis  of  the  territorial  terms  palatine  and  palatinate. 
Such  families  as  the  Carrara  at  Padua,  the  Scaligers  at  Verona,  the 
Gonzage  at  Mantua,  and  the  Visconti  (Vicecomites)  at  Milan  were  at  the 
outset  merely  imperial  delegates  or  representatives.  A  silver  denier  of 
Raymond,  Count  of  Toulouse  and  Provence,  describes  him  as  Comes 

Moraglia,  a  copper  denomination,  i6th  c.,  of  Agostino  Tizzone,  Count 
of  Desana,  with  Moneta  Deciensis  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  S.  Germanvs.  with 
an  effigy  of  the  saint  facing. 

Mordowkis,  imitations  of  kopecks  by  the  Mordevas  and  others  for  the 
purpose  of  embellishing  their  dress. 

Morveux,  a  variety  of  the  silver  teston  of  Charles  IX.  of  France,  with 
a  laureated  bust,  below  which  are  A  and  O  ;  it  is  supposed  to  have  been 
struck  at  Orleans  by  the  Huguenots. 

*Mostoska,  Russian,  copper,  4  to  a  kopeck. 

2 1 8  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Mourisca,  an  early  Castilian  coin,  current  in  Portugal  =  2|  libra  or 
libras.  There  was  the  double.  I4th-i5th  c. 

Mouton,  the  name  of  a  gold  coin  struck  in  France  intermittently  from 
the  reign  of  Philip  IV.  to  that  of  Charles  VI.  (1314-1422),  and  imitated 
by  Louis  de  Maele,  Count  of  Flanders  (1346-84).  It  is  otherwise  known 
as  the  Agnel,  the  type  being  that  of  the  paschal  lamb.  There  is  the 
i  or  petit  agnel. 

Munzlamm.     See  Lammpfenning. 

Miinz-rccht,  the  right  to  strike  money,  a  commercial  privilege  which, 
like  the  mark-recht,  or  title  to  a  market,  was  conferred  in  Germany  and 
the  Netherlands  under  a  variety  of  conditions,  as  regarded  the  share  of 
the  accruing  advantages. 

Murajola,  a  papal  silver  coin  of  the  i6th  c.  See  Cat.  Rossi,  1880, 
No.  601. 

Miiterken,  a  piece  of  6  mites.     Billon,  i6th  c.     Nimmhcgen,  etc. 

Napoleon,  the  name  conferred  on  the  2o-franc  gold  piece  under 
Napoleon  I.  (1805-15),  and  still  associated  with  it. 

Negenmanneke,  a  type  of  dute  or  doit,  current  in  the  Southern  Nether- 
lands under  the  Spanish  and  Austrian  rule. 

Ncu-groschcn,  a  Saxon  denomination  (1847)  for  a  new  standard,  the 
groschen  =  10  pf.  There  are  the  pieces  of  2  neu-groschen,  i,  and  \. 

Niquet,  a  type  of  the  French  double  tournois  of  billon  with  a  Us 
surmounted  by  a  crown  (Charles  VI.,  1380-1422). 

Niquet,  an  Anglo-Gallic  billon  coin  of  Henry  VI.  of  England,  with  H. 
Re.v.  Angl.  Heres,  Franc,  and  a  leopard  under  a  Us. 

Niquet,  a  billon  coin  of  Besangon,  1 4th- 1 6th  c.,  with  the  half.  It  is 
one  of  those  which  bear  a  posthumous  portrait  of  Charles  V.  of  Germany, 
who  in  1 533  authorised  the  representatives  of  the  Burgundian  family  of 
Bouhelier  to  strike  this  type  with  their  own  names  and  arms,  and  in  this 
document  speaks  of  the  niquet  as  anciently  current  in  Burgundy. 

Noble,  a  gold  coin  struck  for  various  provinces  of  the  Netherlands  in 
the  1 6th  c.  on  the  model  of  the  rose-noble  of  Edward  IV.  The  original 
imitation — that  of  Gorcum  or  Gorinchen  —  followed  the  lines  of  the 
English  piece  very  closely.  See  Schulman,  De  £  Imitation  des  Monnaies 
Etrangcres  aux  Pays  Bas  Mcridionaux,  1892.  There  are  the  half  and 
quarter  of  the  later  copies  ;  but  none  is  at  present  known  of  the  Gorcum 
one.  Schulman,  Cat.  ix.  117,  cites  a  \  noble  schuijtken  of  Philip  the 
Good  and  Maximilian  (1482-97).  In  the  Proposal  addressed  to  Henry 
VIII.  of  England  by  Nicolas  Tyery  in  1526  for  a  new  Irish  coinage,  this, 
the  salute,  the  maille,  the  denier,  the  Hard,  etc.,  are  named  as  projected 
denominations.  It  is  perhaps  remarkable,  looking  at  the  intimate  rela- 
tions between  Edward  III.  and  the  Netherlands  and  the  monetary  treaty 
of  1345,  that  the  Flemings  or  Hollanders  did  not  attempt  to  copy  so 
admirable  a  type  even  more  promptly. 

Nomine  Domini  or  Domini  Nomine,  a  phrase  and  title  which  consti- 
tuted the  prototype  of  Dei  Gratia.  The  words  almost  invariably  occur 
in  initials  only,  N.D.  or  D.N.,  and  are  found  on  the  coins  of  the  Ostro- 
goths in  the  6th  c.  Eudes,  King  of  France  (887-98),  adopted  the  form 
Gratia  Domini,  which  ultimately  became  the  modern  and  Western 
development  of  the  notion,  as  contrasted  with  the  Oriental  or  Moham- 
medan feeling  resident  in  the  original  dictum. 

Nitmmus  (Gr.  v6[j.os,  vtpeiv},  like  the  German  scheide  miinze,  anything 
intended  or  suitable  for  distribution  ;  the  perhaps  nominal  unit  of  the 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         219 

Byzantine  bronze  coinage,  which  circulated  in  Greece,  Asia  Minor, 
Southern  Italy,  and  Sicily  from  the  7th  to  perhaps  the  loth  c.  There 
were  the  multiples  of  5  (pcntamimmo),  10  (decanummo),  20,  30,  and  40, 
the  last  being  =  follaro  or  doppio  follaro.  The  respective  values  are 
usually  indicated  by  Roman  numerals. 

Obole,  obolos,  obool,  the  term  applied  to  the  half  danaro  or  denier  by  a 
sort  of  analogy  with  the  ancient  Greek  standard  or  division  of  value. 
The  moiety  of  the  Carlovingian  denier  is  usually  so  called.  It  is  more 

frequently  than  otherwise  employed  from  an  ignorance  of  the  correct 
denomination.     Compare,  however,  Obnlus. 

Obolino,  a  name  for  an  obolo  of  smaller  module.  It  is  always 
questionable  how  far  these  terms  were  sanctioned  by  authority  or  by 
contemporary  usage. 

Obolos,  a  piece  of  5  lepta  in  the  modern  Greek  currency. 

Obnlus,  and  the  half,  a  silver  denomination  of  Hungary  under  Bela 
IV.,  1235-70,  with  the  word  between  two  lions'  heads.  Also  the  name 
expressly  conferred  on  certain  pfennigen  of  1378  struck  by  the  Margraves 
of  Moravia  at  Glatz  with  I.  G\lacensis\  O\biilus\.  The  obulus  continued 
to  be  the  Hungarian  unit  during  centuries,  and  was  =  \  denier.  400 
went  to  the  Hungarian  florin  of  gold  by  virtue  of  the  Edict  of  Buda, 

Ochavo,  the  half  quarto  or  cuarto  in  the  Spanish  monetary  system  under 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella  (1476-1504)  and  their  successors.  The  same 
name,  or  octavo,  appears  to  have  been  identified  with  the  third  brass 
Roman  coins  which,  in  the  absence  or  dearth  of  other  currency,  long 
passed  in  Spain  and  the  South  of  France  as  an  equivalent  for  the  local 
money.  Whelan  mentions  that  the  word  is  locally  corrupted  into  chavo 
or  chovy. 

*Ochosen,  Spanish.     The  smallest  gold  coin. 

Oertli,  a  Swiss  name  for  the  j  gulden,  1 7th- 1 8th  c. 

Oirt  Stuver,  an  ecclesiastical  coin  or  token.  Billon  or  base  silver. 

Oncia,  mezza  oncia,  and  quarto  di  oncia,  a  silver  denomination  of  the 
Knights  of  St.  John  at  Malta,  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  and  of  the  Dukes  of 
Savoy,  1 8th  c.  Vittorio  Amedeo  II.  (1713-18)  had  the  2-oncie  piece. 
The  oncia  of  the  Bourbon  Kings  was  coined  from  the  local  mines,  and 
occurs  both  of  thick  and  widespread  module,  the  former  the  scarcer, 
and  of  the  dates  1733  and  1791.  The  Maltese  oncia,  the  \  and  j,  were 
=  30,  15,  and  "j\  tari.  The  type  seems  to  have  been  struck  only  by 
Emmanuele  Pinto,  Grand  Master,  1741-73. 

Ongaro.     See  Ungaro. 

On-le-vault,  the  denier  blanc  of  Cambrai  =  2  deniers  tournois,  coined 
in  1347  by  Jehan  Bougier  of  Arras  for  the  Bishop  of  Cambrai.  The 
denier  noir  of  the  same  coinage  was  called  valtan,  which  seems  to  have 
an  allied  sense.  They  were  something  which  supplied  a  popular  want. 

22O  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Onsa.     See  Livra. 

Oortje,  oordje,  or  oorf,  a  double  plack  or  double  Hard. 

Or,  pi.  ore,  an  early  Norwegian  coin  originally  —  24  penningen  and 
the  loth  of  the  silver  mark,  but  afterward  reduced  or  debased,  and 
practically  equivalent  to  the  Danish  and  Swedish  pieces. 

Or,  pi.  ore,  a  Danish  coin  originating  in  a  common  source  with  that  of 
Sweden,  but  apparently  never  issued  to  pass  current  for  so  high  a  value, 
as  a  modern  piece  of  5  ore  is  only  equal  to  the  4th  of  an  early  Swedish 

O'r,  pi.  ore,  a  Swedish  copper  coin,  which  dates  back  to  the  time  of 
John  III.,  1569-92,  and  underwent  certain  changes  of  module  and  weight, 
till  it  was  restored  to  something  like  the  i6th  c.  standard  in  the  time  of 
Frederic  I.  (1718-49).  The  ore  coined  in  the  first  half  of  the  iyth  c.  were 
derived  from  the  copper  of  the  mines  of  Dalecarlia  in  N.  Sweden. 

Ortclin,  the  J  pfenning  of  Strasburgh,  I4th  c. 

Ortsthaler,  or  quarter  thaler,  a  Saxon  denomination  of  1661,  with  the 

Ortug,  a  Swedish  coin  struck  in  the  I5th  c.  at  Stockholm  under  Carl 
VIII.  (1448-70). 

Ortug,  a  Norwegian  coin  =  8  penningen.  Probably  similar  to  the 

Osella,  a  term  applied  to  a  long  series  of  coins  in  all  metals,  but  usually 
in  silver,  struck  by  the  Doges  of  Venice  and  by  the  Dogaresse  for  distri- 
bution as  presents.  Among  these  are  some  of  the  most  varied,  artistic, 
and  pleasing  examples  of  Venetian  numismatic  art.  The  osella  was 
struck  from  the  time  of  Antonio  Grimani  (1521-23)  down  to  the  close, 
with  the  exception  of  the  reigns  of  Nicolo  Donato  (1618)  and  Gio- 
vanni Cornaro  (1624-30).  This  was,  after  all,  only  a  form  of  the  practice 
existing  in  other  parts  of  Europe.  The  first  gold  osella  occurs  under 
Alvigi  Mocenigo  (1570-77),  and  was  struck  to  commemorate  the  victory 
at  Lepanto.  One  in  bronze,  struck  in  1585  by  Nicolo  da  Ponte,  seems  to 
have  been  intended  as  a  memorial  of  the  foundation  of  the  Rialto  Bridge. 
On  the  rev.  we  read  Fvndamenta.  Facta.  Prid.  Kal.  Ivnii.  1585.  The 
Dogaressa  also  coined  oselle  at  Venice  in  her  own  name.  There  is  a 
silver  one  of  the  consort  of  Marino  Grimani  (1595-1606),  which  reads  on 
obv.  Mavrocena.  Mavrocena.  [portrait  of  the  Dogaressa  to  1.],  and  on  rev. 
Mvnvs.  Mavroccnae.  Grimanae.  Dvcissae.  Venetiar.  1597.  There  was 
the  double  osella  in  gold  and  in  silver,  and  the  osella  di  Murano  in  gold 
and  silver. 

Pagode,  a  gold  coin  struck  by  France  under  Louis  XV.  for  Pondi- 

Paolo,  the  loth  of  the  silver  scudo,  and  equivalent  to  the  giulio,  a 
silver  denomination  of  the  dukedom  of  Ferrara  (i6th  c.),  of  the  popes,  and 
of  the  Dukes  of  Tuscany  of  the  house  of  Lorraine.  Ercole  II.,  D'Este, 
Duke  of  Ferrara  (1534-59),  struck  several  varieties.  The  Tuscan  paolo 
in  1830  was  =  5th  of  a  silver  florin.  There  is  the  piece  of  2  paioli.  Cat. 
Rossi,  1431. 

Papetto,  a  silver  papal  coin  struck  by  Pius  VII.,  Gregory  XVI.,  and 
Pius  IX.  There  is  the  half. 

Par,  pi.  para,  the  copper  currency  of  the  modern  kingdom  of  Serbia 
or  Servia.  100  para  are  =  i  dinar.  The  denomination  is  of  Turkish 
origin,  and  used  to  be  employed  in  the  Russian  provinces  of  Moldavia 
and  Wallachia,  1771-74.  The  Russian  piece  was  —  3  dengi. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         2  2 1 

Pardao,  pardoes,  a  gold  Portuguese  colonial  coin  of  the  i8th  c.  =  5 
tangos,  or  about  320  reis. 

Pardao  or  Xerafin,  the  £  rupia  of  Goa,  worth  300  reis.  There  is 
the  meo  p.,  and  a  variety  known  as  the  pardao  de  Dio,  1806,  from  the 
legend.  i8th  c.  From  a  document  of  1548  it  appears  that  the  piece  was 
originally  struck  on  a  square  or  irregular  flan  ;  it  was  perhaps,  like  the 
macnta  in  Africa,  an  evolution  from  the  native  coinage. 

Parisis,  the  name  originally  attached  to  French  coins  of  the  Paris 
standard,  fixed  under  Philip  Augustus  at  j  above  that  of  Tours.  It  con- 
tinued in  use  in  such  parts  of  France  as  were  subject  to  the  Crown  down 
to  the  time  of  Louis  XIV.  ;  but  it  gradually  lost  its  technical  significance. 
There  were  the  p.  d'or,  the  p.  d 'argent,  the  p.  noir,  and  the  denier  and 
sol parisis.  There  is  a  very  rare  double/,  d^  argent  of  Charles  IV.,  1328, 
with  Moncta  Duplex  on  rev.  -Louis  XI.  struck  a  variety  called  the/,  de 
I'anmonerie.  The/,  d'or  first  appeared  in  1329.  The  denier  and  sol  p. 
were  imitated  by  the  Dukes  of  Lorraine  in  the  I4th  c.  See  one  of  Ferri 
IV.,  1312-28,  figured  in  Cat.  Robert,  1886,  No.  1298. 

Parpajola,  or  parpaillot,  a  coin  common  to  Switzerland,  Italy,  and 
Savoy.  It  was  struck  at  Asti  by  Louis  XII.  of  France  and  Charles  V. 
of  Germany.  There  is  the  half.  The  earliest  are  of  Swiss  fabric  ;  Berne, 
and  the  Swiss  generally,  abandoned  the  type  in  1528.  At  Correggio,  in 
Italy,  the  piece  seems  to  have  been  =  3  soldi. 

Patdca,  a  Portuguese  coin  of  the  1 7th- 1 8th  c.  =  320  reis.  They  exist 
of  the  reign  of  John  IV.  (1640-56),  and  are  frequently  countermarked 
with  higher  or  lower  values. 

Patdca,  a  copper  Portuguese  denomination  =  2  cuartos. 

Patacdo,  a  silver  Portuguese  coin  of  the  i6th  c.  (1555),  struck  for,  and 
presumably  at,  Goa,  and  perhaps  the  prototype  of  the  rupias  of  thick 
fabric  of  later  date.  Fernandes  alludes  (p.  333)  to  zpatacdo  of  fine  silver 
of  the  present  century,  popularly  known  as  a  canello  —  4  cruzados,  and 
weighing  an  ounce ;  but  he  could  not  refer  to  an  example. 

Patacchina,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Republic  of  Genoa  during  the  French 
occupation  (1396-1406).  It  bears  the  titles  of  Charles  VI.  of  France  and 
of  Conrad,  and  the  quartered  arms  of  France  and  Genoa.  There  are 
several  varieties. 

Patacon,  or  patagon,  a  name  apparently  common  to  the  Brabantine 
and  Portuguese  series,  1 5th- 1 8th  c.,  but  probably  of  Portuguese  origin. 
The  silver  dollar  =  from  600  to  640  reis.  The  word  signifies  the  same  as 
piefort,  or  a  heavy  foot,  the  coin  weighing  an  ounce  ;  hence  the  sobri- 
quet of  leg-dollar.  '  The  Low  Country  patagon  was  =  50  stuivers. 

Patacon,  the  Portuguese  heavy  copper  piece  of  40  reis,  early  igth  c. 

Patard,  a  Brabantine  billon  coin  (  =  Dutch  stuiver),  with  the  quad- 
ruple, double,  and  half,  in  the  I5th  c.,  struck  at  Antwerp,  Malines,  Cam- 
brai,  etc.  The  e"cu  d'or  of  Cambrai  was  worth  40  p.  The  bishops  of 
that  See  and  of  Lidge  issued  pieces  of  30  p.  in  silver,  and  Philip  le  Beau, 
Duke  of  Burgundy  (1495-1506),  the  -eighth  of  a  p.  for  Luxemburgh, 

Patard,  a  billon  coin  of  Louis  XI.  of  France,  struck  for  Perpignan. 
There  are  two  varieties.  A  demi-patard  occurs  in  the  Franco -Italian 
series  of  Louis  XII.  for  Milan  (1499-1513).  Henry  II.  struck  it  for  Pro- 
vence with  P.  beneath  two  lis  and  the  Prove^al  cross. 

Patte  dole,  a  variety  of  the  gros  blanc  (a  type  of  the  old  g.  tournois  of 
a  larger  module),  struck  under  Jean  le  Bon  (1364-80)  of  France,  with  an 
expanded  Us. 

222  The  Cains  of  Europe 

Pavilion,  a  gold  coin  of  the  French  and  Anglo-Gallic  series.  Of  the 
latter  there  are  two  types,  both  struck  at  Bordeaux. 

Peqa,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  under  Maria  II.  (weight,  145  gr.) 
with  a  diademed  bust  to  left  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  a  shield  resting  on 
foliage.  Another  name  for  the  dobra. 

Peerdekc,  ^\.pccrdckcn,  the  third  of  the  snaphaan.  Silver.  Nimmhegcn, 
Groningen,  etc.  There  is  a  scarce  one  of  Zutphen  with  Fata  Viam  In- 
venient,  and  Mom.  Nova  Civita.  Zvtpha.  in  the  iSth  c. 

Peeter,  or  Pietre,  a  gold  coin  of  Louvain,  Brabant,  I4th  c.,  imitated 
by  Jean  d'Arkel,  Bishop  of  Liege  and  Duke  de  Bouillon,  1364-78.  The 
name  was  due  to  the  effigy  of  St.  Peter. 

Pegione,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Visconti,  Dukes  of  Milan,  I4th  c.  On 
obv.  occurs  J?.  Ambrosio  Mcdiolan,  and  the  saint  seated  ;  and  on  rev. 
Comes.  Virtvtvm  D.  Mediolani. 

Penni,  pi.  pennia,  a  Russian  copper  coin  struck  for  Finland  =  a 
French  centime.  There  is  the  i  penni,  2  pennia,  5  pennia,  10  pennia. 

Peregozi,  the  local  name  given  in  a  document  of  1276  to  the  currency 
of  Perigord,  otherwise  described  as  pierregordins.  A  variety  of  the 
denier.  In  1305  two  Florentines  engaged  to  supply  to  the  Count  20,000 
marques  of  white  money  of  pierregordins  between  the  2oth  May  and  the 
25th  July. 

Pcrpcro,  and  the  half,  silver  denomination  of  Byzantine  origin,  intro- 
duced into  the  Republic  of  Ragusa  in  the  I3th  c.  or  thereabout.  Also 
a  gold  value  used  at  Venice  as  money  of  account. 

Peseta,  a  Spanish  silver  denomination  =  in  1774,  2  reales  ;  in  1868,  92 
French  centimes,  the  piece  corresponding  to  the  French  livre.  It  was 
struck  during  the  Peninsular  War  at  Barcelona,  and  in  1873,  during  the 
Revolution,  at  Cartagena.  In  1874  the  younger  Don  Carlos  struck, 
apparently  out  of  Spain,  probably  in  Italy,  a  piece  of  5  pesetas  with 
Dios,  Patria,y  Rey  on  rev.  There  was  a  reissue  of  it  in  1886.  Of  the 
Barcelona  series  of  1811  there  are  the  5  p.  and  i  p.  in  silver,  and  the 
1 6  reales  or  10  p.  and  20  p.  in  gold,  bearing  dates  between  1809  and 
1813.  Two  5  p.  pieces  of  1821  and  1823  were  issued  for  circulation  in 
the  Balearic  Isles.  By  the  law  of  1868  the  peseta  replaced  the  escudo  as 
the  monetary  unit  and  money  of  account. 

Peseta,  a  silver  denomination  struck  by  Christian  VII.  of  Denmark 
in  1777  for  Iceland,  Greenland,  and  the  Feroe  Islands. 

Peso,  the  name  of  a  silver  siege-piece  struck  for  Girone,  in  France,  in 
1808  during  the  Peninsular  War. 

Pezza,  a  gold  coin  of  the  Medici  family,  Dukes  of  Florence  or 
Etruria.  There  is  one  of  Cosmo  III.,  1718,  struck  at  Leghorn,  somewhat 
similar  in  type  to  the  scudo  of  silver  which  is  known  under  the  same 
name.  It  bears  a  rosebush  and  the  legend  Gratia  Obvia  Vltio  Qvcesita. 
It  was  known  as  the  pezza  d'oro  delta  rosa.  Of  the  silver  there  are 
earlier  examples  in  the  same  reign. 

Pezzetta  and  mezsa-peszetta  (Fr.  piecctte),  billon  currency  of  Monaco, 
1 8th  c.,  and  of  the  Swiss  canton  of  Fribourg,  id.  the  single  and 
double  pezzetta  or  piecette. 

Pfaffenfeindthaler,  the  name  applied  to  a  silver  siege-piece  or  money 
of  necessity  (1622)  struck  during  the  Thirty  Years'  War. 

Pfenning,  penning,  or  fennig,  a  copper  coin  of  North  Germany  and 
the  Low  Countries,  equivalent  to  the  French  centime.  In  Alsace  or 
Elsas  it  occurs  in  the  I4th  c.  A  copper  series  of  \,  i,  2,  3, 4,  and  5  pf.  was 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         223 

in  use  in  Cuilemborg  in  1590-91.  Saxe-Meiningen  struck  a  piece  of  \\  pf. 
in  1740.  There  is  a  vierstuiverpenning  or  4-stuiver  piece,  and  in  1848 
the  Netherlands  issued  a  negotie-penning  of  10  gold  florins  (Schulman, 
Cat.  xv.  877).  The  coin  entitled  a  Brodt  Penning,  1789,  was  employed 
at  Cologne  for  distribution  among  the  poor  during  a  scarcity  ;  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  and  Hollanders  had  an  analogous  currency.  On  an  early  speci- 
men belonging  to  Utrecht  we  read  Dit  is  der  Armen  Pe.,  and  (on  rev.) 
Moneta.  S.  Martini. — from  the  legend  of  St.  Martin  and  the  beggar. 

Pfenning,  a  silver  denomination  mentioned  in  a  grant  from  the 
Emperor  Charles  IV.,  in  1363,  to  the  town  of  Wertheim  in  Baden. 

Pfetmanchen,  a  small  coin  of  the  Prussian  abbey  of  Essen,  I7th  c. 
The  I2oth  part  of  a  reichsthaler.  In  the  Diocese  of  Treves  it  was  a  term 
applied  to  the  albus.  Comp.  Mark. 

Phenix,  the  name  of  the  silver  coin  struck  by  President  Capo  d' I  stria 
under  the  Greek  Republic,  1828  =  rather  less  than  a  lira.  An  appro- 
priate appellation  for  a  coinage  significant  of  national  revival. 

Philipsdaalder,  silver  crown  struck  by  Philip  II.  of  Spain  for  the 
Netherlands.  There  are  the  divisions  down  to  the  4oth  part.  See  next 

Philippus,  and  the  half,  a  name  given  to  the  silver  crown  and  its 
divisions  struck  by  or  for  Philip  II.  of  Spain  during  his  occupation  of 
the  Low  Countries.  There  is  the  half,  fifth,  tenth,  twentieth,  and  fortieth 
parts.  The  last  was  —  20  mites.  A  type  of  the  Philippics  or  daalder,  with 
his  portrait  and  titles,  was  struck  at  Antwerp  after  the  relinquishment  of 
the  Low  Countries  of  Flanders  by  the  Spaniards  in  1580.  There  is  a 
pattern  evidently  issued  posterior  to  the  occupation  of  Portugal  by 
Philip,  as  the  shield  quarters  the  arms  of  that  kingdom.  Indeed  it  is 
remarkable  that  so  late  as  1593  coins  with  the  name  of  this  prince  con- 
tinued to  appear  in  the  country,  where  he  had  made  himself  so  deservedly 
obnoxious,  side  by  side  with  those  associated  with  comparative  political 
freedom.  But  the  circulation  of  Spanish,  as  well  as  of  Austrian,  money 
in  this  oppressed  region  was  not  arrested  till  the  end  of  the  iSth  c. 

Piastre,  a  Spanish  silver  coin  of  eight  reales.  It  dates  from  the  reign 
of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella ;  comp.  Piece  of  Eight.  The  Medici  of 
Florence  coined  both  the  gold  and  silver  piastre  ;  the  gold  p.  of  Cosmo 
II.,  1610,  engraved  by  Scipione  Mola,  is  considered  the  chef  d'&uvre 
of  the  Florentine  mint.  The  Turkish  p.  is  a  totally  different  piece, 
worth  about  3d. 

Piataltinik,  the  Russian  15-kopeck  piece. 

Piatar,  a  piece  of  5  Russian  kopecks  of  large  module,  struck  from 
1758  down  to  the  beginning  of  the  present  c. 

Piatatchek,  the  Russian  5 -kopeck  piece  in  silver. 
*Picchaleon,  Sardinian,  copper.     The  centesimo. 

Picciolo,  a  small  copper  coin  of  Malta,  first  struck  without,  and  then 
with,  the  name.  Apparently  =  i  grano.  There  is  a  piece  of  3  pice. 

Piece  of  Eight.     See  Real. 

Piedfort,  or  Piefort,  an  expression  frequently  employed  to  denote  pieces 
of  money  struck  on  an  unusually  thick  flan.  Patterns  have  more  often 
than  not  been  issued  on  the  Continent  in  this  shape,  and  the  piedforts  in 
the  French  series  are  particularly  numerous.  Some  evidently  passed 
current.  But  among  the  Germans  and  Low  Country  numismatists  the 
term  is  sometimes  applied  to  what  appears  to  be  more  properly  a  double 
piece  ;  not  one  of  small  thick  module,  but  of  twice  or  thrice  the  usual 

224  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Piedquailloux,  the  sobriquet  of  a  Hard  struck  under  Henry  IV.  of 
France,  having  H.  crowned  between  three  Us,  and  on  rev.  a  hollow 
cross.  . 

Pierregordin.     See  Pcregozi. 

Pignatelles,  the  term  applied  to  the  pieces  of  6  blanques  struck  by 
various  personages  in  France  during  the  political  anarchy  about  1 586, 
and  down  to  1 595  or  later.  They  were  nominally  =  24  deniers,  but  fell  to 
half  their  value. 

Pilarte,  a  billon  coin  of  Portugal,  first  struck  by  Fernando  I.,  1367-83, 
and  =  2  dinheiros. 

Pinto,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  of  the  i8th  c  =  4oo  reis.  There  is  one 
of  1721.  It  was  =  the  cruzado  nuevo  of  later  date. 

*Pistareen,  Spanish,  silver,  value  iod.;  the  fifth  of  the  dollar,  4  reales. 

Pistole=%  thaler,  a  very  early  gold  denomination  of  Spanish  origin, 
and  thence  introduced  into  the  coinage  of  the  Netherlands  under  the 
house  of  Nassau  ;  into  the  Duchy  of  Lorraine  (the  pistole,  the  double, 
and  the  half)  under  Charles  III.  (1545-1608)  ;  into  the  Scotish  currency 
during  the  colonisation  of  Darien  ;  and  into  Switzerland.  The  canton  of 
Geneva  had  the  pistole  and  the  triple  pistole.  There  is  also  a  pistole  of 
the  first  King  of  Wiirtemburg,  1810,  and  a  double  one  of  Carl,  Duke  of 
Brunswick,  1828,  with  Zehnthaler  on  rev.  The  lo-thaler  piece  of  Jerome 
Napoldon,  King  of  Westphalia,  1812,  is  sometimes  called  a  double 

Pite,  or  pougeoise,  an  early  currency  of  Savoy  under  the  Count 
Aimon  (1329-43).  The  unit  was  =  i  obole  ;  4  made  a  fcrt  or  fort  d lane 
and  12  a  gros  domain.  The  value  is  indicated  by  points. 

Plappart,  early  currency  of  some  of  the  Swiss  cantons  and  of  the  city 
of  Strasburgh.  There  is  the  half.  A  plappart  of  1424  for  St.  Gall  is  the 
oldest  dated  piece  in  the  Swiss  series.  Berne  relinquished  the  type  in 
1528.  Comp.  Blappert. 

Plaque,  plak,  or  plack,  the  ^  butken  or  ^  groot;  a  billon  coin  of  which 
the  value  probably  varied  in  different  places  at  different  periods.  There 
is  a  piece  of  12  plakken  struck  by  Philip  II.  in  1560  for  Overijssel. 

Plaque,  great  or  grande,  a  billon  or  silver  coin  current,  1 4th- 1 5th  c., 
in  Brabant,  the  Bishopric  of  Liege,  Lorraine,  and  France.  There  is  an 
extremely  rare  one  of  Marie  de  Blois,  Regent  of  Lorraine,  1346-48.  The 
g.  pi.  was  first  struck  in  France  under  Charles  VII.  (1422-61). 

Plaqitette,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Bishopric  of  Lie"ge,  i6th  c.  Sch.,  Cat. 
ix.  464.  The  diminutive  of  plague. 

Plotar,  a  Swedish  siege-piece  of  1715  and  1747  in  copper,  intended  to 
pass  for  a  silver  daler  or  \  daler. 

Poillevilain,  a  nickname  given  to  the  gros  tournois  a  la  queue,  struck 
under  Jean  le  Bon,  1350-64,  after  the  master  of  the  royal  mint. 

Poitcvin,  a  name  given  to  the  denier  current  in  the  ancient  county  of 
Poitou.  In  1265  Alphonse,  brother  of  Louis  IX.,  struck  as  Count  of  P. 
poitevins  nouveaux  with  a  demi-lis  for  France  and  the  arms  of  Castile, 
and  the  legend  Pictavie.  Et.  Thol.  (Poitou  and  Toulouse). 

Polk,  pi.  polker,  a  billon  currency  of  Brandenburg  and  of  the  Kings  of 
Sweden  for  East  Prussia  and  Poland.     See  Driepolker. 
*Polpoltin,  Russian,  silver,  the  quarter  rouble. 

Poltina,  or  poltinink,  a  Russian  silver  coin  =  £  rouble. 

Poltorak,  a  Polish  denomination  for  the  24th  of  the  talar.  It  may  be 
the  same  as  \hepolturat,  described  by  Whelan  as  Hungarian  copper. 

Poltur,  pi.  poltura,  money  of  necessity  of  Hungary  and  Transylvania, 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         225 

early  iSth  c.  (1704-6).  There  are  pieces  of  i,  10,  and  20  p.  Maria 
Theresa  also  struck  the  unit. 

Poluska,  pi.  poluski,  and  the  half  =|  and  j  kopeck,  small  copper  pieces 
struck  for  Siberia  under  Peter  the  Great  and  Catherine  II.  Perhaps  it 
was  originally  a  provincial  currency. 

Popolino,  a  name  borne  by  the  silver  florin  of  Florence,  struck  in  1307. 
They  resembled  the  gold  in  type. 

Pore-epic,  a  type  of  the  gold  ecu  coined  under  Louis  XII.  of  France 
(1497-1515),  and  reissued  by  a  few  of  his  successors.  Louis  introduced 
into  his  Franco-Italian  series  &gros  au p.  struck  at  Milan,  with  St.  Am- 
brose on  obv.,  and  a  porcupine  under  a  crown  on  rev. 

Portitgaloser,  a  gold  denomination  of  Denmark,  i6th  c.  =  10  crowns. 
A^  portugaloser  of  Christian  IV.,  1592,  brought  275  marks=^i3  :  155. 
at  the  Reinmann  sale  in  1891-92.  On  the  obv.  the  inner  circle  reads 
Nach  Portvgalischen.  Schrot.  V.  Korn. 

Portuguez,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin  =  10  cruzados  or  3900  reis,  and 
weighing  generally  about  712  gr.  It  was  first  introduced,  after  the 
important  discoveries  and  conquests  of  the  Portuguese  in  America  and 
Asia,  by  Emmanuel  (1495-1521)  with  a  unique  historical  legend:  Primus 
Emanuel  R.  PortugallifB  Alg.  Citra  Ultra  in  Africa  Dominus  Guinee  •  In 
Commercii  •  Navigatione  •  ^Ethiopia  •  Arabice  •  Persice  •  India\e\.  This 
reading  is  derived  from  Fernandes,  Memoria,  1856,  p.  113.  Mention  else- 
where (p.  123)  occurs  of  pieces  of  15  cruzados  struck  by  Emmanuel  at 
the  request  of  Pope  Leo  X.  But  these  are  not  known  to  exist.  The 
Portuguez  itself  of  the  original  type  has  the  appearance  of  a  coin  not 
intended  for  general  circulation,  and  that  of  John  III.  offers  a  modified 
legend.  Both,  but  especially  the  first,  are  extremely  rare. 

Portuguez,  a  silver  Portuguese  coin  of  the  early  part  of  the  i6th  c. 
(1504),  with  the  half,  respectively  =  400  and  200  reis.  Said  to  have  been 
struck  from  the  dies  of  the  p.  di  ouro.  Fernandes  (Memoria,  1856,  p. 
115)  cites  authorities  to  prove  the  production  and  existence  of  these 
coins ;  but  no  examples  seem  to  be  at  present  known.  Perhaps  they 
were  never  circulated. 

Pougeoise,  a  variety  of  the  \  obole  current  in  the  1 3th- 1 4th  c.  in 
Poitou,  Puy-de-D6me,  and  other  parts  of  France,  as  well  as  in  Savoy, 
where  it  was  also  called  %.pite.  Some  of  the  small  coins  of  the  Bishops  of 
Puy  bear  Poles.  Puei.  or  Poles  del  Pueij  and  an  obole,  or  the  \,  struck  at 
Acre,  perhaps  by  a  French  crusader,  has  the  reading  Pvges.  The  name 
was  doubtless  derived  from  Le  Puy. 

Pougeoise.     See  Pite. 

Pouly,  Russian  copper  money,  from  poul,  leather,  from  which  it  was 
doubtless  an  evolution. 

Prdmie  (prcemia,  prizes),  coins  struck  in  Germany  and  Switzerland  to 

distribute  at  schools,  usually  \  thalers. 


226  The  Coins  of  Eiirope 

Prcrvinois,  the  product  of  the  mint  at  Provins,  Champagne,  which 
attained  a  wide  celebrity  and  acceptance  down  to  the  I3th  c.,  although 
it  was  not  distinguished  either  by  originality  or  by  excellence.  Under 
Thibaut  IV.,  Count  of  C.,  1225,  what  were  called  the  nouveaux  proviruris 
were  issued,  with  the  pcigne  or  degenerate  head  surmounted  by  three 
towers,  a  recollection  of  the  Touraine  source  of  the  Champagnois 

Publica  —  "^  tornesi,  a  small  copper  coin  of  the  Two  Sicilies,  1 7th- 1 8th  c. 
The  name  refers  to  the  prevailing  idea  of  the  base  metal  being  issued  for 
the  general  convenience. 

*Pulslaty,  Hungarian,  silver,  the  half  florin. 

Pyramiden-thaler,  a  thaler  in  the  Saxon  series  struck  to  commemorate 
a  death  or  other  event  in  the  royal  family,  with  an  inscription  in  the  form 
of  a  pyramid  on  the  reverse. 

Quarantano,  or  piece  of  40  soldi,  a  silver  denomination  of  the 
dukedom  of  Parma  under  Ranuccio  II.,  1646-94.  The  rev.  has 
Monstra  Tc  Essc  Matron,  and  the  Virgin  and  Child  supported  by 
two  angels. 

Quartarolo,  and  the  double,  a  Venetian  bronze  or  copper  denomina- 
tion of  the  1 3th  and  following  c.  It  seems  to  have  been  first  introduced 
under  the  Doge  Pietro  Ziani  (1205-28),  and  the  double  under  Lorenzo 
Tiepolo  (1268-74).  The  quartarolo  was  also  struck  at  Verona  by  the  Duke 
of  Milan  during  his  temporary  occupation. 

Quartinho.     See  Mocda. 

Quartino,  a  silver  denomination  of  the  duchy  of  Parma  and  Piacenza, 
and  of  other  independent  Italian  States. 

Quartino  d'oro,  the  fourth  of  the  sat  do,  struck  under  Pope  Benedict 
XIV.,  1740-58,  Anno  I. 

Quarto,  a  silver  denomination  of  Reggio  under  the  Este  family.  The 
j  scudo. 

Quarto,  a  copper  denomination  of  Spain.  Compare  Ctiarto.  From 
1 80 1  the  British  Government  struck  copper  pieces  under  this  name  for 
Gibraltar,  and  during  part  of  the  period,  between  1808  and  1811,  the 
French  introduced  a  coinage  of  A,  I,  2,  and  4  q.,  with  and  without  date. 
Some  of  these  are  extremely  rare.  In  1754,  or  earlier,  the  Spaniards  had 
a  currency  of  quartos  for  Cataluna.  We  have  seen  the  I,  i$,  2,  3,  and  6 
q.  of  various  dates  down  to  1841. 

Quattrino,  a  billon,  and  afterward  a  copper  coin  of  Venice,  Rome, 
Florence,  Reggio,  the  Two  Sicilies,  etc.  The  quattrino  of  the  popes  was 
often  distinguished  as  quattrino  Romano.  There  is  a  piece  of  3  quattrini 
of  Cosmo  III.,  Grand-Duke  of  Florence,  1681.  The  Venetian  quattrino  (in 
copper)  was  not  introduced  till  the  reign  of  Fr.  Foscari  (1423-57).  In 
some  political  dissension  at  Florence  in  or  about  1417,  after  the  election 
of  Martin  V.  to  the  papal  chair,  a  popular  ballad  contrasted  his  Holiness 
not  very  favourably  with  his  opponent  Braccio  di  Mentone,  Lord  of 
Perugia.  In  this  fugitive  composition  there  is  a  curious  reference  to  the 
quattrino  : 

"  Braccio  il  valente, 
Che  vince  ogni  gente  : 
Papa  Martino 
Non  vale  un  quattrino." 

Quattrino  Pantcrino,  a  Lucchese  variety  of  this  piece  with  the  arms 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         227 

of  the  Republic  supported  by  a  panther.     There  is  no  legend.     Remedi 
Cat.,  1884,  No.  1626,  dated  1691.     The  same  Government  put  forth  other 
types  of  the  quattrino  in  copper  with  the  figure  of  St.  Paulinus. 
Quern.     See  Tern. 

Rabenpfennig.     See  Rappen. 

Raderalbus,  a  type  of  the  albus  or  blanque  current  in  the  dukedom 
of  Juliers,  I4th  c,  and  in  that  of  Berg,  i5th  c.  One  of  Adolf,  Duke  of 
Berg,  1408-23,  is  cited  by  Sch.  xiv.  456. 

Raderschilling,  a  schilling  of  the  same  type,  current  in  the  diocese  of 
Treves,  i6th  c. 

Raitgroschept)  a  copper  coin  of  Bohemia,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.     We  have  met 

with  them  of  1572,  1583,  and  1605. 

Rapp,  rappen,  a  small  billon  coin  of  Switzerland,  equal  to  a  ^  centime. 
10  r.  appear  to  have  been=i  batz.  The  word  is  traced  to  Raben,  or 
crow  ;  a  crow's  or  raven's  head  appearing  on  what  was  thence  termed  the 

* Rathsprcesentger,  German,  silver,  value  8d.     Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Rathzeichen,  a  silver  denomination  issued  under  the  authority  of  the 
city  of  Cologne,  1730.  There  are  two  or  three  varieties. 

Raymondine,  or  Raymondesquc,  an  appellation  for  the  local  money  of 
Albi  in  the  Toulousan,  from  the  presence  on  all  the  coins  of  the  name  of 
Raymond,  a  Count  of  T.  in  the  loth  c. 

Real,  originally  a  Spanish  silver  coin,  worth  about  \  franc,  or  5d.,  and 
apparently  issued  for  the  first  time,  with  the  double,  under  Ferdinand 
and  Isabella,  in  a  variety  of  types.  It  is  possible  that  the  coins  of  the 
same  name  in  silver  and  gold,  struck  in  the  Low  Countries  during 
Spanish  sway,  were  also  known  as  reales ;  but  terms  are  often  misapplied 
by  the  authorities.  A  piece  of  50  reales  in  silver  was  struck  at  Segovia 
at  various  dates  by  Philip  III.  and  IV.  and  Charles  II.,  and  one  of  100 
in  gold  by  Philip  IV.,  of  Spain.  In  the  Franco-Spanish  series  we  have  a 
piece  of  5  reaux,  1641.  A  small  silver  piece,  named  on  the  face  a  reaal, 
was  struck  for  the  Dutch  settlement  of  Cura^oa  in  1821.  Also  a  Portu- 
guese silver  and  copper  denomination,  1 3th- 1 6th  c.  The  former  was 
=  10  dinheiros  or  40  reis.  There  was  the  r.  dobrado  =  80  r.  or  4 

Reale,  a  type  struck  by  the  Counts  of  Provence,  of  the  house  of 
Anjou,  in  imitation  of  the  Sicilian  augustale  of  the  Emperor  Frederic  II., 
1 3th  c. 

Regalis  Aureus,  the  original  name  given  to  what  was  subsequently 
known  as  the  royal  d'or.     It  appears  to  have  been  first  struck  by  Louis 
IX.  at  Noyon. 
*Regensburger,  Ratisbon  money  of  account. 

228  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Regiments  thaler,  the  name  of  a  silver  coin  struck  at  Ulm,  during 
the  Thirty  Years'  War,  in  1622. 

Rei,  rets,  the  unit  of  the  Portuguese  monetary  system  and  the  money 
of  account.  The  value  has  varied  at  different  periods,  but  the  coin 
approximately  represents  the  French  centime  and  Spanish  centime.  The 
lowest  multiple  with  which  we  have  met  is  a  \\  piece  of  1695,  and  the 
highest  is  the  dobra  =  20,000  r.  4000  r.  =  i  moeda.  There  is  a  very 
scarce  piece  of  18  r.  struck  under  John  IV. 

Reichsthaler,  royal  thaler,  a  thaler  struck  either  by,  or  under,  the 
authority  of  the  German  emperors. 

Reine  (for,  a  name,  probably  a  popular  one,  bestowed  for  some  un- 
explained reason  on  the  petite  masse  d'or  of  Philippe  III.  of  France, 
1270-85.  It  has  been  conjectured,  on  the  other  hand,  that  it  was 
struck  by  Louis  IX.  in  honour  of  his  mother,  Queen  Blanche,  and 
that  it  is  the  denier  or  florin  d'or  a  la  reine  mentioned  in  ordinances 
down  to  the  time  of  Philip  le  Bel.  No  coin,  specifically  so  termed,  is 

Resellado,  the  word  on  a  5-peseta  or  lo-reales  piece  of  Ferdinand 
VII.,  1821,  indicating  a  recoinage. 

Rigsbankdaler,  Royal  Bank  daler,  a  Danish  silver  coin. 

Rijdcr,  a  name  probably  applied  in  the  Low  Countries  to  any  money 
bearing  a  horseman  as  part  of  the  type.  The  gouden-rijder  is  equiva- 
lent to  the  French  cavalier  and  the  Scotish  rider  of  James  VI.  Schul- 
man,  Cat.  xiv.  51,  describes  at  some  length  an  inedited  one  of  Willem 
V.,  Count  of  Holland  (1349-89),  struck  for  that  province.  There  is  the 
half.  At  a  later  period  the  denomination  underwent  two  successive 
changes :  a  transfer  to  a  smaller  and  thicker  flan  about  1580,  and,  again, 
to  a  broader  and  thinner  one  about  1615.  A  pattern  of  this  latter 
variety  in  piefort,  dated  1620,  weighs  19  gr.,  and  varies  from  the  ordinary 
coinage.  Comp.  Snaphaanschelling. 

Rijderdaalder,  silver  crown  with  horseman,  i6th  c.     S1  Heercnberg. 

Rijderguldcn,  properly,  we  apprehend,  a  silver  coin  of  that  denomina- 
tion, having  on  one  side  a  horseman. 

Robustus,  a  term  apparently  applied  to  the  silver  crown  of  thicker 
module  struck  in  the  Low  Countries  in  the  i6th  c.,  similar  to  the  thaler 
of  Sigismund  of  Austria,  1484. 

Robustus,  a  coin  with  its  half  and  quarter,  temporarily  current  in 
Flanders  in  the  i6th  c.  Sch.,  xii.  192-94.  Comp.  Antwerp  in  Cat.  of 

Roda.     Comp.  Bazaruco. 

Rolabasso,  a  silver  type  of  the  Marquises  of  Saluzzo,  early  i6th  c., 
with  the  titles  on  obv.  and  an  eagle  bearing  a  small  shield  in  claw,  and 
on  rev.  Christvs  Rex :  Venit  in  Pace :  Homo  :  Factvs. 

Rollbatzen,  or  Rollbatz,  currency  of  the  Bishops  of  Passau,  Bavaria, 
in  the  i6th  c. 

Roosschelling,  or  escalin  H  la  rose,  a  silver  coin  of  W.   Friesland, 
1 7th  c.,  with  the  legend  enclosed  in  leaves,  flowers,  and  fruit.     Comp. 
*Rosina,  Tuscan,  gold,  value  i8s.  3d.     Mezza  Rosina. 

Rothklippe,  Danish  siege-money  of  the  i6th  c. 

Rouble,  a  Russian  silver  coin,  originally  struck  under  Peter  the  Great, 
and  much  improved  in  1717.  There  is  a  rare  and  fine  pattern  for  a  new 
coinage  in  1707.  The  word  is  derived  from  v.  roobet,  to  cut,  and  pre- 
serves the  tradition  of  the  primitive  money  of  leather  cut  into  strips,  and 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         229 

stamped  with  values.  Catherine  I.  in  1726  struck  a  large  square  rouble 
in  copper,  and  Nicholas  I.  for  the  first  time  introduced  pieces  of  3,  6,  and 
12  roubles  in  platinum.  Under  Alexander  I.  roubles  and  \  roubles  were 
struck  by  Bolton  at  Birmingham  as  an  experiment  prior  to  the  introduc- 
tion of  a  similar  press  at  St.  Petersburgh. 
*Roup,  Polish,  silver,  value  5d. 

Royal,  or  Aureus  Regalis,  a  gold  coin  of  France,  first  struck  under 
Louis  IX.,  and  continued  by  some  of  his  successors  down  to  Charles  V., 
of  whom,  however,  no  specimen  is  at  present  known.  Philip  III.  struck 
a  petit  r.  and  Philip  IV.  a  double  r. 

Royalin,  and  pieces  of  2,  4,  and  8  r.  Money  struck  by  France  under 
Louis  XV.  for  Pondiche"ry. 

Rozenbeker,  a  silver  or  billon  variety  of  the  groot,  current  in  Brabant 
in  the  I4th  c.  There  were  convention  rozenbekers  and  the  \  between 
Joanna  of  Brabant  and  Philip  le  Hardi  (1384-89).  The  name  appears 
to  be  derived  from  Roosebeke,  a  village  near  Ypres.  But  the  same 
denomination  was  struck,  later  on,  at  Antwerp,  both  in  gold  and 

*Rubic,  Turkish,  gold,  value  is.  gd. ;  35  aspers.     Rubich. 
*Runstyck,  Swedish,  copper,  value  one-sixth  of  a  farthing. 

Ruspo  and  mezzo  ruspo,  a  gold  denomination  of  Gio.  Gastone  de' 
Medici,  Grand-Duke  of  Florence  (1723-37),  and  his  successors  of  the 
house  of  Lorraine.  The  type  gives  on  obv.  the  titles  and  lily,  and  on 
rev.  the  seated  figure  of  St.  John  to  1. 

Ruspone,  apparently  the  same  as  the  ruspo. 
*Ryks-Ort,  Danish,  silver. 

S.R'J.A.     Sancti  Romani  Imperil  Archidapifer. 

S.R.I.P.     Sancti  Romani  Imperil  Princeps. 

Saiga,  the  name  of  certain  silver  pieces  in  the  so-called  Merovingian 

Saint  Andriesgulden,  a  gold  coin  of  the  Counts  of  Holland,  I5th  c. 
It  occurs  with  the  name  of  Philip  le  Bel  of  France  and  the  legend  Co. 
Ho.  A  type  of  the  Hanoverian  thaler  bears  on  one  side  the  saint  sup- 
porting his  cross.  There  are  the  divisions.  Some  have  the  titles  of 
George  III.  of  Great  Britain  as  King  of  Hanover. 

Saint  Maartensgulden,  a  gold  piece  struck  by  the  Bishops  of 
Utrecht,  I5th  c. 

S.  Thome,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin,  struck  in  the  Portuguese  Indies  as 
early  as  1548,  and  in  vogue  down  to  the  present  c.  It  was  =  1500  reis. 
There  was  the  half,  and  at  a  later  period  the  double.  Under  Alfonso 
VI.  (1656-83)  it  is  said  to  be  =  4  rupias  of  Goa. 

S.  Thome"  novo,  a  reissue  of  the  old  piece  in  or  about  1710  (an  order 
for  its  fabrication  is  made  in  1713).  It  occurs  in  the  tables  published 
by  Fernandes,  pp.  346-49,  and  is  described  as  extremely  rare,  and  - 1 5 
pardoes  or  xerafins  of  Goa. 

S.  Vicente,  a  gold  Portuguese  coin=  1000  reis,  struck  at  Lisbon  (?)  in 
1555  at  the  time  the  Inquisition  was  introduced,  with  the  significant 
legend  Zelator  Fidei  Usque  Ad  Mortem.  There  is  the  half. 

Salute,  a  silver  coin  of  Sicily  under  the  house  of  Anjou,  which 
adopted  this  emblem  in  place  of  the  eagle,  and  a  gold  one  in  the  French 
and  Anglo-Gallic  series.  The  obv.  represents  the  Salutation  of  the 
Virgin.  The  gold  salute  of  Henry  V.  is  of  great  rarity,  that  of  Henry 
VI.  very  common. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Salvatorthaler,  a  Swedish  silver  coin  of  the  i6th  and  i;th  c.,  having 
the  effigy  of  the  Saviour  on  one  side.  A  similar  denomination  existed  at 
Jever  in  Oldenburgh.  There  is  the  half. 

Sampictrino,  the  name  of  the  i\  baiocchi  piece  of  Pius  VI.  (1796). 
There  are  varieties. 

Sanar,  a  kind  of  sol,  doubtless  in  billon,  specified  in  the  ordin- 
ance of  Charles  V.  of  Spain,  1528,  limiting  the  municipal  coinage  of 

Sanctus  Vultus,  the  expression  found  on  the  mediaeval  and  later  cur- 
rency of  Lucca,  and  apparently  intended  to  apply  to  the  effigy  which 
occupies  the  obverse — originally  an  idealised  one  of  an  emperor,  but  at  a 
subsequent  period  a  mere  fanciful  portrait,  usually  crowned  and  bearded, 
and  from  the  latter  circumstance  conferring  on  some  of  the  pieces  of  the 


J3th  c. 

i 8th  c. 

Lucchese  money  the  epithet  barbone.  The  Sanctus  Vultus  seems  to 
have  been  an  attempt  similar  to  the  Dei  Gratia  movement,  to  convey  to 
the  ignorant  and  credulous  majority  an  impression  of  some  relationship 
between  their  ruler  and  the  Deity. 

Santa  Crocc,  a  silver  coin  of  Lucca,  iyth  c.  =  25  soldi.  The  rev.  has 
the  Volto  Santo  and  a  cross. 

Santo  Martino,  a  silver  coin  of  Lucca  =  15  soldi,  I7th  c.,  with 
Rcspvblica  Lucensis,  etc.,  and  on  rev.  the  name  and  legend  of  St  Martin. 

Sassnaer,  the  name  of  a  type  of  groot  and  \  groot  struck  in  1489  for 
Philip  le  Bel,  Duke  of  Burgundy,  as  Count  of  Holland.  Sch.,  xv.  418-23, 
and  xx.  237. 

*Schaaf,  Hanoverian.     Money  of  account  at  Emden. 

Schanthaler,  a  coin  of  a  commemorative  or  jubilee  character  struck 
at  an  accession,  marriage,  etc. 

Scheepsschelling  (Escalin  ait  navirc],  a  silver  piece  current  in  the 
Dutch  province  of  Utrecht,  and  so  called  from  the  type  of  the  ship, 
usually  in  full  sail,  on  obv.,  1 7th- 1 8th  c. 

Schelling,  Fr.  Escalin,  q.v. 

Schcrfc,  another  name  for  the  halbling  or  \  pfenning.    Comp.  Haller. 

Schild.     See  Ecu. 

Schilling,  a  silver  coin  struck  in  the  dukedom  of  Prussia  and  by  the 
Kings  of  Sweden  and  Poland  for  East  Prussia.  It  was  the  currency  of 
the  Teutonic  Order  from  the  I4th  to  the  I5th  c.  Also  a  denomination  in 
the  Swiss  cantons  of  Glarus,  Zug,  and  Zurich.  There  is  a  place  called 
Schillingsfiirst  in  Bavaria,  and  there  was  a  mint  there,  but  apparently 
not  an  early  one. 

Schindcrling,  a  name  assigned  to  a  coin  struck  at  Gratz  and  else- 
where pursuant  to  an  order  of  the  Emperor  Frederic  III.  in  1461. 
*Schlante,  Swedish,  copper,  value  id.     Slantar,  or  Loo  Penningar. 

Schmalkaldischer  Bundesthaler,  silver  convention-money  of  the  circle 
of  Schmalkalden,  Hesse-Cassel,  i6th  c. 

.  Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         231 

Schulpfenning,  the  money  of  various  values  (from  a  few  batzen  to  4 
ducats)  presented  to  the  pupils  at  Swiss  schools  in  former  times  at  the 
annual  examinations  or  breakings-up.  The  practice  appears  to  have 
commenced  about  1 560,  and  in  some  of  the  cantons  survived  till  the  end 
of  the  last  c.  The  majority  of  the  pieces  are  undated,  in  order  that  the 
same  die  might  serve  from  year  to  year.  In  Geneva  medals  were  sub- 
stituted for  money  in  1616.  Comp.  Pr.  The  German  Catcchismus  type 
was  probably  designed  for  a  similar  purpose. 

Schiisselpfenning,  a  silver  coin  current  in  Korbach  and  Waldeck. 

S  chiisselpfenning  Heller,  a  billon  coin  of  the  See  of  Treves,  i6th  c. 

Schussthaler,  a  type  of  the  thaler  struck  by  David  von  Scrapplau, 
Count  of  Mansfeld,  1610.  Sch.,  Cat.  iii.  No.  312. 

Schutzenthaler,  the  term  given  to  the  money  awarded  to  successful 
marksmen  in  Germany  and  Switzerland.  The  earliest  of  the  modern 
Swiss  series  is  that  of  Berne,  1830.  In  Germany,  as  well  as  in  Switzer- 
land itself,  however,  there  were  earlier  productions  of  this  character 
awarded  under  different  circumstances.  A  square  thaler  of  John  George 
II.  of  Saxony,  K.G.,  1678,  was  struck  at  the  inauguration  of  the  new 
shooting-houses  ;  it  has  on  obv.  the  gartered  shield,  and  on  rev.  Hercules 
standing  with  club  and  lion's  skin.  There  is  an  Austrian  thaler  of  the 
same  kind,  issued  for  the  competition  in  1868. 

Schware,  pi.  schwaren,  copper  currency  of  Bremen,  iSth-igth  c. 
There  are  pieces  of  2^,  i,  and  ^.  Five  s.  were  =  a  grote. 

Schwart groschcn,  or  black groschen,  a  term  applied  to  a  Saxon  denomi- 
nation of  1482. 

Scudo,  properly  the  Italian  counterpart  of  the  French  ecu,  and  at  the 
outset  a.  coin  in  gold  or  silver  with  a  shield  of  arms  on  the  reverse.  The 
Venetians,  besides  their  gold  ducat,  had  a  scudo  d'oro  under  the  Doge 
Andrea  Gritti  (1523-39),  with  the  lion  enclosed  in  a  shield  ;  there  are  the 
half  and  the  double  ;  but  the  type  was  not  continued.  The  double  or 
doppia  seems  only  to  have  been  coined  under  Nicolo  Donato  (1618)  and 

4  Scudi  di  oro  of  Ferdinando  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua,  1612-26. 

Giovanni  Cornaro  (1625-30).  The  latter  reign  produced  a  third 
experiment  in  the  shape  of  a  pattern  for  a  gold  piece  on  a  thicker  flan 
than  the  ducat  and  scudo,  but  corresponding  to  the  former  in  module. 
It  reads  on  rev.  Noster.  Defens.  Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  No.  5295,  99  lire. 
Some  very  remarkable  and  covetable  specimens  of  the  gold  scudo,  its 
divisions  and  multiples,  are  found  in  the  papal,  Tuscan,  Mantuan,  and 
other  series.  Pieces  of  2,  3,  4,  5,  8,  10,  and  12  scudi  were  struck  by  the 
Popes  and  the  earlier  Dukes  of  Mantua.  A  4-scudi  piece  in  gold  of 
Vincenzo  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua  (1587-1612),  is  dated  1600.  There 
is  a  very  interesting  \  scudo  of  Florence  of  Nicolo  Guicciardini,  gonfalo- 

232  The  Coins  of  Europe 

niere,  entering  into  the  class  of  siege-money,  and  referable  to  1 530,  when 
the  city  was  expecting  an  attack  by  Alexander  de'  Medicis.  It  has  on 
obv.  lesvs.  Rex.  Noster.  Et.  Devs.  Noster.  with  a  cross  and  a  crown  of 
thorns  :  in  the  field,  N.  and  a  shield.  On  the  rev.  is  Senatvs.  Popvlvs. 
Q.  Florentines.,  with  a  shield  and  the  lily.  A  specimen  sold  at  the 
Rossi  sale  in  1880  for  255  lire.  The  scudo  d1  oro  del  sole  was  a  variety  of 
the  Genoese  gold  crown  of  the  Conrad  type,  with  the  castle  surmounted 
by  a  sun.  The  same  denomination  existed  at  Lucca.  There  is  one 
dated  1552  with  the  name  of  Charles  IV.  and  the  Sanctus  Viiltus,  but 
with  Libertas,  as  usual,  on  the  shield.  In  silver  the  Italian  States  coined 
numerous  varieties  of  the  scudo,  including  the  scudo  della  galera.  A 
silver  type  at  Venice,  known  as  the  scudo  della  croce,  was  introduced 
under  Nicolo  da  Ponte  (1578-85)  =  140  soldi.  There  are  the  half  and 
quarter.  Cat.  Remedi,  1884,  No.  1716,  describes  a  silver  scudo  of 
Ferdinando  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua,  1612-26,  said  to  be  inedited,  with 
Ferdinandos  D.  G.  Dvx.  Man/.  VI.  and  a  bare-headed  bust  in  armour  to 
r.,  and  on  rev.  Et.  Montis.  Ferrati.  IV.,  a  shield  of  arms,  and  below, 
soldi  no.  The  Dukes  of  Modena  (1737-96)  struck  a  triple  scudo 
di  argento.  There  is  one  of  1 739  with  Veteris  Monumentum  Dccoris,  and 
a  second  of  1780  with  Proximo.  Soli  on  rev.,  the  latter  an  inopportune 
motto  so  near  to  the  close. 

Sechser,  a  copper  denomination  belonging  to  Ravensperg  or  Ravens- 
burgh,  Prussian  Westphalia,  early  I7th  c. 

Sechsling,  a  copper  coin  of  Schleswig-Holstein  under  Danish  rule. 
Equal  to  two  drielings  and  \  schilling. 
*Sechstels,  Saxony,  silver,  value  5d.  ;  4  good  groschen. 

Sede  Vacantc,  a  term  found  on  a  numerous  assortment  of  papal  and 
episcopal  coins,  while  the  See  was  under  the  control  of  the  senior 
cardinal  or  the  chapter.  The  later  pontifical  sede  vacantc  pieces  have 
the  arms  of  the  cardinal  delegate.  There  was  an  actual  vacancy  at  the 
period  when  Lladislas,  King  of  Naples,  took  possession  of  Rome,  and 
coined  a  grosso  there  (1413-14)  ;  but  the  term  is  not  found  on  the 
money  till  1549,  in  the  brief  interregnum  between  Paul  III.  and  Julius 
*Segross,  Polish,  billon,  value  4d. 

Seisino,  Franco -Spanish  copper  money  struck  at  Barcelona  and 
Gerona  during  the  French  occupation  of  Barcelona,  1642-48. 

Semis,  the  half  of  the  solidus,  which  circulated  so  widely  in  mediaeval 
Europe  in  servile  imitation  of  the  imperial  gold  piece  so  called.  The 
moiety  was  the  least  usual. 

Semprevivo,  a  silver  Milanese  coin,  so  called  from  the  plant  semprc- 
•viva  (house-leek),  only  struck  under  Francesco  II.  Sforza  (1522-35). 
There  were  two  values,  the  s.  of  5  and  of  10  soldi.  The  same  prince 
placed  the  sempreviva  on  his  trillina.  Perhaps  it  was  a  favourite  emblem 
with  him  or  his  moneyer. 

Sesino,  a  billon,  base  silver,  or  copper  coin  of  Venice,  Milan,  Man- 
tua, Ancona,  etc.,  under  the  old  regime.  It  continued  in  use  at  Mantua 
down  to  the  i8th  c.  Schulman,  xv.  1791,  mentions  four  varieties  struck 
by  Filippo  Maria  Visconti,  Duke  of  Milan,  1412-47.  The  Genoese 
Republic  coined  a  silver  piece  of  8  sesini  in  1653. 

Sesthalf,  Dutch,  silver,  value  5d. 

Sestino,  a  bronze  or  copper  coin  struck  in  the  name  of  Louis  XII.  of 
France  as  King  of  Naples  (1501-3),  with  Lvdo.  Fran.  Regniq.  Neap. 
R.  on  obv.,  and  on  rev.  Popvli  Commoditas. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         233 

*Shakee,  Turkish,  silver,  value  3^d. 

*  Shustack,  German  money  of  account  in  Prussia,  Poland,  etc. 

Siege-money,  or  Money  of  Necessity,  pieces  struck  in  all  metals  (gold, 
silver,  copper,  lead,  tin),  and  even  in  leather  and  paper  or  vellum,  from 
the  Middle  Ages.  One  of  the  doges  of  Venice  in  the  I2th  c.  is  said  to 
have  issued  leather  tokens  during  an  expedition  in  the  Levant  for  the  pay- 
ment of  his  fleet.  This  class  of  currency  was  of  all  forms,  often  square, 
and  usually  for  artificial  or  abnormal  values.  Gold  was  seldom  em- 
ployed, and  some  of  the  siege-money  in  that  metal  is  spurious.  The 
earliest,  perhaps,  was  the  gold  ducat  or  florin  struck  at  Vienna  in  1529 
during  the  Turkish  blockade,  with  a  rough  portrait  of  Ferdinand  I.  In 

the  course  of  the  present  Catalogue,  and  of  that  of  Mints,  a  large 
number  of  the  known  examples  is  given  ;  but  the  monograph  of  Maillet 
is  naturally  more  complete.  It  should  be  observed  that  money  of  necessity 
is  of  two.  descriptions  :  that  issued  by  the  besieger  and  by  the  besieged  ; 
the  latter  only  belongs  to  the  locality  itself.  Comp.  Feldthaler.  In 
February  1573-74,  during  the  struggle  against  Spain,  William  of  Nassau, 
as  Stadtholder,  directed. the  magistrates  of  Holland,  Zeeland,  and  West 
Friesland,  to  countermark  all  pieces  in  circulation  above  7  grooten  or 
a  i  real  with  an  artificial  and  higher  value,  the  difference  being  treated 
as  a  loan  to  the  States  for  one  year.  Both  prior  to  this  date  and  long 
subsequently,  the  practice  of  counter-marking  the  money  of  all  countries 
to  pass  current  in  the  Netherlands  seems  to  have  extensively  prevailed. 
The  perturbed  and  precarious  condition  of  the  States  checked  the  output 
of  ordinary  currency. 

Silica,  or  Siliqua,  and  the  half,  a  denomination  in  base  silver  of  the 
Gothic  and  Lombard  Kings  of  Italy  (5th-8th  c.).  Those  of  the  former 
dynasty  bear  the  names  of  Roman  emperors  on  the  obv.,  and  on  rev.  the 
monogram  of  the  Gothic  sovereign,  the  object  being  to  introduce  a 

Uniface  Lombard  silica  or  half  silica,  7th  c. 

change  of  rulers  only  by  degrees.     Whelan  says  :  "  Siliqua.     The  carob 
bean.     The  carat  weight." 

Sixain,  the  moiety  of  the  douzain,  q.v.  Francis  I.  (1515-47)  struck 
the  sixain  a  la  salamandre  couronnee,  and  we  find  the  denomination 
mentioned  in  the  ordinance  of  Charles  V.  of  Spain,  1528,  relative  to  the 

234  The  Coins  of  Europe 

coinage  of  Perpignan.  Louis  XIII.  of  France  issued  from  the  Barcelona 
mint  a  s.  with  his  portrait  in  1642  during  the  French  occupation  of  part 
of  Spain. 

Skefpenning,  or  Skef,  the  half  of  the  Norwegian  penning. 

Shilling,  a  Danish  copper  denomination,  with  its  multiples  in  silver. 
It  seems  to  have  fluctuated  in  weight  and  size  from  time  to  time.  Comp. 
Banco,  Courant,  and  Species. 

*Slet  Dollar,  Danish.     Slecht,  a  4-mark  piece. 

Snaphaan,  a  piece  of  3  stuivers.  Low  Countries.  There  was  the  \ 
and  the  j. 

Snaphaanschclling,  escalin  with  horseman  (escalin  au  cavalier),  struck 
by  Philip  II.  of  Spain  for  the  Netherlands. 

Sol,  or  Solidus,  a  gold  coin  imitated  during  the  Middle  Ages  from 
Byzantine  models,  and  current  in  France  and  Italy.  It  was  less  diffused 
than  the  tremissis  or  triens.  Both  were  struck  for  the  Lombard  Kings 
of  Italy  and  the  solidus  by  some  of  the  emperors. 

Sol,  originally  a  billon,  but  subsequently  a  copper  coin  in  the  French, 
Swiss,  and  other  series  under  variant  forms  of  the  word.  It  cor- 
responds to  the  German  solidus,  Italian  soldo,  and  Spanish  sueldo. 
There  is  a  copper  series  of  i,  6,  and  12  sols,  struck  for  the  pay 
of  the  soldiers  at  Geneva  in  1590.  The  Swiss  sol  continued  in  use 
both  in  copper  and  billon  down  to  the  establishment  of  an  uniform 
currency.  Copper  pieces  of  i  and  2  sols  were  issued  under  the  first 
French  Republic,  1'an  2,  in  more  than  one  variety,  and  of  2  sols  6 
deniers  in  1791.  The  sol  was  then  evidently  =12  deniers.  There  are 
pieces  of  3  and  6  sols  in  billon  struck  by  Leopold  II.  for  Luxemburgh, 
1790,  and  of  i  sol  in  copper.  During  the  siege  of  Mayence  by  the  repub- 
lican forces  in  1793,  a  coinage  took  place  of  I,  2,  and  5  sols,  apparently  of 
French  origin,  and  perhaps  for  the  pay  of  the  troops.  During  the  Penin- 
sular War  Ferdinand  VII.  issued  a  silver  piece  of  30  sous  with  the  corners 
clipped,  and  one  of  the  same  value  for  the  Balearic  Isles  in  1821  and 
1823  of  circular  form.  At  Lille  (1708)  the  French  defenders  struck  pieces 
of  5,  10,  and  20  sols. 

Soldino,  a  small  silver  coin  introduced  at  Venice  in  the  I4th  c.,  and 
subsequently  current  in  other  parts  of  Northern  Italy.  Louis  XII.  of 
France  struck  it  at  Asti. 

Soldino  nuovo,  a  modified  type  of  the  older  coin,  introduced  under 
Andrea  Centarini  (1367-82). 

Soldino  vessillifero,  or  Vesillifero,  a  type  of  the  soldino,  representing 
the  Doge,  as  standard-bearer  of  Venice,  receiving  the  banner  of  St.  Mark 
from  the  patron-saint.  It  first  occurs,  we  believe,  under  Andrea  Dandolo 
(1328-54).  On  one  side  (obv.)  we  read  :  Andr.  Dandvlo.  Dvx.,  and  on 
rev.  Vexillifer.  Venecia.  The  piece,  which  remained  in  circulation  till  the 
time  of  Francesco  Foscari  (1423-57),  was  suggested  by  the  Florentine 
dignity  of  Gonfaloniere. 

Soldo,  a  copper  coin  struck  for  some  of  the  Italian  republics,  for 
Austrian  Lombardy,  for  the  Napoleonic  kingdom  of  Etruria,  1803,  for  the 
kingdom  of  Italy  under  Napoleon,  1806-13,  ar>d  for  the  duchy  of  Lucca  and 
Piombino.  The  soldo  appears  to  be  specified  in  the  coronation-oath  of 
the  Venetian  Doge,  Giacomo  Tiepolo,  1229,  but  has  not  been  precisely 
identified.  The  Dukes  of  Milan  made  their  grossi  at  different  times  =  8 
and  5  s. 

Soldo  novo  da  S.  Paolino,  a  billon  coin  of  Lucca,  i8th  c.,  with  an 
effigy  of  St.  Paulinus  on  rev. 

Catalogite  of  European  Denominations         235 

Soldone,  a  billon  coin  of  Venice  =12  soldi.  In  the  later  issues  the 
value  is  marked  in  the  exergue. 

Soldone,  a  copper  coin  of  Mantua,  i8th  c.  One  of  Charles  VI., 
Emperor  of  Germany,  has  on  rev.  Soldone  di  Mantova.  \  732. 

Solidus,  originally  a  billon  or  base  silver,  and  eventually  a  copper 
coin  of  the  Teutonic  Order,  of  the  Margraves  of  Brandenburgh  as  Dukes 
of  Prussia,  of  the  Kings  of  Poland,  and  of  the  early  Prussian  monarchs. 
One  of  1529,  described  as  silver,  is  cited  by  Schulman,  ix.  539,  and  we 
have  before  us  an  exceedingly  rare  copper  example  dated  1 568,  and 
struck  for  Lithuania  or  Livonia.  At  Metz  the  copper  solidus  was  current 
in  1655,  as  well  as  the  ^  and  j,  and  at  Dantzic,  Thorn,  Elbing,  etc.,  it  sur- 
vived down  to  the  last  quarter  of  the  i8th  c.  There  is  a  J  solidus  of  1655. 

Sophiendukaat,  a  gold  denomination  of  Johann  George,  Duke  of 
Saxony,  1616. 

Sortett-gulden,  a  silver  coin  of  the  Archbishops  of  Mayence.  They 
were  also  current  in  the  iyth  c. 

Sorting,  copper  currency  of  Denmark  under  Frederic  III.  (1648-70). 

So-vrano,  a  denomination  struck  by  Francis  I.  of  Austria  in  1831  for 
the  dukedom  of  Milan  and  Austrian  Lombardy.  Comp.  Sovren. 

Sovren,  and  the  double,  a  gold  denomination  introduced  into  the 
Austrian  Netherlands  by  the  Emperor  Francis.  Comp.  Sovrano. 

Spadin,  a  denomination  introduced  into  the  episcopal  coinage  of 
Metz  by  Renaud,  brother  of  the  Count  of  Bar,  bishop  from  1302  to  1318, 
who  sought  to  adapt  his  money  in  type  and  weight  to  that  of  Bar. 

Spadin,  a  silver  coin  of  the  city  of  Toul,  I4th  c.,  imitated  from  the 
types  of  Ferri  IV.,  Duke  of  Lorraine. 

Species,  a  standard  of  currency  in  certain  parts  of  Germany  and  in 
the  north  of  Europe,  apparently  answering  to  the  modern  dollar  of  com- 
merce. There  is  a  i  species  thaler  of  Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel,  1783. 
In  Denmark  and  Sweden  the  form  was  at  first  Rigsdaler  -  species, 
which  was  abbreviated,  when  it  was  sufficiently  well  understood.  The 
weight  of  this  type  was  formerly  by  no  means  uniform  or  trustworthy  in 
those  countries  ;  but  the  later  Kings  of  Denmark  have  restored  the  char- 
acter of  this  currency.  Comp.  Banco. 

Spilegroschen,  a  Saxon  denomination  for  a  small  silver  piece  =  a 
denier  in  size  and  weight,  under  Ernst,  Albrecht,  and  Wilhelm,  Dukes  of 
Saxony,  1464-86.  Query,  a  sort  of  card-counter. 

Sprenger,  a  piece  of  two  schellinks  or  \  crown  in  N.  Holland. 

Ssoiuzayia,  the  name  given  to  early  Russian  convention -money, 
bearing  the  titles  of  two  princes. 

Stadtfenning,  a  pfenning  struck  for  a  township. 

Statendaalder,s\\ver  crown  struck  for  general  currency  in  the  Nether- 
lands during  the  struggle  for  independence,  i6th  c.  There  is  the 

Statenschelling,  a  coin  of  the  same  class  for  the  lower  value.  Sch., 
Cat.  iv.  No.  298  ;  Cat.  v.  No.  181  (a  proof  weighing  9.3  gram.). 

Stellino,  a  silver  coin  of  Florence,  only  struck  under  the  reigns  of 
Cosmo  I.,  De'  Medici  (1537-74),  to  repay  the  loan  from  the  Genoese. 
On  obv.  occurs  Cosmvs  M[edJ]  R[ei]  P\iublic(Z\  Floren.  Dvx  II.,  and  a 
portrait  to  r.  The  rev.  has  i".  Joannes  Batista,  and  the  saint  seated. 
The  name  is  due  to  a  star  on  the  obv.  as  a  mint-mark. 

Stephanusdaalder,  a  daalder  or  thaler  of  Nimmhegen,  etc.,  with  the 
head  or  figure  of  St.  Stephen. 

Sterbdenkmunze,  a  species  of  German  commemorative-money  struck 

236  The  Coins  of  Europe 

at   the   death   of  a   sovereign   or  other  ruler.     It  passed   as   ordinary 

Sterling,  or  Esterling,  a  term  given  to  the  silver  unit  in  the  early 
coinage  of  many  European  States,  and  possibly  derived  from  the  original 
genesis  of  the  piece  in  the  east  of  Europe.  The  usually  high  standard  of 
the  sterling  may  have  led  to  its  gradual  identification  with  the  only  sense 
in  which  it  survives. 

Stick,  a  small  copper  piece  of  Cologne,  i8th  c.  (stich  Kohlnisch),  which 
seems  to  have  passed  current  at  the  Swedish  mines  of  Avestad. 

Stooter,  the  twentieth  of  the  silver  crown,  with  the  reputed  head  of 
the  Earl  of  Leicester.  Plated ;  1 586-87.  The  same  type  occurs  with  the 
titles  of  Rodolph  II.,  1577. 

Stothemke,  bronze  currency  of  Bulgaria.  We  have  a  piece  of  2 
stothemke,  1882. 

Strichli-dicken  or  diken,  a  silver  denomination  of  the  Swiss  canton  of 
St.  Gallen,  1619  =  6  batzen  or  24  kreutzer.  There  is  the  half.  These 
pieces  seem  to  have  remained  current  in  more  than  one  variety  down  to 
1635.  In  the  Townshend  Collection  there  is  a  pattern  of  the  diken, 

Stubcr,  another  form  of  Stuiver,  q.v. 

Stuiver,  Stufe,  Stufer,  Stiiber,  a  billon  or  copper  coin  of  Germany  and 
the  Low  Countries,  corresponding  to  the  French  sol  or  son,  the  Italian 
soldo,  etc.  There  are  innumerable  types,  as  well  as  varieties  of  size  and 
weight.  The  stitisch  stumer  and  its  moiety  were  struck  in  the  i6th  c. 
in  pursuance  of  the  monetary  convention  between  the  imperial  towns  of 
Campen,  Daventer,  and  Zwolle.  There  are  the  \  and  j,  and  for  the 
Netherlands  the  double.  Pieces  of  I  and  2  stuivers  frequently  occur 
struck  in  gold  for  the  United  Provinces  during  the  i8th  c.  Comp.  Oirt 
and  Oortje.  Of  the  ordinary  Dutch  stuiver  20  \vere=  i  gulden  or  is.  8d. 

Stuiver,  a  silver  denomination  used  in  the  multiple  form  during  the 
siege  of  Amsterdam  by  the  States  in  1578,  and  existing  in  a  series  of  40, 
20,  10,  and  5  stuivers.  There  are  two  or  three  varieties,  and  the  issue 
appears  to  have  been  made  in  two  separate  instalments  from  the  silver 
plate  of  the  Old  and  New  Church.  We  have  also  the  i  and  \  stuiver 
in  copper,  and  the  48  stuiver  in  silver  struck  for  Batavia,  1644-45.  Prob- 
ably there  was  also  a  piece  of  24  stuivers  in  silver  ;  but  we  have  not  yet 
met  with  it.  A  double  stuiver  was  struck  by  the  Bishop  of  Utrecht,  1 5th 
c.  A  proof  struck  in  copper  by  the  Bishop,  Uavid  of  Burgundy,  1455- 
96,  is  cited  in  Schulman,  1880,  No.  426. 

Stykke,  pi.  stykker,  same  as  Dutch  stuk,  A.S.  styca,  a  Norwegian  silver 
coin,  the  fourth  of  a  rigsdaler  courant. 
*Suado,  Austrian,  silver,  value  45.  8d. 

Suanzig,  a  silver  type  of  Francis  of  Lorraine,  Emperor  of  Germany, 
1 745-65,  with  the  bust  within  a  laurel  wreath.  Probably  struck  at 
Vienna.  In  Remedi  Cat,  1884,  No.  1387,  the  piece  seems  to  be  im- 
properly assigned  to  the  Tuscan  series. 

Sueldo,  the  Spanish  form  of  Soldo,  struck  under  Ferdinand  VII. 
Whelan  says:  "12  Dineros  =  i  Sueldo;  12  Sueldos  =  i  Libra,  value 

Suskin  and  Dodkin,  the  names  given  by  the  authorities  of  London 
and  by  Stow  (Survey  of  London,  1633,  p.  137)  to  the  danari  or  obole, 
brought  by  the  Genoese  and  other  Italian  traders  to  Galley  Quay,  and 
prohibited  by  Parliament,  13  Henry  IV.  and  4  Henry  V.  according  to 

Catalogiie  of  European  Denominations         237 

Stow.  But  it  was  a  much  older  grievance,  and  arose  from  the  inferior 
standard  of  the  foreign  currency.  The  historian  of  London  recollected 
these  pieces  in  use  ;  but  they  were,  he  says,  reluctantly  taken.  The 
words  are  of  course  English  corruptions.  They  were  also  known  as 
Galley  halfpence,  from  Galley  Quay  in  Thames  Street,  where  the  Italians 
landed  their  goods. 

Syfert,  Hanoverian,  copper,  current  at  Emden. 

Szelong,  the  Polish  and  Lithuanian  solidus,  first  of  silver  or  billon, 
subsequently  of  copper.  The  original  szelong  was  =  1 2  denarii,  and  its 
multiples  were  the  dvoiak  (double),  troiak  (triple),  czvorak  (quadruple), 
and  szostak  (sextuple).  Comp.  Solidns. 

*Taija,  Spanish,  copper,  value  the  4th  of  a  real. 

Talaro,  talari,  the  designation  given  to  the  thaler  of  Maria  Theresa  of 
Austria,  1780,  which  is,  or  was,  periodically  re-struck  for  the  commerce  of 
the  Levant,  Abyssinia,  Ashantee,  etc. 

Tallard,  the  name  given  to  the  silver  ecu  of  Lorraine,  i6th  c.  Cat. 
Robert,  1886,  No.  1454. 

Tallero,  the  Italian  thaler.  It  first  appeared  at  Florence  in  1570 
under  Cosmo  I.  De'  Medici.  The  Dukes  of  Tuscany  of  the  house  of  Lor- 
raine continued  to  coin  it  till  the  present  c.  Some  of  the  earlier  pieces 
and  their  divisions  have  interesting  portraits  and  reverses.  The  Venetian 
piece  of  10  lire,  1797,  is  occasionally  cited  as  a  tallero  ;  but  it  is  worth  at 
least  8s.  English  money,  and  is,  if  anything,  a  double  t.  The  Rossi 
Catalogue  ascribes  this  appellation  to  some  of  the  later  silver  pieces  of 
large  module,  struck  about  the  year  17  50  and  afterward,  with  Repvblica 
Veneta  and  a  personified  bust  of  the  republic  on  rev.,  and  on  the  obv.  the 
name  of  the  doge.  But  these  appear  to  belong  to  the  Osella  series,  and 
it  may  be  questioned  whether,  the  portrait  varying,  it  was  not  intended  for 
a  likeness  of  the  dogaressa. 

Tanga  and  meia  tanga,  Portuguese  silver  colonial  currency  for  Goa, 
worth  60  and  30  reis  respectively  of  local  standard.  The  t.  has  on  obv. 
bust  and  titles,  and  on  reverse  value  crowned.  Early  i8th  c. 

Tarin,  a  type  struck  by  the  Counts  of  Provence  of  the  house  of 
Anjou,  1 3th  c.  The  earliest  bear,  between  two  lis,  K  for  Karolus  (Charles 
I.  of  Anjou). 

Taro,  a  gold  denomination  of  the  Arab  Emirs  of  Sicily  (loth-nth  c)., 
Lombard  Dukes,  with  Opvlenta  Salerno.  Beneventum,  7th  c. ;  of  the  Two 
Sicilies  under  the  Norman  rule,  nth  c. ;  and  of  Amalfi,  nth  c.  The  two 
latter  types  were  loans  from  Mohammedan  coins.  One  of  Roger  I.  of 
Sicily  has  T  on  one  side  for  Trinacria.  •  The  Amalfitan  taro  may  have 
been  struck  by  a  temporary  Sicilian  ruler  or  occupier. 

Taro,  a  small  silver  coin  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  at 
Malta  (i6th-i8th  c.).  There  are  pieces  of  2,  3,  4,  6,  8,  10,  15,  16,  and  30 
tari.  The  last  was  =  i  scudo  di  argento.  There  is  a  very  rare  3-tari  piece 
of  Gregorio  Caraffa  (1680-90),  who  had  such  a  romantic  escape  from  being 
executed  in  lieu  of  being  raised  to  the  head  of  affairs.  Rossi  Cat.,  1880, 
No.  1814,  cites  a  2-tari  piece  of  Gio.  de  Homedes,  1536-53,  dated  1553; 
but  there  is^one  of  1538.  The  Maltese  taro  was  introduced  about  1525  ; 
it  represented  about  8Jd.,  five  =  a  scudo,  but  it  differed  from  time  to  time 
in  value  and  weight ;  the  i6-taro  piece  is  very  rare.  Charles  II.  of  Spain 
(1665-1700)  struck  a  2-tari  piece  for  the  Two  Sicilies. 

Taro,  a  copper  coin  of  the  Knights  of  Malta,  i6th  c.  It  was  confined 
to  a  few  masters.  Gio.  Paolo  Lascaris,  Grand  Master,  1636-57,  struck 

238  The  Coins  of  Europe 

a  copper  4-tari  piece,  seldom  found  in  good  state,  and  usually  counter- 
marked.  There  are  several  dates,  1636,  1641,  etc. 

Tehetvertak,  the  Russian  silver  piece  of  25  kopecks  or  J  rouble. 

Tercenario,  the  \  and  the  \,  a  copper  currency  of  the  Norman  Princes 
of  Apulia  and  Sicily,  i  ith-i2th  c.  Pieces  occur  with  the  value  expressed  : 
Mcd.  Tcrc.  and  Quarta.  Tcrcenarii. 

Terlina,  a  billon  coin  struck  by  Louis  XII.  of  France  at  Asti. 

Terlino,  a  coin  of  Alba  in  the  Abruzzi,  i6th  c. 

Tern,  a  small  coin  of  the  ancient  Counts  of  Barcelona,  the  I2th  of  the 

Ternaria,  Vecchia,  a  value  expressed  on  an  Italian  token  of  the  i6thc., 
and  perhaps  concurrent  with  one  in  actual  money  of  the  same  period. 

Tersarolo,  or  Terzarolo,  a  billon  denomination  current  at  Milan 
under  the  Visconti,  I4th  c.  There  is  one  of  Galeazzo  Visconti,  as  Lord  of 
Milan  and  Verona,  with  Comes  Virtvti'in  on  reverse.  The  third  of  the 

Testoon,  teston,  testone,  tostao,  a  term  applied  in  different  languages 
to  a  coin  with  a  head  or  portrait,  apart  from  its  strict  denomination,  and 
eventually  given  to  one  of  a  certain  size  irrespectively  of  its  proper  mean- 
ing. The  European  testoon  is  usually  of  the  dimensions  of  an  English 
florin  and  of  the  weight  and  value  of  a  quadruple  groat  or  double  julio. 

Thaler,  daler,  dalar,  daalder,  tallcro,  dollar,  a  silver  coin  widely  dif- 
fused over  the  Teutonic  countries  of  Europe,  and  adopted  under  varying 
forms  of  the  name  elsewhere.  Numerous  varieties  occur  in  the  schau- 
thalcr,  klippethaler,  I'icariatsthaler,  etc.  A  very  remarkable  and  rare 
one  of  Saxon  type  was  struck  in  1 584,  probably  at  Ruremonde,  in  the 
name  of  Rudolph  II.,  as  Duke  of  Gueldres,  with  Nvmvs.  Dvc.  Gef  Ad. 
Leg.  Imper.  F.  The  name  is  generally  supposed  to  be  taken  from 
Joachimsthal  in  Bohemia,  where  the  silver  mines  were  worked  about 


1518.  But  the  coin  existed  long  prior  to  that  date.  A  singular  series  or 
group  of  thalers  was  issued  by  Ludwig  of  Bavaria  between  1825  and 
1832  on  all  sorts  of  public  or  even  personal  occasions.  They  are,  as  a 
rule,  tolerably  common,  and  occur  in  unused  state  ;  but  that  having  on 
rev.  a  small  full-length  of  the  king  standing  at  a  table,  on  which  his 
hand  rests,  the  crown  and  sceptre  at  his  side,  and  dated  1825,  is  valued 
by  Schulman  of  Amersfoort  at  135  gulden.  A  very  erotic  type  is  said  to 
have  been  struck  by  one  of  the  early  electors  of  Saxony  in  honour  of  his 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         239 

Theler,  a  spurious  copper  coin  struck  at  Frankfort  in  1703,  or  perhaps 
later.  Obv.  has  an  escutcheon  enclosing  a  cross,  beneath  which  occur 
three  annulets  ;  rev.  reads  I  Theler  1703. 

Timmin.     See  Trevoux  in  Cat.  of  Mints. 

Toison.     Sch.,  Cat.  vii.  No.  122. 

Tornese,  pi.  tornesi,  a  coin  of  base  silver,  and  subsequently  of  copper, 
current  at  a  very  early  period  in  the  Levant,  where  the  Venetians 
acquired  a  portion  of  what  is  now  known  as  Turkey  in  Europe  at  the 
commencement  of  the  I3th  c.  Also  a  denomination  of  the  Two  Sicilies 
and  (under  the  form  of  turnose)  of  East  Friesland,  etc.  The  term  is  of 
course  derived  from  the  French  tournois.  There  is  a  piece  of  3  t.  struck 
for  Naples,  1648,  and  a  series  of  10,  8,  5  (1797-98,  cast),  4,  2,  I,  and  ^  t. 
for  the  Two  Sicilies  under  the  Bourbons  and  the  Neapolitan  Republic. 

Tornesello,  a  bronze  coin,  suggested  by  the  colonial  tornese,  and  intro- 
duced at  Venice  under  the  Doge  Ag.  Barbarigo  (1486-1501). 

Tornez  and  meo  tornez,  the  Portuguese  imitation  of  the  French  gros 
tournois  under  Pedro  I.,  1357-67. 

Tostdo,  tostdes,  a  Portuguese  silver  coin  =  100  reis,  and  equivalent  to  the 
French  testone.  There  is  the  half  or  meo  tostdo  and  the  gold  piece  of  5 
tostoes  or  500  r.  The  latter  seems  only  to  exist  of  Henrique  I.,  1578-80. 
It  seems  to  be  improperly  designated  in  the  absence  of  a  portrait  or  head. 
It  originally  appeared  in  the  I5th  c.  A  countermarked  t.  of  Philip  II. 
of  Spain  as  King  of  Portugal,  struck  at  Lisbon,  is  cited  by  Sch.,  xi. 

Tournois,  denier,  the  unit,  first  of  the  silver  or  billon,  and  subse- 
quently of  the  copper,  coinage  of  France.  The  term  tournois  is  derived 
from  the  ancient  standard  of  the  money  of  St.  Martin  de  Tours.  The 
copper  denier  tournois  was  first  introduced  under  Henry  III.  in  1575, 
and  remained,  with  the  double,  in  use  till  the  middle  of  the  following  c. 
The  last  survival  of  this  currency  is  in  the  doubles  of  Guernsey  ;  but 
there  is  no  denier. 

Tournois,  double,  a  copper  coin  of  France,  i6th-i7th  c.  =  2  deniers 

Tournois,  gros,  a  coin  of  fine  silver,  first  struck  by  Louis  IX.  (1250- 
70)  at  the  mint  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Martin,  and  — four  silver  deniers. 
The  type  of  the  obv.  is  said  to  be  a  copy  of  an  Arabic  dirhem  of  Acre  of 
1251  ;  but  the  rudimentary  chatel  seems  to  be  symbolical  of  the  place  of 
origin,  and  may  be  seen  further  developed  in  the  early  Brabantine  gros 
au  portail.  Philip  III.,  the  successor  of  Louis,  1270-85,  struck  the 
\  gros  or  maille  tierce,  and  of  the  coin  itself  there  are  two  varieties — 
a  FO  rond  and  d  fO  long.  The  g.  t.  was  imitated  in  the  Low  Countries 
and  in  Germany,  sometimes  even  to  the  preservation  of  the  Touraine 
legend,  especially  by  the  Counts  of  Holland  and  the  Dukes  of  Brabant 
and  Juliers.  The  word  occurs  in  the  corrupt  forms  of  turnose  and  tornese, 
q.v.,  as  well  as  in  the  Scotish  turner. 

Tournois,  livre.     See  Livre. 

Traro,  or  Da  Cinque  [soldi  or  gazzette\  a  small  Venetian  base  silver 
coin  of  1 8th  c.  The  rev.  has  Ivdicivm  Rectvm  and  a  figure  of  Justice. 
On  the  obv.  of  one  specimen  occurs  :  Pax.  Tibi.  Mar.  Evan.  M.,  the 
winged  lion  to  1.,  and  in  the  exergue,  1722. 

Tremissis,  the  third  of  the  solidus  or  sol  of  gold.     See  Triens. 

Triens  (tiers  de  sol),  a  gold  denomination,  more  properly  called  the 
tremissis,  copied  throughout  the  greater  part  of  Western  Europe  from 
the  6th  to  the  loth  c.  It  probably  sprang  from  a  German  or  Netherland 

240  The  Coins  of  Europe 

source.  Desiderius,  King  of  the  Lombards,  755-74,  struck  tremisses 
stellati,  so  called  of  course  from  the  star  used  as  a  mark  or  a  symbol. 

Trillina,  a  billon  piece  of  Milan  under  Galeazzo  Maria  and  Bianca 
Visconti  (1466-68)  and  some  of  their  successors.  It  appears  to  have 
been  —  \  of  the  testonej  and  the  design  for  both  under  Lodovico  Maria 
Sforza  (1494-1500)  was  made  by  Leonardo  da  Vinci  during  his  stay  at 
the  court  of  the  Duke.  The  same  hand  engraved  the  die  for  the  double 
testone  in  gold. 

Trouvaille,  a  word  familiar  enough  to  numismatists  in  connection 
with  periodical  discoveries  under  all  sorts  of  conditions  of  ancient  coins 
of  all  countries,  by  which  new  types  and  varieties  are  brought  to  light, 
and  rare  pieces  sometimes  made  commoner.  Copious  notices  of  these 
finds  occur  in  the  French  and  other  foreign  Numismatic  Transactions. 
Two  of  the  most  important  of  recent  years  were  those  of  early  papal 
danari  at  Rome  and  of  early  French  royal  and  feudal  money  in  the  Rue 
Neuve  du  Temple  at  Paris. 

Tutn,  a  Brabantine  and  Dutch  billon  coin  of  the  I4th  and  I5th  c. 
The  single  and  double  groot  or  groat  of  the  type  of  the  lion  enclosed  in 
a  hedge. 

Turnosc,  a  silver  coin  of  Frankfort-on-the-Maine,  East  Friesland,  etc., 
a  degenerate  type  of  the  gros  tournois.  It  occurs  as  a  coin  of  the  Counts 
of  East  Friesland  as  early  as  1 504.  Comp.  Tornese  and  Wapenturnose. 

Tivccblanksfcnning,  a  piece  of  two  plated  pennings  or  pfennings,  cur- 
rent in  Brabant  in  the  i6th  c.  There  are  some  with  the  head  of  Charles 
V.  of  Spain  (1515-56). 

Tvueeguldenstiik,  a  piece  of  two  silver  gulden  or  florins.  It  occurs 
with  variations,  and  seems  to  be  similar  to  the  Leeuendaalder  or  Lion- 

Tynf,  or  tymf=  18  Polish  groschen,  a  billon  coin  of  Poland  and 
Prussia,  i8th  c.,  and  the  name  of  certain  pieces  struck  by  Elizabeth  of 
Russia  during  her  occupation  of  part  of  Prussia,  1759-62.  The  Polish 
tynfs  were  struck  by  Augustus  III.  at  Leipsic.  There  is  one  of  Frederick 
II.  of  Prussia,  struck  at  Konigsberg  in  1752.  Blanchet  (ii.  194)  states 
that  Peter  the  Great  struck  the  tynf ;  but  this  is  doubtful. 

Ungaro,  or  Ongaro,  the  Italian  name  for  the  Hungarian  gold  type  of 
Matthias  Corvinus,  with  the  Virgin  and  Child,  imitated  both  by  several 
of  the  Italian  States  and  in  the  Low  Countries.  We  find  it  struck  at 
Correggio  in  the  Modenese,  1 6th- 1 7th  c.,  and  by  Cosmo  III.  of  Tuscany, 

Unicrijksdaalder,  the  rix-dollar  of  the  Low  Countries,  issued  con- 
currently with  the  Spanish  money  (1586-87). 

Vacquette,  or  bacquettc,  a  billon  piece  struck  by  the  Vicomtes  de 
Beam  in  the  early  part  of  the  I5th  c.,  with  a  cow  as  the  type  (  =  obole  or 
petit  denier).  The  piece  under  this  name  long  continued  in  use,  and 
was  coined  under  Henry  IV.  of  France  and  Navarre  for  Beam,  with  two 
crowned  H.'s  and  two  cows  in  the  field.  There  is  an  imitation  of  the 
gros  de  Nesle,  1 587,  with  three  cows  in  the  field. 

Valtans,  the  name  which  we  find  given  to  certain  billon  deniers  of 
Cambrai,  1347  =  1  denier  tournois.  Comp.  On-le-vault. 

Velddaalder,  a  daalder  or  thaler  struck  for  military  emergencies.  One 
of  Groningen,  1577,  was  so  termed.  Comp.  Feldthaler. 

Vereinigungsthaler,  a  denomination  of  Anhalt-Dessau,  1863. 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations    .      241 

Vereins  miinze,  currency  common  to  a  group  of  districts  and  towns, 
or  to  a  country.  See  Convention-Money. 

Vertugadin,  the  name  or  sobriquet  bestowed  on  the  e"cu  d'argent  of  5 
livres-,  issued  by  Louis  XV.,  with  the  circular  shield  surmounted  by  a 
crown.  There  are  the  ^,  j,  -fa,  and  -fa. 

Vessillifero.     See  Soldino  vessillifero. 

Vterch,  irierchen,  billon  coinage  of  the  Dukes  of  Pomerania  of  the 
branches  of  Stettin  and  Wolgast,  1492.  The  vierch  was  apparently  =  \ 

Vierer=4  deniers  or  denarii,  a  small  coin  of  the  Swiss  canton  of 
Berne,  introduced  in  1828.  Also  of  Strasburgh-in-Elsas. 

Vierlander,  the  double  groot  or  gros,  so  named  from  enjoying  a  cur- 
rency in  four  States.  Philip  le  Bon,  Duke  of  Burgundy  (1433-67),  as 
Count  of  Holland,  struck  the  vierlander  and  the  double  or  piece  of  8 

Vikariat  thaler,  a  denomination  applied  to  the  money  issued  by  the 
Electors,  Vicars  of  the  Empire  of  Germany,  during  an  interregnum. 

Vintem,  a  copper  Portuguese  coin  —  20  reis,  struck  for  Guinea. 
There  are  the  multiples  of  2,  4,  6,  and  12,  the  last  =  240  reis. 

Vintima,  a  piece  of  20  soldi  in  silver  struck  by  General  Paoli  for 
Corsica  during  the  republican  epoch  (1755-69). 

Vizlin,  the  name  by  which  a  silver  coin  equivalent  to  the  thaler  was 
struck  at  Ragusa  in  Dalmatia  down  to  the  close  of  the  i8th  c.,  with  the 
bust  of  the  emperors  and  finally  that  of  Liberty,  which  is  borrowed  from 
the  effigy  on  the  thalers  of  Maria  Theresa. 

Vlieger,  a  piece  of  four  patards.     Base  silver.     i6th  c.     Brabant. 

Vlieguyt,  the  name  of  a  Brabantine  billon  piece  struck  in  the  I5th  c. 
by  the  Seigneurs  of  Vilvorde.  A  denier  noir  or  swaarte. 

Voetdrager,  a  name  for  the  groot  in  circulation  within  the  dominions 
of  the  Counts  of  Holland,  I3th-i4th  c.  Silver. 

Vuurijzer.     See  Briquet. 

Wapcnturnose,  a  type  of  the  gros  tournois  struck  in  the  feudal 
county  of  Berg  in  the  I4th  c.,  with  the  arms  or  ivapcn  of  the  Count. 

IVaydir,  apparently  the  fifth  of  a  glockengulden  or  bell-thaler. 

Weidertaufer  thaler,  the  thaler  of  the  Anabaptists,  struck  at  Munster 
in  1534. 

Weight,  poids,  pezza,  etc.,  a  term  given  to  metallic  standards,  which 
represented  the  legal  balance  of  current  coins,  and  became  in  some  places 
and  instances  interchangeable  with  the  coins  themselves.  In  the  South 
of  France  and  on  the  borders  of  Spain,  from  the  I3th  to  the  I5th  or  i6th 
c.,  the  livra  and  its  parts  in  bronze  was  in  general  employment  as  a 
test  of  the  authenticity  of  the  multiform  currency,  and  also,  it  may  be 
apprehended,  as  an  actual  coinage  ;  a  conspicuous  feature  is  the  presence 
of  dates,  which  begin  as  early  as  1238.  By  a  natural  transition  the 
record  of  the  prescribed  weight  was  afterward  transferred  to  ordinary 
money,  and  in  some  countries  this  practice  still  continues.  The  chrono- 
logical fixture  of  the  issue  was  obviously  of  importance  as  an  aid  in 
identifying  the  weight  with  its  counterpart.  The  gradual  fall  of  such 
expedients  into  disuse,  when  the  coinage  grew  less  complex,  mints  less 
numerous,  and  education  more  diffused,  left  no  vestige  of  the  old  custom 
beyond  the  suggestive  appellations  of  certain  coins,  such  as  peseta, 
drachma,  and  oncia.  The  weights  of  ancient  European  pieces  have  been 
preserved  and  collected  on  an  extensive  scale,  and  include  those  of 



The  Coins  of  Europe 

many  well-known  and  interesting  coins,  among  which  we  may  mention 
the  gold  Anglo-Gallic  salute  of  Henry  VI.  The  Franco-Spanish  livra 
seems  to  have  conformed  to  the  weight  of  Cologne,  eight  ounces  troy  to 
the  Ib. 

Weinachtsthaler,  the  name  of  the  thaler  of  1518,  with  the  portrait  of 
Maximilian  I.  to  1.,  wearing  berretta  and  the  order  of  the  Golden  Fleece. 

Weissgroschen,  a  small  silver  or  billon  coin  of  the  Bishops  of 

Weisspfenning,  a  piece  belonging  to  the  same  class  current  in  the 
city  of  Cologne. 

Wiegman,  a  Danish  coin  of  the  loth  c.,  similar  in  weight,  value,  and 
fabric  to  the  silver  penny  or  esterling.  Comp.  Hamaland-  Wigman  in 
Catalogue  of  Mints. 

WUdemannsgidden,  or  thaler,  a  silver  coin  of  Brunswick  (with  its 
divisions),  bearing  the  curious  historical  type  of  the  Wild  Man.  It  also 

occurs  with  two  wild  men  in  the  same  series,  and  in  copper,  and  with  a 

wild  man  and  woman  on  a   silver  coin  of  Schwarzburg,    1791.      The 
ordinary  type  is  imitated  on  a  gulden  of  Gertrude  of  Bronkhorst,  1577. 

Witpenning,  or  IVittenpcnning,  white  or  plated  pfenning  of  Wismar, 
Rostock,  Stralsund,  Wolgast,  and  other  towns  in  the  I4th  and  following 
centuries.  It  is  named  in  conventions  of  1381,  1403,  and  1425  =  a 
sechsling  or  \  schilling.  The  albus  of  the  N.  of  Europe. 

Xerafin.     See  Parddo. 
*  Yuzlik,  Turkish,  billon,  value  2|  piastres,  3d. 

* Zahl pfennig,  German,  brass,  the  jeton  or  reckoning  penny. 

Zanobino,  a  Florentine  imitation  of  the  Venetian  ducat  by  a  Zurich 

banker  and  merchant  named  Lampronti  in   1805,  struck  with  a  view  to 

employment  in  the  Levantine  trade,  on  the  strength  of  the  repute  gained 

by  the  original  type.     But  the  speculation  failed,  and  the  limited  number 

Catalogue  of  European  Denominations         243 

coined  are  said  to  have  been  melted  down  with  very  few  exceptions. 
Cat.  Rossi,  1880,  Nos.  1443-44.  The  piece  is  figured  in  Plate  IV. 

Zecchino,  an  Italian  gold  denomination,  properly  belonging  to  Venice, 
where  the  first  was  struck  during  the  reign  of  Gio.  Dandolo  (1280-89). 
It  derived  its  name  from  Zecca,  the.Venetian  form  of  Giudecca,  where  the 
mint  lay.  It  was  probably  suggested  by  the  Florentine  piece  issued 
some  years  earlier,  and  was  in  its  turn  copied  elsewhere.  It  underwent 
modifications  of  type  and  fabric  from  time  to  time.  Cristoforo  Moro, 
Doge  (1462-71),  had  a  copper  zecchino  of  the  gold  type.  Francesco 
Molini  (1646-55),  Silvestro  Valier  (1694-1700),  etc.,  issued  pieces  of  10  z. 
Of  Pietro  Grimani  (1741-52)  we  have  the  24  z.  ;  of  Paolo  Renier  (1779- 
89)  the  12  z.  ;  and  the  last  Doge,  Lod.  Manin  (1789-97),  crowned  the  list 
with  a  piece  of  100  z. 

Zehner,  a  loth  part  of  a  thaler.  Swiss  canton  of  Chur.  The  acht- 
zehner  appears  to  be  a  multiple  of  the  same  piece  ;  but  Whelan  describes 
it  as  a  silver  coin  of  Sweden. 

Zeskin,  the  name  of  a  silver  or  billon  coin  struck  by  Philip  le  Bon, 
Duke  of  Burgundy,  in  1428,  as  Count  of  Holland.  Comp.  Suskin. 

Zlote,  zloty,  a  copper  coinage  of  Poland  and  the  former  republic  of 

Zwaarte  and  double  zwaarte,  the  Dutch  term  for  the  denier  noir  or 
unplated  billon  money. 

Zweier,  a  copper  piece  =  2  pfennigen,  current  in  Styria  in  the  i6th  c. 

* Zweydrittel,  Mecklenburgh,  silver,  value  2s.  Two-thirds  of  rix  dollar. 
Danish,  value  2s.  lod. 

Zwolf-groschen,  a  copper  coin  or  Kippermiinze  of  Brandenburgh, 
1 7th  c. 


The  reader  should  be  admonished  that  all  such  lists  often  begin  abruptly, 
and  are  otherwise  imperfect,  owing  to  the  absence  of  full  information.  Insertions 
between  square  brackets  are  supposititious.  For  farther  particulars,  for  which 
space  would  be  impracticable,  see  Grote,  Miintzstudien,  1877.  It  must  strike 
the  attention  how  very  frequent,  in  the  French  lines  more  especially,  the  changes 
of  succession  are  through  the  absence  of  male  heirs. 


Dukes  of  Bavaria 

889  Luipold,  Governor  of  Bavaria 

and  of  Austria. 

907  Arnoul  (Ratisbon,  Salzburg). 
937  Eberhard,     afterwards     Ber- 

thold,  brother  of  Arnoul. 
948  Heinrich  von    Saxe,  brother 
of  the  Emperor  Otto.    Heim- 

955  Heinrich  II. 

976  Otto  I.,  DukeofSuabia.   Otto. 
983-85  Heinrich  III. 
985  Heinrich  II.  (re-established). 

Henrici's  or  Hinricvs. 
995   Heinrich  IV.  of  Saxony. 
1005   Heinrich  V.  of  Luxemburg?!. 
1027  Heinrich      VI.,      afterwards 


1044  Heinrich  VII. 
1049  Conrad  I.  von  Zutphen. 
1053  Heinrich  VIII. 

1056  Conrad  II.  of  Franconia. 

1057  The  Empress  Agnes. 
1061   Otho  II.,  Duke  of  Saxony. 

1070  Welf  I.  d'Este. 
iioi  Welf  1 1. 

1120  Heinrich  IX.,  brother. 
1126  Heinrich  X. 
1139  Leopold. 

1141   Heinrich  XI.  of  Austria. 
1156  Heinrich  XII. 
1 1 80  Otho  III.  von  Wittelsbach. 
1 183  Louis  I.,  Duke  of  Bavaria  and 
Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine. 
Otho  IV. 

Duke    of    Upper 


1253  Louis    II. 


1294  Louis  III 

afterwards  empe- 
ror, son  of  preceding  and 
brother  of  Rodolph,  Count 
Palatine  of  the  Rhine. 

1347  Stephen. 

1375  John,  Stephen,  and  Frederic, 

1397  Ernest  and  William,  brothers, 
sons  of  John.  E.  W. 

1438  Albert  I.,  son  of  Ernest. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1460  John  and  Sigismund,  brothers 

of  preceding. 
1467  Albert  II.,  brother. 
1508  William    IV.    and    Louis   V. 

Wilh.  et  Lod. 

1550  Albert  III.     A Iberto. 
1579  William  II. 
1598  Maximilian  I. 

1651  Ferdinand  Maria  Francis 
Ignatius  Wolfgang. 

1679  Maximilian  II. 

1726  Charles  Albert  Joseph,  after- 
wards emperor. 

1745  Maximilian  III.,  Joseph. 

1778  Carl  Theodore. 

1799  Maximilian  Joseph  II. 


1805  Maximilian  Joseph  I. 

1825  Louis  I. 

1848  Maximilian  II. 

1864  Louis  II. 

1886  Regency  of  Prince  Luitpold. 

Counts  and  Dukes  of  Berg 

1259  Adolphus  VII.     Adolphvs. 
1308  Adolphus  VIII.     Adolphvs. 
1360  William  I.      Wilhelm. 

1 380  William  II.,  first  Duke.     Wil- 
1408-23  Adolphus  IX.     Adolfvs. 

Grand- Duke  of  Berg 
1806-7  Joachim  Murat,  brother-in-law  of  Napoldon  I. 

927  Siegfried. 

937  Ge'ron,   Count  of  Stade  and 

965  Thierri. 

983  Lothaire,  Count  of  Waldeck. 
1003  Werner. 

1010  Bernard,  son  of  Thierri. 
1018  Bernard  II. 
1046  William. 

1056  Odo  I.,  Count  of  Stade. 
1082  Henry  I. 
1087  Odo  II. 
1 1 06  Rodolph,  brother. 
1115  Henry  II.,  son  of  Odo  II. 
1128  Odo  III.,  son  of  Rodolph  I. 
1130  Conrad  von  Ploetzk. 
1134  Albert  I.,  von  Ascanien. 
1127-42  Henry    Przibislav,   Prince 
of  Servia. 

1156-58  Jakza,  pretender.  Jaksa 
de  Copnie. 

1170  Otto  I.     Otto. 

1184-88  Heinrich  von  Gardelegen. 
He.  Co. 

1184-88  Otto  II.,  Henry  and  Albert. 

1188-1206  Otto  II.  and  Albert  II. 

1192-1220  Albert  II.     Alberte. 

1220  John  I.  and  Otto  III. 

1266  John  II.,  son  of  John  I. 

1285  Otto  IV.  and  Conrad.  Con- 
rad, Otto.  Marchio. 

1292  Otto  V.,  Albert  III.,  and  Her- 

man.    Otto.  Alber. 

1293  Albert  III.     A. 
1298  Conrad  I. 
1304  John  III. 

1307  Waldemar  I.      Woldcmar. 
1319  Waldemar  1 1.  von  Landsberg. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         247 

1322  John  IV.,  brother.  1535  Joachim  II. 

1324  Louis  I.  of  Bavaria.    Lode-vie.  1571  John  Georges. 

1352  Louis  II.  of  Bavaria.     Lode-  1598  Joachim  Frederic. 

ivich.  1608  John  Sigismund,  Grand  Mas- 
1365  Otto  VII.     Oott.  ter  of  the  Teutonic  Order, 

1373  Charles     IV.     of     Bohemia,  Duke  of  Prussia. 

emperor.  1619  Georges  William. 

1378  Wenceslas    of    Luxemburgh,  1640  Frederic  William. 

emperor.  1688  Frederic   III.,   first    King  of 
1411   Sigismund  of  Luxemburgh.  Prussia,  in  1701. 

1415  Frederic  I.  von  Hohenzollern,  1713  Frederic  William  I. 

Burgraf  of  Niirnberg.  1740  Frederic  IV. 

1440  Frederic  II.     Fredericvs.  1786  Frederic  William  II. 

1470  Albert  III.,  Achilles.     Albt.  1797  Frederic  William  III. 

1486  John  Cicero.    Johs.  1840  Frederic  William  IV. 

1499  Joachim,  with  his  son  Albert.  1861  William  Louis. 

Joachi  et  Alb.  1888  Frederic  V. 
1513  Joachim  I.    Joac.  P.  William  III. 

Dukes  of  Brunswick 

1139  Henry  the  Lion,  m.  Matilda  1252  Albert. 

of  England.  1278  Albert  II. 

1195  Henry  the  Long  and  William,  1318  Otto,  Magnus,  and  Ernest. 

sons.  1368  Magnus  II. 
1213  Otto,  son  of  the  latter. 

Brunswick-  Wolfenbiittel 

First  Branch 

1409  Henry  I.,  son  of  Magnus  II.  1514  Henry    IV.,    son    of    Henry 
1416  William  I.  and  Henry  II.  II. 

1482  Frederic  I.  and  William  II.,  1568  Julius. 

sons  of  William  I.  1589  Henry  Julius. 

1495   Henry  III.  and  Eric,  sons  of  1613  Frederic  Ulric.     D.s.p. 

William  I. 

Second  Branch 

1634  Augustus,    son   of   Henry   of      1735  Ferdinand     Albert     Charles, 

Luneburg  son. 
1666  Rod.    Augustus,      and      his       1780  Charles  William  Ferdinand. 

brother  Antony  Ulric.  1806  William  Frederic 

1 704  The  latter  alone.  1815  Charles  Frederic  William. 

1714  Augustus  William.  1830  William,  brother.     D.s.p. 
1731   Lewis  Rodolph. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 


1409  Bernard,  son  of  Magnus  II. 

of  Brunswick. 

1434  Otto  and  Frederic,  sons. 
1478  Henry  I  f0 

1532  Ernest  } 
1546  Henry  and  William,  sons  of 

1592  Ernest  II.,  son  of  William. 


sons  of 


161 1   Christian 

1633  Augustus 

1636  Frederic  II.          >, 

1648  Christian  Lewis  I 

1665  George  William  / 

1705  Sophia-Dorothea,  m.  in  1682 
George  Lewis  of  Hanover, 
afterwards  George  I.  of 
Great  Britain. 

Counts  and  Dukes  of  Cleveland 

1347  John.     Johannes. 

1368  Adolphus  III.     Adolphvs. 

1394  Adolphus  IV.,  Duke  in   1417. 


1448  John  I.     lohs. 
1481-1521  John  II.     lohs.  Senior., 


1511  John  III. 

1539  John  William  I.    Joan.  Gvili. 

1562-1610  John  William  II.,  Duke 

of  Cldves,  Juliers,  Berg,  etc. 


Counts  and  Princes  of  East  Friesland 

1441   Ulric  I.      Vlricvs. 
1466  Enno  I.     E?no. 
1491   Edzard  I.     Edzard. 
1528  Enno  II. 
1540  Edzard  II., 

with     Christopher 
and  Johann  ; 

withjohann  alone. 

1599  Enno  III. 
1625  Rud.  Christian. 
1628  Ulric  II. 
1648  Enno  Ludwig. 
1660  George  Christian. 
1665  Christian  Eberhard. 
1708  Georg  Albrecht. 
1734-44  Carl  Edzard,  Prince  of  East 

Kings  and  Emperors  of  Germany 

800  Charlemagne. 

814  Louis  le  Debonnaire. 

840  Lothair  I.    Louis  the  German. 

876  Carloman.     Louis  the  Young. 

88 1   Charles  le  Gros. 

887  Arnould,  natural  son  of  Carlo- 

899  Louis,  son. 

912  Conrad  I.,  King  of  Germany. 
Charles  the  Simple,  King  of 
France  and  Lorraine. 

919  Henry  the  Fowler.  Hen- 

936  Otho  I.,  King  of  Germany  ; 
King  of  Italy,  961  ;  empe- 
ror, 962.  Oddo. 

961   Otho  II.,  King  of  Germany  ; 

emperor  in  973.     Otto. 
983  Otho  III.,  King  of  Germany  ; 

emperor  in  996.     Oddo. 
991-7  Otho    III.,   and    Adelaide, 

his  grandmother.    Otto.  Rex. 

Adaldcida  or  Ahtaltet. 
1002  St.    Henry    II.    of    Bavaria, 

King  of  Germany  ;  King  of 

Italy,  1004  ;  emperor,  1014. 

1024  Conrad  II.,  the  Salic.    C/ti'on- 


1039  Henry    III.,    King    of    Bur- 
gundy in  1038  ;  emperor  in 


Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         249 

1056  Henry  IV.,  King  of  Germany ; 
emperor  in  1084. 

Rodolph,    Duke    of   Suabia, 

Herman  of  Luxemburgh,  pre- 

Egbert,    Margraf    of    Thur- 

ingen,  pretender. 
1106  Henry  V.,  emperor  in  mi. 
1125  Lothair,    Duke    of    Saxony; 

emperor,  1133. 
1138  Conrad  III.  of  Hohenstaufen. 

1152  Frederic      I.        Barbarossa. 


1169  Henry  VI.,  King  of  the  Ro- 
mans ;  emperor,  and  King  of 

Italy  and  the  Two  Sicilies. 

1198  Philip,  a  Tuscan  nobleman, 

King  of  Germany.   Philipi's. 
Otho  IV.,  King  of  Germany 

and     Italy,     and     emperor. 

1212-50  Frederic  II.,  son  of  Henry 

VI.     Friderici's. 
1222  Henry  of  Suabia,  King  of  the 

Romans.     Deposed  in  1235. 
1246-8  Henry  Raspe  of  Thuringen. 
1247  William  of  Holland. 
1250-4  Conrad  IV. 
1257  Richard,    Earl   of    Cornwall, 


Alfonso  V.,  King  of  Castile. 
1273  Rodolph       of       Habsburgh. 

Rvdolph.  Rom.  Re.r. 
1292  Adolphus  of  Nassau.     Adol- 

1298  Albert  I.  of  Habsburgh,  Duke 

of  Austria.     Albti's. 
1308  Henry  VII.  of  Luxemburgh, 

King  of  the  Romans  and  of 

Italy  ;  emperor.     Henricvs. 

1314-22  Frederic  of  Austria,  son  of 

Albert  I. 
1314  Louis  I V.  of  Bayaria.     Lvdo- 

1347  Charles  IV.  of  Luxemburgh  ; 

King  of  the  Romans,  Italy, 

and  Bohemia,  and  emperor. 

1349  Gunther     of    Schwarzburgh, 

King  of  the  Romans  ;  a  few 

months  only. 

1378  Wenceslas  of  Luxemburgh. 
1400  Robert,  Count  Palatine  of  the 


1410  Jossus  of  Luxemburgh. 

1411  Sigismund   of  Luxemburgh; 

King  of  Germany,  Italy, 
Hungary,  and  Bohemia,  and 
emperor.  Sigismv'dvs. 

1438  Albert  II.  of  Austria. 

1440  Frederic  V.     Fri. 

1493  Maximilian  I. 

1519'  Charles  V.     Carolvs.  Kara. 

1558  Ferdinand  I.,  brother. 

1564  Maximilian  II. 

1576  Rodolph  II. 

1612  Matthias. 

1619  Ferdinand  II. 

1637  Ferdinand  III. 
Leopold  I. 

1705  Joseph  I. 

1711   Charles  VI. 

1740  Maria    Theresa    of    Austria, 
Charles  VII.  of  Bavaria. 

1745  Francis    I.    of  Lorraine   and 
Maria  Theresa. 

1764  Joseph  II. 

1792  Francis  II. 

1806-71    No  emperors  or  kings  of 

1871  William  I.  of  Hohenzollern. 

1888  Frederic. 
William  II. 

Landgraves  of  Upper  Hesse  and  Hessc-Cassel 

1308  Otto. 

1328  Heinrich  II. 

1377  Hermann. 

1413  Ludwig  II. 

1458  Ludwig  III.  of  Hesse-Cassel. 

1471  Wilhelm  I. 
1493  Wilhelm  II. 
1509  Philipp. 

1567  Partition     into     Cassel     and 
Darmstadt  branches. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Electors  of  Hessc-Cassel 

1567  Wilhelm  IV. 
1592  Moritz. 
1627  Wilhelm  V. 
1637  Wilhelm  VI. 
1663  Wilhelm  VII. 
1670  Carl,  brother. 
1730  Friedrich  I. 

1751  Wilhelm  VIII. 

1760  Friedrich  II. 

1771  Wilhelm  IX.,  Count  of  Hanau. 

1802-21  The     same,     Elector     of 


1821  Wilhelm  II. 
1847-66  Friedrich  Wilhelm. 

Landgraves  of  Hesse-Darmstadt 

1567  Georg  I. 

1596  Ludwig     V.     (of    undivided 


1626  Georg  II. 
1 66 1    Ludwig  VI. 
1678  Ludwig  VII. 

Ernst  Ludwig. 
1739  Ludwig  IX. 

1768-90  Ludwig  X. 

1806-30  The  same,  Grand-Duke  of 

1830  Ludwig  II.,  Grand -Duke  of 

1848-66  Ludwig  III.,  Grand-Duke 

of  Hesse. 

Landgraves  of  Hesse- Homburg 

d.  1638  Friedrich  I. 

d.  1708  Friedrich  II. 

d.  1736  Casimir  Wilhelm. 

d.  1751   Friedrich  Carl. 

1751-1820  Friedrich  Ludwig. 

1820  Friedrich  III. 
1829  Ludwig. 
1839  Philipp. 
1846  Gustaf. 
1848-66  Ferdinand. 

Dukes  ofjuliers 

1357  Guillaume  I.      Wilhmvs. 
1361   Guillaume  II.      Wilhelmvs. 
!393  Guillaume  III.      Wilhelmvs. 
1402  Reinhold.     Rciri. 

1432  Adolphe.     Adolf. 
1437  Gerhard  VI.     Gerhdvs. 
1475  Wilhelm  IV.      Wilh. 
1511-22  Johann  III.    Johs. 

1483  Magnus  II. 
1503  Albrecht  VI. 
1547  Johann  Albrecht  I. 
1576  Johann  V. 

1592  Johann  Albrecht  II. 
1622-33  Albrecht  von  Waldstein. 
1636-95  Gustaf  Adolf. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  E^tropean  Rulers         251 

Dukes  and  Grand-Dukes  of  Mecklenburgh-Schwerin 

1592  Adolf  Friedrich  I. 
1658  Christian  Ludwig  I. 
1688  Friedrich  Wilhelm. 
1713  Carl  Leopold. 
1747  Christian  Ludwig  II. 

1756  Friedrich. 
1785  Friedrich  Franz  I. 
1837  Paul  Friedrich. 
1842  Friedrich  Franz  II. 

Grand-Dukes  of  Mecklenburgh-Strelitz 

1658  Adolf  Friedrich. 
1708  Friedrich  III. 
1752  Adolf. 

1794  Friedrich  IV. 

1816  Georg. 

1860  Friedrich  Wilhelm. 

Counts  Palatine  of  the  Rhine 

959  Egon  von  Ehrenfried. 
989  Herman  I.,  Count  Palatine  of 

1035  Otto  I. 

1045  Henry  I.,  younger  son  of 
Egon,  named  Count  Pala- 
tine of  the  Lorraines  by  some 

1 06 1   Herman  II.,  brother. 

1085  Henry  II.,  son  of  Henry  I., 
Count  Palatine  of  the  Rhine. 

1095  Siegfried  von  Ballenstadt, 

1140  Herman  III.,  Count  of 

1143  Willem  von  Ballenstadt. 

1156  Conrad  von  Hohenstaufen. 

1196  Henry  III.  of  Saxony,  son  of 
Henry,  Duke  of  Bavaria. 

1213  Henry  IV. 

1215  Louis  I.  of  Wittelsbach,  Duke 
of  Bavaria. 

1228  Otto  II. 

1253  Louis  II. 

1294  Rodolph  I.  and  Louis. 

1317  Adolf. 

1327  Rodolph  II.,  brother. 

1353  Ruprecht  I.,  brother. 

1390  Ruprecht  II.     Rvpert. 

1398  Ruprecht    III.,    emperor    in 

1410  Louis    III.     Lvdivi.    C.P.R. 

Dvx  Ba. 
1436  Louis  IV. 
1449  Frederic  I.,  brother. 
1476  Philip,  nephew. 
1508  Louis  V.     Lvdwic. 
1544  Frederic  II.,  brother. 
1556  Otto  Henry  and  Philip.    Otto 

and  Phi. 
1559  Frederic    III.,    grandson    of 

Ruprecht  III. 
1576  Louis  VI. 
1592  Frederic  IV. 
1610  Frederic  V.,  afterward  King 

of  Bohemia,  married  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  James  I.  of 

Great  Britain,  1613. 
1650  Charles  Louis  I. 
1680  Charles  II. 
1685  Philip  William    of    Bavaria- 


1690  John  William  Joseph. 
1716  Charles  Philip,  brother. 
1743  Charles  Theodore  of  Bavaria- 

Deux-Ponts  ;  in  1777  Duke 

of  Bavaria. 
1799  Maximilian  Joseph,  Duke  of 

Bavaria  ;  king  in  1806. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Electors  of  Saxony 

960  Herman  Billing,  Duke  of 
Saxony  by  imperial  conces- 

973  Bernard,  Duke  of  Angria. 

1010  Bernard  II. 

1062  Otto  or  Ordulph. 

1073  Magnus. 

1 106  Lothaire  of  Supplenbourg,  by 
imperial  concession. 

1137  Gertrude     of     Supplenbourg 
and  Henry  the  Proud. 
Henry  the  Lion. 

1 1 80  Bernard  III.  of  Ascania- 
Anhalt.  Bernhard. 

1 21 1  Albert  I.     A. 

1260  Albert  II. 

1298  Rodolph  I. 

1356  Rodolph  1 1. 

1370  Wenceslas,  brother. 

1388  Rodolph  III. 

1418  Albert  III.,  brother. 

1423  Frederic  I.,  Margraf  of  Misnia 
and  Landgraf  of  Thuringen. 

1428  Frederic  II.     F. 

1464  Ernest.     E. 

1486  Frederic  III. 

1525  John,  brother. 

1532  John  Frederic. 

1547  Maurice,  grandson  of  Albert 

1553  Augustus,  brother. 

1586  Christian  I. 

1591   Christian      II.,     with     John 
Georges  and  Augustus. 

1611  John  Georges  I.,  son  of 'pre- 

1656  John  Georges  II. 

1680  John  Georges  IV. 

1695   Frederic  Augustus  II. 

1733  Frederic  Augustus  II. 

1763  Frederic  Christian. 

Frederic  Augustus  III. 


1806  Frederic  Augustus  I. 

1827  Anthony  I. 

1836  Frederic  Augustus  II. 

1854  John. 
1873  Albert. 

Grand  Masters  of  the  Teutonic  Order 

1195  Heinrich  Walbot. 
1 200  Otto  von  Kerpen. 
1206  Hermann  Bart. 
1 2 10  Hermann  von  Taiga. 
1239  Konrad,     Margraf    of    Thu- 

1253  Peppo  von  Osterna. 
1257  Hanno  von  Sangerhausen. 
1274  Hartmann. 
1284  Bouchard. 

1290  Konrad  von  Feuchtwangen. 
1303  Siegfried  von  Feuchtwangen. 
1311   Carl  Beffart. 
1324  Werner  von  Orsein. 
1331   Louis,  Duke  of  Brunswick. 
1335  Dietrich  von  Altenberg. 
1342  Ludolf  von  Weitzau. 
1345  Heinrich  von  Dusemer. 
1351  Winric  von  Kniprode. 

1382  Konrad  I. 

1390  Konrad  II. 

1393  Konrad  von  Jungingen. 

1407   Ulric. 

1410  Heinrich  von  Pleuen. 

1413  Hermann  Gans. 

1414  Michael  von  Sternberg. 
1422  Paul  Russdorf. 

1441   Konrard  von  Erlichshausen. 
1450  Ludwig  von  Erlichshausen. 
1467  Heinrich  III. 
1470  Heinrich    IV.    von    Richten- 


1477  Martin  von  Wetzhausen. 
1489  Johann  von  Tiefen. 
1498  Frederic,  Duke  of  Saxony. 
1512  Albert,  Margraf  of  Branden- 

burgh,  first  Duke  of  Prussia. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         253 


Margraves,  Dukes,  and  Arch- Dukes  of  Austria 

928  Leopold. 

983  Albert  I.  and  Henry,  brothers., 

Leopold  II. 
1040  Leopold  III. 
1044  Albert  II. 
1056  Ernest. 
1075  Leopold  IV. 
1096  Leopold  V. 
1136  Henry     II.,     first     Duke    of 


1177  Leopold  VI.,  brother  of  pre- 

1194  Leopold  VII. 
1246  Frederic  II.     F. 
1251   Ottokar,  King  of  Bohemia  in 

1273  Rodolph     I.     of     Hapsburg, 

afterwards  emperor. 
1308  Albert,  Duke  of  Austria  and 

of  Styria,  emperor. 

1330  Albert  II.,  brother  of  preced- 
ing. Dvx  Albertvs. 

1358  Albert  III. 

1395  Albert  IV.  and  William. 
W.  A. 

1404  Albert  V.,  emperor. 

1404-10  Ernest.     Ern. 

1406-1 1  Leopold  IV.  and  Albert  V. 
L.  A. 

1406-39  Frederic  IV.     F. 

1411  Albert  V.,  emperor  1438-39. 

1453  Ladislas,  King  of  Hungary. 
L.  R. 

J457-63  Albert VI.  Albertvs.  Archi- 
dvs.  Avstrie. 

1458  Frederic  III.,  emperor  1452. 
Frid.  Ro.  Imp. 

1493-1519  Maximilian.  Maximili- 
anvs,  etc. 

Emperors  of  Austria 

1806  Francis  I. 

1836  Ferdinand  L,  abdicated  in  1848. 

1848  Francis  Joseph  1. 

Dukes  and  Kings  of  Bohemia 

871  Borzivoi,   son   of  Hustivitus, 

first      Christian      Duke      of 

895  Spitignew  I. 
907  Wratislas  L,  brother. 
928  Wenceslas  I. 
936  Boleslas  I.  the  Cruel,  brother. 

967  Boleslas  II.,  the  Pious.  Bolez- 

lavs.  Boveslav. 
999  Boleslas  III.,  the  Blind.     Bo- 


1002  Jaromir.    Jaromi.  Dvx. 
1012  Udalric,  brother.     Odalricvs. 


1037  Bracislas  I.     Bracizlav. 
1055  Spitignew  II.     Spitilnev. 
1061  Wratislas   II.,  brother,   King 

of  Bohemia  in  1066.     Wrat- 


1092  Conrad  I.,  King  of  Bohemia. 

1093  Bracislas  1 1. ,  Kingof  Bohemia. 

noo  Borivoi,  son  of  Wratislas  II., 

King  of  Bohemia.     Borivoi. 
1 107  Sautopluk,  brother,   King  of 

Bohemia.     Svatopole. 
1 109  Otto  of  Moravia.     Otto  Servs 



The  Coins  of  Europe 

1 109  Wladislas,  duke.     Dvx  Wla- 

1125  Sobieslas  I.,  duke.    Dvx  Sva- 

1140  Wladislas  II.,  duke  ;  king  in 

1157.      Wladizlavs. 
1174  Sobieslas  II. 
1 1 80  Frederic,  duke.     Dvx  Frid- 


1190  Conrad    Otto,    grandson     of 

Conrad  I. 

1191  Wenceslas  II.,  son  of  Sobies- 

las I. 

1192  Przemislas  Otakar  I.,  king  in 

1 200.     Rc.v  Otackan's. 

1193  Henry  Bracislas. 
1 196  Wladislas  V. 

1230  Wenceslas  I.     IVenceslavs D. 
1253  Przemislas  Otakar  II.     Ota- 

karvs  Rc.v. 
1278  Wenceslas      II.,      King      of 

Bohemia    and    of    Poland. 

Wen.  Rex.  or  IV.  II. 

1305  Wenceslas  III.,  King  of  Hun- 

gar  y   ( 1 30 1  -  5 ).     IVenceslavs 

1306  Rodolph. 

1307  Henry  of  Carinthia. 

1310  John  of  Luxemburgh.  Johes. 
or  Johannes  Priinvs. 

1347  Charles  of  Luxemburgh,  em- 
peror in  1355.  Karolvs 

1378  \Venceslas  IV.,  emperor.  W. 

1419  Sigismund,  brother. 

1437  Elizabeth  and  Albert  of  Aus- 
tria. A. 

1440  Ladislas  or  Wladislas. 

1458  Georges  of  Kunstadt,  seigneur 
of  Podiebrad.  Gcorgivs 

1471  Wladislas  II.,  son  of  Casimir 
I V.,  K ing  of  Poland.  Wlad- 
islai's  Secvndvs. 

1516-26  Louis.    Lodovicus  Primus. 

Kings  of  Hungary 

looo  Saint    Stephen,    son    of    the 

Duke  Geiza,  and  descendant 

of  Toxis,  chief  of  the  Huns. 

Stcphanvs  Rex. 
1038  Peter   the    German,    nephew 

of  preceding.     Petrvs. 
1042  Samuel  Owon  or  Aba,brother- 

in  -  law    of    Saint    Stephen. 


1044  Peter  the  German. 
1047  Andrew    I.,    descendant     of 

Toxis.     Andreas. 
1 06 1  Bela  I.     Dvx  or  Rex. 
1063  Salomon.     Salomoni. 
1074  Geiza    or   Geyeza    I.,   called 

Magnus.      Dvx  Mvxnas,  or 

Gevca  Rex. 

1077  Ladislas  I.     Ladislavs. 
1095  Coloman  or  Colan.     Caiman. 

Lvbanvs     or      Colvmbanvs 

1114  Stephen    II.       Ste    or    Ste- 


1132  Bela  II.     Bela. 
1151  Geiza  II.     Geisce  Re. 

1161   Ladislas   II.,  usurper,  uncle. 
Stephen  III.     S.V.R. 

1172  Stephen  IV. 

1173  Bela  III.,  brother  of  Stephen 

III.     Bela. 

1196  Emeric,    or    Henry.       Hen- 

1204  Ladislas. 

1205  Andrew  II.     Andreas. 

1235  Bela  IV.     Bela  Qvartvs,  or 

1260  Stephen  IV.     Stephan. 

1272  Ladislas  III.  Cumanus.     La- 

1290  Andrew  III.     Andreas. 

Charles  Martel  d'Anjou,  pre- 

1301  Wencelas  of  Bohemia. 

1305  Otto  of  Bavaria.     Ot 'fonts. 

1310  Charles   I.   d'Anjou.      Karo- 

1342  Louis  I.  d'Anjou.    Lvdovicvs. 

1383  Marie  d'Anjou.     Maria. 

1385  Charles  II.,  the  Little. 

'Some  Dated  Lists  of  E^tropean  Riders         255 

1387  Sigismund   of    Luxemburgh, 

emperor.     Sigismvndi. 
1437  Albert  of  Austria.     Albertvs. 

1440  Ladislas      IV.      of     Poland. 


1441  John  Huniades,  Governor.  Jo- 

hancs  N.D.R.  Vngarie  Gi>. 
1452  Ladislas  V.  Posthumus.     La- 


1458  Mathias  Corvinus.     Mathias. 
1490  Ladislas  VI.      Wladislavs. 
1516  Louis  II.     Lodovicvs. 
1526  John  Zapoly,  Count  of  Sce- 

puse.       Joani     Zapol,      or 


1527  Ferdinand  I. 

1540  John  Stephen,  or  Sigismund. 

1564  Maximilian  I. 

1576  Rodolph  II. 

1608  Mathias. 

1619  Ferdinand  II. 

1637  Ferdinand  III. 

1656  Ferdinand    Francis   and  his 

brother  Leopold  Ignatius. 
1705  Joseph  I.,  son  of  the  Emperor 

Leopold  I. 

1711   Charles  IV.,  brother. 
1740  Maria  Theresa  of  Austria  and 

Francis  of  Lorraine. 

Princes  or  Waiwodes  of  Transylvania 

1526  Johann  I.  Zapoly. 

1540  Johann  II.  Sigismund  Zapoly 

(lohan.    Sigism.},    and    till 

1560    his     mother     Isabel, 

guardian.     Ysabe. 
1571   Stephen  I.  Bathory.  S.B.D\c\ 

1576  Christof  Bathori.     Chr.  Bath. 

De.  Som.,  or  C.B.D.S. 
1581   Sigismund     Bathori.       Sigt. 

1598-1605  Rodolph    II.,    Emperor 

of  Germany. 

1602  Moses  Zekel  von  Semenfalva. 
1604  Stephen     Botskay.       Stepha 

Bochkay,  or  Stephanvs. 

1607  Sigismund  Rakoczy.      Sigis- 

mvndvs  Racocii. 

1608  Gabriel    Bathory.       Gab.    or 

Gabriel  Bathory. 

1613  Gabriel  Bethlen  Gabor.  Ga. 
Bet.,  or  Gabriel. 

1630  Catherine  of  Brandenburgh, 

widow.  Cath.  D.G.N\atd\ 
M\archionissd\  B\randen- 

Stephen    Bethlen.       Stepha. 

1631  Georges  Rakoczy  I.  Georgivs 


1649  Georges  Rakoczy  II.  Geor. 

1658  Achatius  Bartsay.  Acha.Bar. 

1660  Johann  Kemeny.  loan  Ke- 

1662  Michael  I.  Apafi. 

1 682-99  Emerich  Tokoli,  or  Teckly. 
Erne.  Thokoli,  or  Tockel. 

1690-99  Michael  II. 

1703-11  Franz  II.,  Rakoczi.  Fran- 
cis cvs  fl. 


Kings  of  Poland 

Miecislav,  or  Miesko,  Prince 
of  Poland.     Mesico. 

992  Boleslav  the  Great,  King  of 
Poland.     Bolaslav. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1025  Miecislav,  or  Miesko  II. 
Misico.  Polonii. 

1034  Rixa,  widow,  regent. 

1040  Casimir  I. 

1058  Boleslav  II.,  Smiali.  Bzlvas, 
or  Blezlvas. 

1079  Vladislav  I.,  Hermann.  Vlad- 

1102  Bolislav  III.,  Vouyywousty. 
Dvris  Bolczla,  etc. 

1139  Vladislav  II.  Vloavs,  or 

1148  Boleslav  IV.,  Kedzierzawy. 

1173  Miesko  III.,  Stary.     Mesico. 

1202  Vladislav  III.,  Laskonogi. 

1207  Leszek  Bialy,  the  Wise. 

1227  Boleslav  von  Wstyliwy. 
Bolczlavs  Dvx. 

1279  Leszek  II. 

1289  Henrich  Lagodny. 

1295  Przemislas. 

1300-5  Wenceslas,  King  of  Bohe- 
mia. Vcn. 

1300-33  Vladislav  IV.  Lokietek. 

1333  Kasimir  III.,  Wielki,  the 
Great.  A'. A1.,  or  Kaziniiri. 

1370  Louis  d'Anjou.  Lodvici.  K. 

1  The  last  resigned  in  1795,  and 

1382  Vladislas  V.,  Jagello.     Wlad- 
islavs  Rex. 

1434  LladislasVI.     W.R.mVlad- 

1447  Kasimir  Jagello.    Kasimirvs. 

1492  Johann  Albert.     /.  Alberti. 

1501  Alexander     Jagello.       Alex- 

1506  Sigismund     I.        Sigismimd 

1548  Sigismund  II.,  Augustus. 

1573  Henri  de  Valois,  Due  d'An- 

Stephen   Bathory,   Prince   of 

1 586  Maximilian  of  Austria. 

1587  Sigismund  III. 
1632  Lladislas  Sigismund. 
1648  Johann  Kasimir. 

1669  Michael      Koribut     Wiesno- 


1674  Johann  III.,  Sobieski. 
1696  Interregnum. 
1699  Frederic     Augustus      I.      of 


1704  Stanislas  I.,  Lezinski. 
1709  Frederic  Augustus  I.  again. 
1733  Frederic  Augustus  II. 

1763  Frederic  Christian  of  Saxony 

1764  Stanislas  II.,  Augustus.1 

died  at  St.  Petersburgh  in  1798. 

Dukes  of  Courland 

1563  Gothard  Keller. 

1587  Friedrich. 

1639  Jacob. 

1683  Friedrich  Kasimir. 

1698  Friedrich  Wilhelm. 

1711-37  Interregnum. 

!?37  Jean  Ernest  de  Biron. 

1741  Ludwig  Ernst  V.,  of  Bruns- 

1759  Carl  Christian,  son  of  Fried- 
rich  Augustus,  King  of 

1762  Jean  Ernest  de  Biron  again. 

1769-95  Pierre. 

Grand-Dukes  of  Kief 

988  Wladimir  I.,  Swiatoslavitch. 
1016  Swiatopolk. 

1018-54  Jaroslav     I.,     Wladimiro- 

1073-78  Swiatoslav  Jaroslavitch. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         257 

Grand-Dukes  of  Moscow 

1362  Dmitri  Ivanovitch  Douskoi. 

1389  Vasili  Dmitrivitch. 

1425  Vasili  Vasilievitch  Tiomny. 

1462  Ivan  III.,  Vasilievitch. 

1505  Vasili  Ivanovitch. 

1 533  Ivan  IV.,  Vasilievitch,  Tzar  of 


1584  Feodor  Ivanovitch. 
1598  Boris    Feodorovitch    Godou- 


1605  Dmitri  Ivanovitch. 

1606  Vasili  Ivanovitch  Chouiski. 
1610  Vladislas  Vasa,  son  of  Sigis- 

mund  III.  of  Poland. 
1613  Michael     Feodorovitch    Ro- 

1645  Alexei  Michaelovitch. 

1676  Feodor  Alexievitch. 

1682  Ivan  Alexievitch,  brother. 

Peter  Alexievitch,  the  Great, 

Sophia,  sister,  at  first  Regent. 
1725  Catherina  I.  Alexievna. 
1727  Peter  II.,  Alexievitch. 
1730  Anna  Ivanovna. 

1740  Ivan  IV.,  Antonovitch. 

1741  Elisabeth  I.,  Petrovna. 
1762  Peter  III.,  Feodorovitch. 

Catherina  II.,  Alexievna. 
1796  Paul  I.,  Petrovitch. 
1801  Alexander  I.,  Paulovitch. 
1825   Nicolas  I. 
1855  Alexander  II. 
1 88 1  Alexander  III. 


Kings  of  Sweden 

995  Olaf  Skotkonung.     Olvf,Rex.       1319 

Zhevm.  13S° 

1 022  Anund  Jacob.     Anvnd,  Rex.       1361 

S.  1363 

1051  Ernund  III.  1389 

1056  Stenkill.  1396 

1066  Eric  VII.  and  VIII. 

1067  Haquin  I.  1440 
1080-90  Halstan.  1448 
1080-1112  Ingo  I.  1457 
1 112  Philip.  1465- 
1118  Ingo  II.  1497 
1129  Suerker  I.  1520 
1155  Eric  IX.  1523 
1161   Charles  VII.  1560 
1167  Cnut.     Kanvtvs,  Rex.  S.  1568 
1196  Suerker  II.  1592 
1208  Eric  X.  or  XI.     Er.  1604 
1215  John  I.     Ihs.  Hesn. 

1250  Waldemar.      Walr.  1611 

1275  Magnus  I.     M.  1632 

1290  Birger.  1654 

•63  Magnus  II.     M. 

9  Eric  XII. 

Haquin  II. 



Eric  II.  of  Pommern. 


Christopher.     Kristofer. 
70  Charles  VIII.     Knutsvn. 
64  Christiern  I.     Crissternne. 
7  Interregnum. 
1501  John  II.  of  Denmark. 
Christiern  II. 
Gustavus  Vasa. 
Eric  XIV. 
John  III. 

Sigismund  III.  of  Poland. 
Charles  IX.,  Duke  of  Suder- 
mania.  . 

Gustavus  II.,  Adolphus. 
Charles  X.,  Gustavus. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1660  Charles  XI. 

1697  Charles  XII. 

1719  Ulrica  Eleonora,   sister,  and 

Frederic  of  Hesse-Cassel. 
1751  Adolphus  Frederic  II. 
1771  Gustavus  III. 
1792  Gustavus  IV.,  Adolphus. 

1809  Charles  XIII.,  Duke  of  Suder- 

mania,  uncle. 

1818  Charles  XIV.,  Bernadotte. 
1844  Oscar  I. 
1859  Charles  XV. 
1872  Oscar  II. 

Kings  of  Denmark 

935   Harold  II. 

985  Sven  Tveskaeg,  King  of  Den- 
mark and  England. 
1014  Canut. 
1035   Harthacanut. 
1042  Magnus. 

1046  Magnus   and   Harald    Haar- 


1047  Sven  Aestrithson. 
1076  Harold  Hein. 
1080  Canut  II. 

1086  Olaf  Hunger. 
1095  Erik  Hezegod. 
1104  Niels. 
1134  Erik  Emune. 
1137-47  Eric  Lam. 
1138-41  Olaf. 
1147-57  Sven  Graths. 

Canut  V. 

1 154  Waldemar  I. 
1182  Canute  VI. 
1202-41  Waldemar  II. 
1232  Erik  Ploupennig. 
1250  Abel. 
1252  Christopher  I. 
1259  Erik  Glipping. 
1286  Erik  Menved. 
1319-33  Christopher  II. 
1340  Waldemar  IV. 

1376  Olaf  Haakonson. 

1387  Margaret,  Queen  of  Den- 
mark, Sweden,  and  Norway. 

1396  Erik  of  Pommern. 

1440  Christopher  III.  of  Bavaria. 

1448  Interregnum  of  a  few  months. 
Christiern  I.  of  Oldenburgh. 

1481   John.     lohs. 

1513  Christiern  II.,  King  of  Swe- 
den, 1520. 

1523  Frederic  I.  of  Denmark  and 

1533  Interregnum. 

1534  Christiern  III.  of  Schleswig- 

1559  Frederic  II. 
1588  Christiern  IV. 
1648  Frederic  III. 
1670  Christiern  V. 
1699  Frederic  IV. 
1730  Christiern  VI. 
1746  Frederic  V. 
1766  Christiern  VII. 
1808  Frederic  VI. 
1839  Christiern  VIII. 
1848  Frederic  VII. 
1863  Christiern  IX.  of  Sonderburg- 


Kings  of  Norway 

933-35  Erik   I.,    Bloddxe.      Eric. 

995-1000  Olaf     I.,    Tryggvesson. 

Onlaf,  Rex  Nor. 
1000-1014  Sven  Tjugeskegg. 


1000-1015  Erik   Haakonsson  Jarl. 
Olaf     Svonske.       Olvf. 
Rex  Zbevgx. 
1014-15,    1028    Knut.      Cnvt.    Rex 


1015  Haakon     •  Eriksson        Jarl. 

'Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         259 

1015-28  Olaf      II.,       Haraldsson. 

Vnlafi  +  E  +  A  nov. 
1035.  Magnus  I.,  Olafsson.     Mag- 

nvs.  Rex  Nar. 

1046  Magnus     I.,     Olafsson,    and 

Harald      III.,      Sigurdsson. 
Mahnvs.  Aralt,  Rex. 

1047  Harald       III.,      Sigurdsson. 

Harald,  Rex  No.,  or  Arald. 

Rex  Nar. 

1066-69  Magnus  II. 
1067  Olaf  III.,  Kyrre. 
1093  Magnus  III. 
1103-22  Eystein  I. 
1103-30  Sigurd  I. 
1130-35  Magnus  IV. 
1130-36  Harald  IV.  ;   Sigurd  II. 
1 136-61   Ingo  I. 

1 142-57  Magnus  V.  and  Eystein  II. 
1161-84  Magnus  VI.  ;  Haco  III.  ; 

Sigurd  III. 

1177-1202  Swerre,  competitor. 
1201-4  Haakon  IV. 
1205   Ingo  II.,  Baardsson. 
1217  Haakon  V. 
1263  Magnus     IV.,     Haakonsson. 

Rex  Magnus. 
1280-99  Erik       II.,      Magnusson. 

Haakon    V.,    Magnusson. 

Haqvin.  dvx,  Norwegie.    • 
1219  Haakon  V.,  Eriksson. 
1255   Haakon      VI.,      Magnusson. 

Haqvinvs,  Rex. 
1380  Olaf  V.,  Haakonsson. 
1389  Erik  III.  of  Pommern. 


Princes  of  Achaia 

1205  Guillaume  de  Champlitte. 
1209  Geoffrey  I.  de  Villehardouin. 
1218  Geoffroy  II.  de  Villehardouin. 
1245  Guillaume  I.  de  Villehardouin. 

G.  Princeps. 
1278-1285-1287  Charles       I.      and 

Charles  II.  d'Anjou.  Naples, 

K.  R.  Princ.  Ach. 
1289  Florent  de  Hainaut  and  Isa- 

belle       de       Villehardouin. 

Florens,  P.  Ache. 
1297  Isabelle     de     Villehardouin. 

Isabella,  P.  Ach. 

1301   Philippe  de  Savoie  and  Isa- 
belle.      Phs.     D.     Sab.    P. 

1307  Philippe   de   Tarente.      Phs. 

P.  Ach.  Tar.  p.  R. 
1313  Louis     de     Bourgogne     and 

Mahaut  de  Hainaut.     Lodo- 

vic.  D.  B.  P.  Ache. 

1315-16    Ferdinand     of    Majorca, 

pretender.      Fnans.    P.    D. 

1316  Mahaut  de    Hainaut,    alone. 

Mahav,  or  Mahavta. 
1318  Jean  d'Anjou-Gravina.     lohs. 

P.  Ache. 
1333  Catherine  de  Valois-Tarente 

and  Robert  de  Tarente. 
1346  Robert       d'Anjou  -  Tarente. 

Robt.  P.  Ache. 
1364  Marie     de      Bourbon      and 

1370  Philippe  II.  d'Anjou-Tarente. 
1374-81  Jeanne  of  Naples  and 
1376-81   Otto  of  Brunswick. 
1381  Jacques  des  Baux. 
1383  Interregnum. 
1396  Pierre  de  St.  Exupery. 
1402  Marie  de  St.  Exupery,  Regent. 
1404  Centurione  Zaccaria. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Dukes  of  Athens 

1205  Othon  de  la  Roche. 
1225  Gui   I.  de   la    Roche. 

A  then  (G.) 
1263  Jean  de  la  Roche. 

1280  Guillaume    I.   de    la    Roche. 
Dns  G.  Dvx  Athens. 

1287  Gui  II.  de  la  Roche.     Gvtot, 

Di>x  AtW,  or  Gi>i. 
1308  Gauthier  de  Brienne.     G. 

Despots  of  Epirus 
Angelas     Com 

1205  Michael     I. 

1214  Theodorus     Angelus      Com 


1230  Manuel. 
1237  Michael  II. 

1271   Nicephorus  I. 
1296  Thomas. 
1318  Nicolo  Orsini. 

1310  IMCOIO  ursmi. 

1323  Gio.  Orsini.     lohs.  Despotvs. 

1335   Nicephorus  II. 

Signori  of  Mytilenc  and  of  Aenos  in  Thrace 

1355  Francesco  I. ,Gattilusio.  F.G., 
or  Franciscvs  Gatilvxivs. 

1376  Jacopo  Gattilusio.  Jacoln>s 

1396  Francesco  II.  Gattilusio. 

1400  Doimo  Gattilusio.      Dorinvs 

1449  Domenico     Gattilusio.       D. 

Domincvs  G. 
1459  Nicolo  Gattilusio.      Nicolavs 

G.,  or  Nyovlaoys. 

Genoese  Lords  of  C/n'o 

1304  Benedetto  I.,  Zaccaria. 
1307  Pala?ologo  Zaccaria. 
1314  Martino   and    Benedetto   II., 
Zaccaria.     M.  and  B.  Zacha- 

1314  Martino     alone.         M.      Z. 

S[crvus]  Impator\is\ 
1362  The  Giustiniani. 

Sebastocrators  of  Thessaly 

1271  Johannes    I.   Angelus    Com- 

1296  Constantinus  Angelus. 

1303-18  Johannes  1 1.  Angelus  Com- 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         261 


Seigneurs,  Counts,  and  Dukes  of  Gueldres 

870  Guichard. 

910  Gerlac  I. 

937  Geoffroi. 

978  Guichard  II. 

1001   Wiking. 
1025  Guichard  III. 
1079  Alix.  Otho  of  Nassau,  Count 
of  Gueldres. 
Gerard  of  Nassau. 
1134  Henry.     Henricvs. 
1163  Gerard  II.     G. 
1182  Otho  I. 

1207  Gerard  III.     Gerar. 
1229  Otho  II.     Otto. 

1271  Raynald  I.,  Duke  of  Gueldres. 

1326  Raynald  II. 

1343-44  Eleonora,  regent  or  guar- 
dian. Alynora  Dvcissa. 

1344-61  Edward.     Edewardvs. 

1371  Raynald  III. 

1372  Mary  and  William  of  Juliers. 


1402  William  IV. 

1423.  Arnould,  Count  of  Egmont. 

1472  Charles  le  Tdmeraire,  Duke 
of  Burgundy,  the  last  duke 
of  Gueldres  having  disin- 
herited his  heir  Adolphus. 


863  Thierri  I. 

T^  .       fThierri  II. 
Dates  I  T,,  •      •  TTT 
J  Thierri  III. 

.   \  Thierri  IV. 
n  VFlorent  I.  [?  de  Voogd.] 
1061  Thierri  V. 
1091   Florent  or  Floris  II. 
1 1 22  Thierri  VI. 
1157  Florent  III.     Florenz. 
1190  Thierri  VII. 

1203  Ada. 

1204  Willem  I. 

1223  Florent  IV.     Florens. 
1235  Willem  II. 

1257-58  Florent  of  Holland,  regent. 
1266  Florent  V.     F.  or  Florentivs. 
1296  John  I.     /.or  lohes. 
1299  John  II.  of  Hainault. 
1304  Willem  III.     W.  or  Gvillelm. 
1337  Willem  IV. 
1356  Willem  V.     Gvill.  Gvll. 
1377  Albert  of  Bavaria.     Albert. 
1404  Willem  VI.    Gvill.   Gvillelm. 
1417  Jacqueline. 
1421  John  of  Bavaria.     loJf. 
1428  Philippe  le  Bon,  Duke  of  Bur- 

1 06 1  Waleran. 
1 08 1   Henry. 
1118  Waleran  II. 
1139  Henri  II. 
1170  Henri  III. 

Dukes  of  Limburg  in  Brabant 

1 2 10  Waleran  III. 
1226  Henri  IV. 
1246  Waleran  IV. 
1276  Ermengarde    and     Raynald, 
Duke  of  Gueldres. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Counts  and  Dukes  of  Luxemburgh 

963  Sigefroi,  brother  of  Godefroi, 

Count  of  Verdun. 
998  Frederic  I. 

1019  Gilbert  I. 

1057  Conrad  I. 

1086  Henri  I. 

1128  Conrad  II. 

1136  Henri  II.,  the  Blind,  son  of 
Godefroi,  Count  of  Namur, 
maternal  grandson  of  Con- 
rad I.  Hanri. 

1196  Guillaume  I. 

Thibaut,  Comte  de  Bar. 

1214  Ermesinde  de  Luxemburgh 
and  Waleran,  Duke  of  Lim- 

1226  Henri  III.,  Count  of  Luxem- 
burgh and  of  Ligny,  Marquis 
of  Arlon.  Hanri. 

1280  Henri  IV. 

1288  Henry  V.,  emperor  in  1308. 
H.  or  Hcnricvs. 

1309  John,  the  Blind,  King  of  Bo- 
hemia and  Poland. 

1346  Charles,  King  of  Bohemia 
and  emperor.  Karol. 

1353  Wenceslas,  first  duke,  and 
Jeanne.  Wincel. 

1383  Wenceslas  1 1.,  emperor.  Wen- 

1388  Jodocus  of  Moravia,  emperor. 
lodoc.  March.  Dns.  Moraine. 

1402  Louis  d'Orleans. 

1407  Jodocus  restored. 

1411  Anthoine  de  Bourgogne,  Due 
de  Brabant.  Ant/to. 

1415  Elizabeth  of  Goerlitz  and  John 
of  Bavaria.  Elizab.  loh. 

1451  Philippe  le  Bon,  Duke  of 
Burgundy,  by  purchase. 

Counts  of  Namur 

908  Berenger  of  Lomme. 
973  Ratbode  I.,  Count  of  Lomme 
and  Namur. 

Ratbode  1 1.,  Count  of  Namur. 
Albert  I.,  his  brother. 
1016  Albert  II. 
1037  Albert  III.,  Count  of  Namur 

and  Brugeron.     Albertvs. 
1105  Godefroid. 

1139  Henri  I.,  the  Blind.     Einric. 
1189  Baudouin  V. 
1196  Philippe  the  Noble. 
12 1 2  Pierre  de    Courtenay  et  Yo- 

1216  Philip  II. 

1226  Henry  II. 

1229  Margaret      and      Henry     of 


1237  Baudouin  de  Courtenay. 
1263  Gui    de    Dampierre.      G.    or 


1297  John  I.,  Heervan  Slijs.    lohes. 
1331  John  II.,  lo. 

1335  Guido.     G.,  or  Giydo. 

1336  Philip  III.     Phis. 

1337  William  I. 
1391  William  II. 
1418  John     III., 

called    Thierri. 

1814  Willem  I. 
1840  Willem  II. 

Kings  of  the  Netherlands 

1849  Willem  III. 
1889  Wilhelmina  I. 

The  grand-duchy  of  Luxemburgh  has  passed  to  the  Duke  of  Nassau. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         26, 

Seigneurs  of  Reckheim 

1397  Willem  I. 

1400  Willem  II. 

1442  Willem  III. 

1480  Isabel  and  John  of  Pirmont. 

1501   Gerard  of  Pirmont. 

John  of  Pirmont  and  Anne  de 

la  Marck. 
1541   Robert  de  la  Marck. 

1545  John  of  Hamin. 
1 6th  c.  The  Vlodorp  family. 
Herman  van  Lynden. 
1603  Ernest. 
1636  Ferdinand. 
1665  Francois  Gobert. 
1703-8  Ferdinand  Gobert. 

Counts  of  s*  Heerenberg 

1331  Adam  III.     Ade.  D.  Mote. 

Margaret,  his  widow.     Mar- 


1354  William  I.      Wilhelmvs. 
1387  Frederic  III.     Fredericks. 
1416  William    II.      Wilhelm,   Dn. 

de  Berge. 
1465.  Oswald  I. 

1506  William  III. 
1511   Oswald  II.     Oswald. 
1546  William  IV.     Gvil,  etc. 
1577  Frederic  of  Berg.     Fre.  C.  D. 

Mo.,  etc. 

1626  Henry.     Henricvs. 
1627-31  Herman  Frederic.       Her. 


Bishops  of  Utrecht 

870  Odibald. 

goo  Egibold. 

901  Ratbod. 

918  Balderic. 

977  Folkmar. 

991   Baudouin. 

995  Ansfrid. 
1010  Adelbold. 
1028  Bernold. 

1054  Wilhelm. 
1076  Conrad. 
1099  Burckhard. 
1113  Godebald. 
1128  Andrew   de    Cuyk,    adminis- 

1138  Heribert. 
1152  Herman. 
1 1 56  Godefroi. 
1178  Baudouin. 

1196  Arnould. 

1197  Thierri  I. 

1198  Thierri  II.  of  Namur. 
1213  Otho  I.  of  Gueldres. 
1215  Otho  II.  of  Lippe. 

Bernoi,     or    Ber- 




1228  Willebrand. 
1235  Otho  III. 

1249  Godwin. 

1250  Henry    of   Vianen.       Henri- 


1267  John  I.  of  Nassau. 
1288  John  II.  of  Zirk. 
1296  Willem  II. 
1301  Gui  of  Hennegau. 
1312  Jacob. 

John  III.  of  Diest. 
1317  Frederic  II. 
1341   Nicolo  Capucci. 

John  IV.  of  Arkel. 
1364  John  V. 
1371  Arnould  of  Horn. 
1379  Florent.     Floren. 
1393  Frederic  III.     Frederic. 
1425  Suederus. 
1433  Rodolph  of  Diepholt.    Rodlp. 

1456  Gisbert. 

1457  David  de  Bourgogne. 
1496  Frederic  of  Baden. 
1519  Philippe  de  Bourgogne. 


Datfs  )  Bruno  I. 

The  Coins  of  Europe 

Counts  of  West  Fries! and 

1038-57  Bruno  III. 
1057-68  Egbert  I. 
1068-90  Egbert  II. 

Kings  of  the  Belgians 
1831-65  Leopold  I.  of  Saxe-Coburg.       1865  Leopold  II.,  son. 

Counts  of  Flanders 

862  Beaudouin  I.,  son-in-law  of 
Charles  le  Chauve,  and  Grand 
Forester  of  Flanders. 

879  Beaudouin  or  Baudouin  II., 
Count  of  Flanders,  Boulogne, 
and  Ternois. 

918  Arnould  I.,  Count  of  Flanders, 
and,  on  the  death  of  his 
brother  Adolphe  in  933,  of 
Boulogne  and  Ternois.  He 
associated  in  958  his  son 
Baudouin  III.,  who  died  in 

965  Arnould  II 
988  Baudouin 

1036  Baudouin  V. 

1067  Baudouin  VI.,  Count  of  Hain- 
ault, yVm-  u.voris. 

1070  Robert  I.,  Count  of  Flanders 
and  Alost.  Koberti. 

1093  Robert  II. 

I  ill  Baldwin  VII. 

1119  Charles  of  Denmark,  cousin- 

1127  Guillaume     de      Normandie, 


1128  Thierri  D'Alsace,  cousin. 


IV.   Baldi'ini's 

1 191 



Philippe  D'Alsace,  Count  of 
Flanders  and  Yermandois. 
Ph.  Comes  or  Philippus. 

Marguerite,  sister,  with  Bau- 
douin Y.  of  Hainault  and 
YIII.  of  Flanders. 

Baudouin  IX.,  Count  of  Flan- 
ders and  Hainault,  Emperor 
of  Constantinople.  B.  Comes. 

Jeanne  and  Ferdinand  of 

Marguerite,  sister,  and  Guil- 
laume de  Dampierre,  her  son. 

Gui  de  Dampierre,  brother  of 

Philippe  de  Thielte,  adminis- 
trator. Filp. 

Robert  de  Bethune.  His  son 
Louis  d.  I'itA  patris. 

Louis  de  Crecy,  Count  of 
Nevers,  and 


Louis   de 


Marguerite,      daughter,      in. 

Philippe  le  Hardi,  Duke  of 


Maele,    Count    of 
Nevers,  and  Re- 

Cottnts  of  Hainault 

998  Rainier  IV. 
1013  Rainier  V.    Rennadvs. 

1030  Rainier  VI. 

1031  Richilde,    and    Baldwin    V., 

Count  of  Flanders. 

1071  Baldwin  II. 

1099  Baldwin  III. 

1 1 20  Baldwin  IV. 

1 1 70  Baldwin  V. 

1195  Baldwin  VI. 


Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         265 

1206  Jeanne. 

1244  Margaret  of  Constantinople. 

1280  Jean   II.,   D'Avesnes.      lohs. 

1304  Guillaume  I.,  le  Bon.     G.  or 


1337  Guillaume  II.     Gvllelmvs. 
1345   Marguerite  II.  and  Louis  IV. 

of  Bavaria,  emperor. 
1356  William      III.     of    Bavaria. 


1389  Albert  of  Bavaria,  regent. 

Albert  of  Bavaria,   Count  of 

1404  William  IV.     Gvilm. 

1417  Jacqueline  of  Bavaria,  m.  (i) 
John  IV.,  Duke  of  Brabant, 
(2)  Humphrey,  Duke  of  Glou- 

1427  Philip  le  Bon,  Duke  of  Bur- 
gundy. Phs. 

Bishops  of  Ltige  to  1744 

856  Francon. 

903  Etienne. 

920  Richer. 

945  Hugues  I. 

947  Farabert  or  Floribert. 

954  Rathier. 

956  Baudri  I. 

959  Eraclius. 

972  Notger  or  Notker. 
1008  Baudri  II. 
1018  Walbodon. 
1021   Durand. 
1025  Reginard. 
1039  Nithard. 
1042  Wazo. 
1048  Theodwin. 
1076  Henri.     Henric. 
1092  Otbert.     Obertvs. 
1119  Frederic. 
1 12 1  Alberon  I.     Albero. 
1128  Alexandre.     Alexand. 
1136  Alberon  II.  of  Gueldres. 
1145  Henri  II.  of  Limburg.     Hen- 
ricvs  Secvndvs. 

1166  Alexandre  II.     A. 

1167  Raoul.     Rot.  Rode. 
1191  Albert  I.     Alb. 

1 194  Albert  II. 
1 200  Hugues  II. 
1229  Jean  II.     lohs. 
1238  Guillaume. 
1240  Robert.     Robt. 

1247  Henri  III. 

1274  Jean  III.  of  Enghien. 

1282  Jean  IV.     Johannes. 

1292  Gui. 

1296  Hugues      III.     of     Chalon. 


1301  Adolphe  of  Waldeck.    AdvlJ. 
1 303  Thibaut  of  Bar.     Thcob. 
1313  Adolphe  II.  de  la  Marck. 
1345  Engelbert  de  la  Marck. 
1364  Jean  V.  of  Arckel. 
1378  Arnould  of  Homes. 
1390  Jean  VI.  of  Bavaria.     lohs  dc 


1418  Jean  VII.  of  Walenrode. 

1419  Jean    VIII.     of    Heinsberg. 


1456  Louis  de  Bourbon.     Zvdo. 
1484  Jean  IX.  of  Homes.     Jo.  de 


1506  Erard  de  la  Marck. 
1522  Cornelius  van  Berghen. 
1544  Georges  of  Austria. 
1557  Robert  II.  of  Berghen. 
1562  Gerard  van  Grosbeck. 
1581  Ernest  of  Bavaria. 
1600  Ferdinand  of  Bavaria. 
1649  Maximilian  Henry  of  Bavaria. 
1688  Jean  Louis  of  Elderen. 
1694  Jean  Clement  of  Bavaria. 
1724  G.  Louis  of  Berghen. 
1744  Jean  Theodore  of  Bavaria. 

Counts  of  Loos 

1 107  Arnould  V. 
1146  Louis  I. 


Gerard  I. 
Louis  II. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1218  Arnould  VI. 

1223  Louis  III. 

1229  Arnould  VII. 

1256  Jean. 

1280  Arnold  VI 1 1.  A.m  Arnoldvs. 

1328  Louis  IV.     Lvdovicvs. 

1336  Thierri    de     Heinsberg.      T. 

1361  Godefroi     de      Dalembrock. 

1363  Arnould     d'Orey,     Sire     de 

Jean  d'Arkel,  Bishop  of  Liege. 


Kings  of  Italy 

1805-14  Napoldon  I. 

1861  Vittorio  Emmanuele  II.  (of  Sardinia). 

1878  Umberto  I. 

Ostrogothic  Kings 

493  Theodoric. 
526  Amalasunda. 

Athalaric.     D.  N.  Athalaricvs 

534  Theodath.     D.  N.  Thcodathos 


536  Matasunda,    widow.       Mono- 

540  Ildibad. 

541  Eraric. 

Baduila  or  Totila.     D.  N.  Ba- 
di'ila  Rex. 

536  Witiges.     D.  N.  Witigcs  Rex.       552  Theia  or  Thila.  Domnvs  Theia. 

P.  Rex  or  D.  N.  Theila  Rex. 

Lombard  Kings 

568  Albwin  or  Alboin. 
573  Cleph. 

Government  of  the  Thirty. 
586  Antharis. 
591  Agilhulf. 
615  Adelwalt. 
625  Ariowalt. 
636  Rotharis  or  Rudhar. 
652  Rodoald  or  Rudwalt. 
654  Aripert. 

66 1  Pertharit  or  Gunbert. 

662  Grimoald. 

672  Pertharit  again. 

680  Cunipert  and  his  father,  679- 

88.     D.  N.  Cvnincpert. 
702  Luitpert. 


Aripert  1 1.    D.  N.  Aripert  Rex. 
713  Ansprand. 

Luitprand.     D.  N.  Ltpran. 
744  Hildebrand. 


749  Astulph.     D.  N.  Aistvlf  Rex. 
756  Desiderius.     D.  N.  Desider. 
774  Athalgis.     Monogram. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         267 

Kings  of  Italy  and  Emperors  of  the  West 

754  Pepin  le  Bref. 

774  Charlemagne. 

781   Pepin  II.  or  Carloman. 

812  Bernard,  natural  son. 

814  Louis  le  Debonnaire. 

820  Lothair  I. 

844  Louis  II. 

876  Charles  le  Chauve. 

Carloman  of  Bavaria. 

The  imperial  throne  vacant. 
879  Charles  le  Gros. 
888  Berenger  of  Friuli. 

Rodolph  II.  of  Burgundy. 

889  Guy  of  Spoleto. 
891   Lambert,  son. 
896  Arnold  of  Bavaria,  son  of  Car- 
loman of  Bavaria. 
899  Louis  III.  of  Provence. 

Louis  IV.,  the  Young. 
926  Hugh  of  Provence. 
931   Lothair,  son,  associated. 
946  Alberic  of  Tuscany. 
950  Berenger  II.  of  Ivry. 

Otho  I.,  King  of  Germany. 

Norman  Dukes  of  Apulia 

1075  Robert  Guiscard.     Ro.  or  Rober. 

1085  Roger  Borsa.     Rogcrivs  Dvx  ;  Rog.  Dvx,  Salerno,  etc. 
1 1 1 1  William.      W.  Dvx  Apulia,  or  Gvi.  Dvx. 
1127  Roger  II.     R. 
Roger  III. 

Dukes  of  Bencventum 

651   Grimoald  I.,  king  in  662. 

663  Romoald  I. 

683  Grimoald  II. 

690  Gishulf  I. 

707  Romoald  II.     A'. 

721  Andelas. 

722  Gregory.     G. 
729  Godescalc. 
733  Gishulf  II. 
750  Luitprand.     L. 
758  Arrigis.     A. 

787  Grimoald  III.     Grimvald. 
806  Grimoald       IV.         Grimoald 

Filivs  Ermenrid. 
817  Sigo  I.     Sigo  Princeps. 
832  Sicardus.     Sicardv. 


88 1 



Radelchis.  Radelchis  Prin- 




Radelchis  II. 



Greek  domination. 

Guido,  Duke  of  Spoleto. 

Radelchis  II.  again. 

Atenhulf,  Prince  of  Capua. 

6 1  Pandulfus,  Prince  of 

Landulfus,  Prince  of  Capua. 

Princes  of  Capua 

900-10  Atenhulf. 

943-1059  (?)  Pandulfus  I. 

Landulfus  II. 

1059  Richard  I.  Richard.  Princeps. 
1 1 06  Robert.     Robertvs.  Princeps. 

1136  Anfusus. 

Anfusus,  and  his  father  Roger 
II.,  King  of  Sicily.  Obv. 
A.  P.,  rev.  R.  R. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Dukes  of  Ferrara,  Modena,  and  Reggio 

1195  Salinguerra,  Ghibeline  chief. 

1196  Azzo    I.,  D'Este,  Podesta  of 

1208  Azzo  I.,  D'Este,  perpetual  sig- 

nore,  Marquis  of  Ancona. 
1212  Salinguerra    and    Aldrovan- 

dini,  son  of  Azzo. 
1215  Salinguerra    and    Azzo     II., 

brother  of  Aldrovandini. 
1264  Obizzo  D'Este,   grandson  of 

Azzo   II.,   Lord  of  Ferrara, 

Reggio,  and  Modena. 
1294  Azzo  III. 
1308  Fulco,  natural  son. 
1317  RainaldoandNicolo,nephews 

of  Azzo  III. 

1344  Obizzo  1 1.,  D'Este.  Qp.Mchio. 
'353  Aldrovandini  II.,  son. 
1361   Nicolo  II.,  brother.     Nichol. 


1388  Alberto,  brother. 

1393  Nicolo  III. 

1441   Lionello,  natural  son.     Leon- 

dh>  Marchio. 
1450  Borso,    brother,    first    duke. 

Borsivs  Dvx. 

1471  Ercole  I.,  brother.     Hercules. 
1502  Alfonso  I.     Alfonso's. 
1534  Ercole  II.     Hercules  II. 
1559  Alfonso  II.     A  If  OUSTS  II. 
1 597  Cesare,  grandson  of  Alfonso 


1628  Alfonso  1 1 1.,  Duke  of  Modena. 

1629  Francesco  I. 
1658  Alfonso  IV. 
1662  Francesco  II. 
1694  Rainaldo. 
'737  Francesco  III. 
1780-96  Ercole  III.  Rainaldo. 

Grand  Masters  of  the  Order  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem  at  Malta  ' 

1 534  Pietro  da  Ponte. 

1535  Desiderius  de  Saint  Jaile. 

1536  Jean  d'Homedes. 

1553  Jean  de  Lavalette  Parisot. 

1568  Pietro  da  Monte. 

1572  Jean  Levesque  de  la  Cassiere. 

1586  Hugo  de  Loubens  Verdale. 

1595   Martin  de  Garzez. 

1601  Alof  de  Wignacourt. 

1622  Louis    Mendez    de    Vascon- 


1623  Antonio  de  Paule. 

1636  Paul  Lascaris  Castellard. 
1657  Martin  de  Redin. 
1660  Annet  de  Clermont. 

1660  Raphael  Cotoner. 

1663  Nicolas  Cotoner. 

1680  Gregorio  Caraffa. 

1690  Adrien  de  Wignacourt. 

1 697  Raimond  Perellos  de  Rocafort. 

1720  Michele  Antonio  Zondonari. 

1722  Antonio  Manuel  de  Vilhena. 

1736  Raimond  Despuig  de  Monte- 

1741   Emmanuele    Pinto    de    Fon- 

1773  Francisco  Ximenes  de  Tex- 


1775  Emmanuel  de  Rohan. 
1797  Ferdinand  de  Hompesch. 

1  The  coinage  of  the  Order,  prior  to  its  settlement  in  Europe,  does  not  come 
within  the  scope  of  the  present  work. 

Captains,  Marquises,  atid  Dukes  of  Mantua 

{The  Countess  Matilda. 
Lodovico,  Count  of  San  Bonifacio. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Riilers         269 

1272  Pinamonte  Bonacossi,  Lord  of  Mantua. 

1293  Bardellone  Bonacossi,  Lord  of  Mantua. 

1299  Bottesilla  Bonacossi,  Lord  of  Mantua. 

1310  Passerino  and  Bectirone  Bonacossi,  Lords  of  Mantua. 

1329  Lodovico  I.,  Gonzaga,  Captain  of  Mantua. 

1360  Guidone  Gonzaga,  Captain  of  Mantua. 

1369  Lodovico  II.,  Gonzaga,  Captain  of  Mantua. 

1382  Francesco  I.,  Gonzaga,  Captain  of  Mantua.     Francischvs. 

1407  Gio.  Francesco  Gonzaga,  Marquis  of  Mantua,     lohs.  Fracisc. 

1444  Lodovico  III.,  Gonzaga,  Marquis  of  Mantua. 

1478  Federigo  I.,  Gonzaga,  Marquis  of  Mantua. 

1484  Gio.  Francesco  II.,  Gonzaga,  Marquis  of  Mantua. 

1519  Federigo  II.,  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua  and  (c.  1533)  Marquis  of 
Monteferrato.  Fed. 

1540  Francesco  III.,  Gonzaga,  Duke  of  Mantua  and  Marquis  of  Monte- 

1550  Guglielmo  and  Margherita,  Dukes  of  Mantua  and  Marquises  of 

Mezzo-testone,  1564:  silver. 

1587  Vincenzo  I.     Vincentivs. 

1612  Carlo  I.,  son  of  Lodovico  Gonzaga,  Due  de  Nevers,  and  grandson 

of  Federigo  II. 

1637  Carlo  II.,  grandson,  and  Maria  regent  till  1647. 
1675  Ferdinando  Carlo  and  Isabella  Clara  of  Austria. 
1709  Mantua  added  to  the  empire  and  Monteferrato  annexed  to  Savoy. 

Dukes  of  Milan 

1257  Martino  della  Torre,  Lord  of 

the  Milanese. 
1263  Filippo,  brother. 
1265  Napoleon,  relative. 
1277  Ottone  Visconti,  Archbishop 

of  Milan. 

1295  Matteo  Visconti,  nephew. 
1322  Galeazzo  Visconti. 
1329  Azzo  Visconti.     Azo. 
1 339  Luchino,  uncle,  and  Giovanni. 

lohes  and  Lvchinvs. 

1349  Giovanni,  son  of  Matteo  I. 

1354  Matteo  II.,  Bernabo  and 
Galeazzo,  illegitimate  sons. 

1385  Gio.  Galeazzo,  son  of  Gale- 
azzo. lohs. 

1402  Gio.  Maria.     lohanes. 

1412  Filippo  Maria,  brother.  Filip. 

1450  Francesco  Sforza  Visconti, 
who  married  Bianca, 
daughter  of  last  duke. 

270  The  Coins  of  Europe 

1466  Galeazzo  Maria    Sforza  Vis-  1512  Maximilian,  son  of  Lodovico- 

conti.  Maria. 

1476  Giovanni  Galeazzo  Maria  and  1515  Francis  I.,  King  of  France. 

Bonne    of    Savoy.     lo.    Ga.  1521   Francesco  Maria  II.,  son  of 

Bona.  Lodovico  Maria  Sforza  Vis- 

1494  Lodovico  Maria,  son  of  Fran-  conti.     Francisms  II. 

cesco  Sforza  Visconti.  Lvdo-  1535  Annexed  to  the  Empire. 

•vicvs  M.  Sf.  Annexed  to  Spain. 

1500  Louis  XII.,  King  of  France.  1714  Annexed  to  the  Empire. 

Signori  and  Princes  of  Mirandola 

1306  Francesco    I.,    Pico,  imperial  1533  Galeotto  II. 

vicar,  Signore  of  Mirandola.  1550  Lodovico  II. 

1321-54  Interregnum.  [Brendiparte.  1568  Galeotto  III. 

Paolo.]  1590  Federigo,    Prince   of  Miran- 
1354  Francesco  II.  dola  and   Marquis  of  Con- 

1399  Francesco  III.  cordia. 

1461  Giovanni  Francesco  I.  1602  Alessandro  I. 

1467  Galeotto  I.  1637  Alessandro  II. 

1499  Giovanni  Francesco  II.  1691-1708  Francesco  Maria. 

. '.  The  title  merged  in  that  of  Modena. 

Princes  of  Monaco 

1275  Rainerio  I.,  Grimaldi.  1605  Onorato  II.,  Grimaldi. 

1300  Rainerio  II.,  Grimaldi.  1662  Lodovico  Grimaldi. 

1330  Carlo  I.,  Grimaldi.  1701  Antonio  Grimaldi. 

1363  Rainerio  III.,  Grimaldi.  1731  Onorato     III.,     Goyon-Gri- 

1407  Giovanni  Grimaldi.  maldi. 

1454  Catalano  Grimaldi.  1793-1815   Interregnum. 

1457  Lamberto  Grimaldi.  1815  Onorato  IV. 

1505  Luciano  Grimaldi.  1819  Onorato  V. 

1525  Onorato  I.,  Grimaldi.  1841   Fiorestano. 

1581  Carlo  II.,  Grimaldi.  1856  Carlo  III. 

1589  Ercole  I.,  Grimaldi. 

Marquises  of  Monteferrato 

967  Date  of  original  concession.  1 1 1 1   Reginbar. 

In  or  be-/Alram  or  Adelram.  1140  Girolamo  III. 

fore  991  \Ottone.  1183  Conrad. 

991-1031  Girolamo  I.  1192  Bonifacio  I. 

1040-84  Ottone.  1207  Girolamo  IV. 

1093  Girolamo  II.  1225  Bonifacio  II. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Riders         2  7 1 

1255  Girolamo  V.  1445  Giovanni  III.,  Palasologo. 

1292  Giovanni.  1464  Girolamo  I.,  Palasologo. 

1305  Teodoro  I.,  Palasologo.  1483  Bonifacio  I.,  Palasologo. 

1338  Giovanni  I.,  Palasologo.  1494  Guglielmo  II.,  Palasologo. 

1372  Secondotto  Palasologo.  1518  Bonifacio  II.,  Palasologo. 

1378  Giovanni  II.,  Palasologo.  1530  Giovanni      Giorgio      Palaso- 

1381  Teodoro  II.,  Palasologo.  logo. 

1418  Giovanni  Giacomo  Palasologo.       1533-36  Carlo  V.,  Palasologo. 

Signori  of  Padua 

Jacopo  da  Carrara,  d.  1190. 

Marsilio  da  Carrara. 

1318-24  Jacopo  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua. 
1337-38  Marsilio  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua. 
1339-45  Ubertino  da  Carrara,  papal  legate  in  Padua. 
1345  Jacopo  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua. 
1350  Jacobino  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua. 
1355  Francesco  I.  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua. 

1388  Francesco  II.  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua.    / 

1406  Francesco  III.  da  Carrara,  Signore  of  Padua.  I         ov 

Dukes  of  Parma  and  Piacenza 

1546  Pietro  Lodovico  Farnese,  son  1694  Francesco. 

of  Pope  Paul  III.  1727  Antonio,  brother. 

1547  Ottavio  Farnese.     Oct.  Far.  1731   Carlos  of  Spain. 
1586  Alessandro    Farnese.      Alex.  1737  Filippo  of  Spain. 

Far.  1765-1802  Ferdinand  of  Spain. 

1592  Ranucio    I.    Farnese.      Ran.  1815  Marie     Louise,     consort     of 

Far.  Napoldon  I. 

1622  Odoardo  Farnese.     Odoardvs  1847  Charles  III.  de  Bourbon. 

Far.  1854-59  Robert. 
1646  Ranucio    II.   Farnese.     Ran. 


Counts  and  Dukes  of  Savoy 

1000  Berold  or  Berthold,  Count  of  1148  Umberto  1 1 1.,  Count  of  Savoy. 

Maurienne.  Vmbertvs. 

1024  Umberto  I.,  grandson  of  Louis  1188  Tommaso,    Count   of  Savoy, 

III.,  King  of  Burgundy.  vicar-general   of  the  empe- 

1048  Amadeo  I.  ror  in  Piedmont  and  Lom- 

1050  Pietro  I.,  Marquis  of  Turin.  bardy. 

1070  Amadeo  II.,  brother.  1233  Amadeo  IV.,  Count  of  Savoy, 

1080  Umberto  II.,  Marquis  of  Susa  Duke  of  Chablais  and  Aosta, 

and  Turin.      Vmbertvs.  vicar-general  of  the  empire. 

1 1 08  Amadeo  III.     Amedevs.  Amedevs. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1253  Pietro  II.,  brother,  and  Boni- 
facio, his  nephew.  Pctrvs. 

1268  Filippo,  Archbp.  of  Lyons, 
brother  of  Amadeo  IV. 

1285  Amadeo  V.,  brother  of  Ama- 
deo IV.  Ameds. 

1323  Odoardo.     Edvard. 

1329  Aimone.     Aitno. 

1343  Amadeo  VI.,  "the  Green 
Count."  Amedei's. 

1383  Amadeo  VI  I.,  the  Red.  Ame- 

1391  Amadeo  VIII.,  Count  of  the 
Genevois,  first  Duke  of 

1439  Ludovico.     Li'dovici's. 

1465  Amadeo  IX.     Ainedevs. 

1472  Filiberto.     Philip. 

1482  Carlo  I.     Karoh's. 

1490  Carlo  II.  and  Bianca, 

1496  Filippo,   brother  of  Amadeo 


1497  Filippo  II.     Philibtvs. 

1504  Carlo  III.,  brother.     Caroh's. 
1553  Emmanuele  Filiberto.     Em. 

Philip,  or  Filib. 
1580  Carlo    Emmanuele    I.      Car. 

1630  Vittorio   Emmanuele    I.      V. 


1637  Francesco  Hiacinto. 
1637-40  Spaniards  occupy  Turin. 
1638-47  Carlo  Emmanuele  II.  and 

his  mother,  Maria  Cristina, 

1647-75  Carlo      Emmanuele      II., 

1675  Vittorio  Amadeo  II.,  King  of 

Sicily  and  Sardinia. 
1730  Carlo  Emmanuele  III. 
1773  Vittorio  Amadeo  III. 
1796  Carlo  Emmanuele  IV. 
1802  Vittorio  Emmanuele  I. 
1821   Carlo  Felice. 
1831   Carlo  Alberto. 
1849  Vittorio  Emmanuele  II. 

Barons  dc  Vaud 

1284  Louis   I.,  Comte  de  Vaud,  Seigneur  de  Bugey  (son  of  Thomas, 

Count  of  Piedmont,  Flanders,  and  Maurienne). 
1302  Louis  II. 
1350  Catherine,  Dame  de  Vaud.     She  sells  the  domain  to  Amadeo  VI. 

of  Savoy. 

Marquises  and  Dukes  of  Tuscany  and  Grand-Dukes  and  Kings 
of  Etruria 

828  Bonifacio,  Count  of  Lucca  and 
Marquis  of  Tuscany. 

845  Adalbert  I., duke  and  marquis. 

890  Adalbert  II.,  duke  and  mar- 

917  Guido. 

929  Lambert,  brother. 

931  Boso. 

936  Hubert,  Duke  of  Tuscany  and 
Spoleto,  Marquis  of  Camer- 

961   Hugo. 

looi  Adalbert  III. 

1014  Renier. 

1027  Bonifacio  II  of  Modena. 

1052  Federigo  Bonifacio. 

1055  Beatrice  of  Haute -Lorraine, 
mother,  and  Geoffroi  le 

1076  Mathilde  and  Guelf  of  Bava- 
ria, of  the  house  of  Este. 

1115  Henry  V. ,  emperor. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  Eiiropean  Rulers         273 

^  1620 

1119  1630 

JJ3Hlmperial  vicars.  l6?o 

H53  1723 


II9S~IS33  Florentine       Republic:       1737 

The  Gonfalonieri.  1765 

1533  Alessandro  de'  Medici,  Duke 

of  the  Republic  of  Florence.       1 790 
1536  Cosmo  I.  de'  Medici,  Grand-       1801 

Duke  of  Etruria. 
1574  Francesco  Maria. 
1587  Ferdinando  I. 
1608  Cosmo  II. 

/.  The  grand-duchy  was  annexed  to  the  kingdom  of  Italy. 

Ferdinando  II. 

Christine  de  Lorraine,  widow 

of  Ferdinando  I. 
Cosmo  III. 
Gio.   Gastone  I.,  last  of  the 


Francis  of  Lorraine. 
Pierre     Leopold    Joseph    of 


1 80 1   Ferdinand  III. 
7  Charles     Louis,     King     of 


Ferdinand  III.  again. 
Leopold  II. 
Ferdinand  IV. 

Vicars,  Counts,  Podeste,  and  Dukes  of  Urbino 

1155  Antonio  di   Montefeltro,  im- 
perial vicar  in  Urbino. 

His  son. 

1236  Bonconte,  Count  of  Urbino. 
1255  Montefeltrano,      Podesta     of 

1298  Guidone  di  Montefeltro. 

Federigo,  Count  of  Urbino. 
1322-59  Rolfo. 

1375  Antonio,  Count  of  Urbino. 

1404  Guidone  Antonio. 

1443  Ottone  Antonio. 

1444  Federigo. 

1482  Guidone  Ubaldo  I. 

1508  Francesco    Maria   della]  Ro- 

vere,  Duke  of  Urbino. 
1538  Guido  Ubaldo  II. 
1574  Francesco  Maria  II. 
1621   Federigo  Ubaldo. 
1623  Vittoria,  m.    Ferdinando   II., 

Grand-Duke  of  Tuscany. 

Signori  of  Verona 

Jacobino  della  Scala  of  Ver- 

1262  Martino  I.,  Capitano  del 

1277  Alberto  I.,  Signore  of  Verona. 

1301  Bartolomeo  I. 

1304  Albovino,  imperial  vicar  in 

1311  Alberto  II. 
1329  Martino  II. 
1351-52  Can-Grande  II. 
1359  Paolo  Albovino. 
1365  Cane. 
1375  Bartolomeo  II. 
1381  Antonio. 
1387-92  Gianfrancesco. 

Norman  Kings  of  Sicily 

1072  Roger  I.;  Grand-Count  of  Calabria  and  Sicily.     Rogerivs  Comes. 



The  Coins  of  Europe 

1105  Roger  II.     Rogerivs  Comes,  [after  ii3ol]  Ro.  Rx. ;  Rogerivs.  Rex; 

R.  //.,  etc. 

1 1 54  William  I.      W.  Rex  Dvx  Apvl. 

1 1 66  William  II.     W.  R.  Sicil.  Dvcaf  Apvl'  Princ.  Cap.  or  W.  Rex  II. 
1 190  Tancred.     Tacd.  or  Rex  Tancre. 

1193  Tancred,  and  Roger  III.  son,  Kings  of  Sicily. 
Tancred,  and  William  III.  son. 

1194  William  III.  alone.     G.  R.  or  Gvi  or  Gvil. 

1  He  became  King  of  Sicily  in  1130. 

Kings  of  Sicily 

1194  Henry  VI.,  Emperor  of  Ger- 
many, and  Constance.  E. 
He.  C. 

1197  Frederic  I.     f.,  etc. 

1231   Frederic  II.     Fridcrict. 

1250  Conrad  I. 

1254-68  Conrad  II.,  or  Conradin. 

1258-66  Manfred,  his  uncle, 

1266-82  Charles  I.  of  Anjou. 

1282  Constance,  daughter  of  Man- 
fred, and  Pedro  I.  of  Arra- 
gon.  Costa  P. 

1285  James  I. 

1296  Frederic  II. 
1337  Peter  II. 
1342  Louis. 
1355  Frederic  III. 
1377  Maria  of  Arragon  and  Mar- 
tin I. 

1409  Martin  II.  of  Arragon. 

1410  Blanche,  widow  of  Martin  I. 
1412  Ferdinand  of  Arragon. 
1416  Alfonso  I.  of  Arragon. 

1458  John  I.  of  Arragon. 
1479-1504  Ferdinand  III.  of  Arra- 
gon, the  Catholic. 

Kings  of  Naples 

1282  Charles  I.  of  Anjou. 

1285  Charles  II. 

1309  Robert,  brother. 

1343  Joanna,    m.    (i)    Andrew    of 

Hungary,  (2)  Louis  of  Tar- 


1381  Charles  III.  of  Durazzo. 

1382  Louis  I.  of  Anjou. 
1386  Louis  II.  of  Anjou. 

Ladislas  of  Hungary. 

1414  Jeanne    II.   and  Jacques   de 

1417  Louis  III. 
1433  Alfonso  I.  of  Arragon. 
1438  Rene". 
1458  Ferdinand  I.  of  Arragon. 

1494  Alfonso  II.  of  Arragon. 

1495  Ferdinand  II.,  Louis  XII.  of 


1496  Frederic  III. 

1501   Francis  I.  of  France. 

Kings  of  the  Two  Sicilies 

1504  Ferdinand  the  Catholic. 
1516  Charles  V.  of  Spain. 
1536  Philip  II.  of  Spain. 

1598  Philip  III.  of  Spain. 
1621  Philip  IV.  of  Spain. 
1655  Charles  II. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         275 

1701  Philip  V.  of  Spain. 

1707  Charles  VI.  of  Germany. 

1735  Charles  III. 

1759  Ferdinand  I. 

1806  Joseph  Napoleon. 

1808  Joachim  Murat. 
1815  Ferdinand  I.  again. 
1825  Francis  I. 
1830  Ferdinand  II.,  Bomba. 
1859-60  Francis  II. 

Dukes  of  Salerno 

840  Siconulphus. 
851   Sigo  II. 
853  Ademar. 
86 1   Waiferius. 
880  Waimar  I. 

899  Atenulfus.     Atn.  or  Ad.  Pri. 

900  Waimar  II. 

933  Gisulf  I.     Gisvlfvs. 

978  Pandulfus  I.,  Prince  of  Capua. 

981   Pandulfus  II. 

Manso,  Duke  of  Amalfi. 

983  Johannes. 

994  Waimar  III. 
1030  Waimar  IV. 
1052-77  Gisulf  III.  Gisvlfus  Prices. 


Sovereigns  of  France 

987  Hugues  Capet. 

996  Robert. 
1031   Henri  I. 
1060  Philippe  I. 
1108  Louis  VI. 
1137  Louis  VII. 
1180-1123  Philippe  II.  Auguste. 
1223  Louis  VIII. 
1226  Louis  IX. 
1270  Philippe  III.,  le  Hardi. 
1285  Philippe  IV.,  le  Bel. 
1314  Louis  X.,  le  Hutin. 
1316  Philippe  V.,  le  Long. 
1322  Charles  IV.,  le  Bel. 
1328  Philippe  VI.,  de  Valois. 
1350  Jean  II.,  le  Bon. 
1364  Charles  V. 
1380  Charles  VI. 
1422  Charles  VII. 
1461   Louis  XL 
1483  Charles  VIII. 
1498  Louis  XII. 

1515  Francois  I. 
1547  Henri  II. 

1559  Fran9ois  II. 

1560  Charles  IX. 
1514  Henri  III. 

Charles  X.,  Cardinal  de  Bour- 

1589  Henri  IV. 
1610  Louis  XIII. 
1643  Louis  XIV. 
1715  Louis  XV. 
1774  Louis  XVI. 
1792-1804  First  Republic. 
1804  Napoleon  I.,  emperor. 
1815  Louis  XVI 1 1. 
1824  Charles  X. 
1830  Louis  Philippe  I. 
1848  Second  Republic. 

1851  Louis    Napoleon    Bonaparte, 


1852  Second  Empire. 
1870-93  Third  Republic. 

276  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Anglo-Gallic  Princes  who  struck  money  in  France 
,  151-1202  jEleonored'Aquitaine. 

1189-99  Richard  Cceur-de-Lion. 
1216-72  Henry  III.,  Duke  of  Aquitaine. 
^Edward  I. 

Edward  II. 

Edward  III. 


Edward  the  Black  Prince. 

Henry  Plantagenet,  Earl  of  Derby,  etc.,  1347-51. 
John  of  Gaunt. 

'377-99  Richard  II. 
/-Henry  IV. 

Henry  V. 
1399-1460^  Henry  VI. 

John  Plantagenet,  Duke  of  Bedford,  Regent  of  France,  ob. 

I     1435- 

.'.  The  last  point  actually  retained  was  Calais,  lost  in  1558.     But  the  Kings  of 
England  were  titular  Kings  of  France  till  1813. 

Comtes  d'Angouleme 

839  Turpion,  brother  of  Bernard, 
Comte  de  Poitiers,  Comte 
d'Angouleme  and  de  Peri- 

863  Emenon  or  Imon,  brother. 

866  Wulgrin. 

886  Alduin. 

Guillaume,    Comte    de    Peri- 

916  Guillaume  I.,  Taillefer,  Comte 

962  Arnaud  Buration,  Comte  de 
Perigord  and  d'Angouleme. 

975  Arnaud  Manzer,  Comte  de 
Perigord  and  d'Angouleme. 

1001  Guillaume  Taillefer  II. 

1028  Alduin  II. 

1033  Geoffroi  Taillefer. 

1048  Foulques  Taillefer. 

1089  Guillaume  III.,  Taillefer. 

1 1 20  Wulgrin  II.,  Taillefer. 

1140  Guillaume  IV.,  Taillefer. 

1178  Wulgrin  III.,  Taillefer. 

1181  Mathilde,  with  her  uncles, 
Guillaume  V.  Taillefer  and 

Vicomtes,  Comtes,  and  Dues  d'Anjou 

879  Ingelger. 
899  Foulques  I.,  le  Roux. 
940  Foulques  II.,  le  Bon. 
962  Geoffroi  I.,  Grisegonelle. 
987  Foulques  III.,  le  Noir. 
1040  Geoffroi    II.,    Martel.      Gos- 

fridvs  Cos. 

1060  Geoffroi     III.,     le      Barbu, 

1069  Foulques  IV.,  le  Rechin, 

1 109  Foulques  V.,  King  of  Jerusa- 

1129  Geoffroi  IV.,  Plantagenet, 
Comte  d'Anjou,  etc. 

1151   Henry  II.,  King  of  England. 

1189  Richard,  King  of  England. 

11 99  John,  King  of  England. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  Eiiropean  Rulers  277 

1202  Philippe     II.     Auguste,     by  1434  Rene",  brother. 

sequestration.  1480  Charles  IV.,  King  of  Naples, 

1246  Charles  I.  de  France,  eighth  cousin. 

son  of  Louis  VIII.  1481  Reunion  to  the  Crown. 

1285  Charles  II.  de  France,  King  Henri,    Due    d'Anjou,    after- 

of  Naples.  wards  Henri  III. 

1290  Marguerite       d'Anjou       and  1576  FranQois,  Due  d'Alengon. 

Charles  de  Valois.  Philippe  d'Orleans,  brother  of 

1325  Reunion    to    the    Crown    by  Louis  XIV. 

Philippe.  1668  Philippe   de    France,  son   of 

1356  Louis    I.    of  France,    son    of  Louis  XIV. 

Jean  de  Valois,  and  King  of  1672  Louis    Franqois    de    France, 

Naples.  son  of  Louis  XIV. 

1384  Louis  II.   of  France,  son  of  Philip  V.,  King  of  Spain. 

Jean  de  Valois,  and  King  of  1710  Louis  XV.,  afterwards  King 

Naples.  of  France. 

1417  Louis  III.  of  France,  son  of  1790  Louis  Stanislas  Xavier,  after- 
Jean  de  Valois,  and  King  of  wards  Louis  XVIII. 


(i.)  Kings  of  Aquitaine 

630  Caribert,  King  of  Aquitaine,  son  of  Clotaire  II.     Charibertvs. 

631  Ilde"ric  or  Chilperic,  King  of  Toulouse,  died  in  632. 

636  Boggis  and  Bertrand,  brothers  of  preceding,  recognised  Dukes  of 

Aquitaine,  of  Toulouse,  and  of  Gascony  by  Dagobert. 
688  Eudes,  Duke  of  Toulouse  and  of  Gascony,  son  of  Boggis. 

(ii.)  Kings  of  Aquitaine 

781   Louis  I.,  son  of  Charlemagne,  afterwards  known  as  Louis  le  De"bon- 


814  Pepin  I.  contests  the  crown  with  Charles  le  Chauve. 
839  Pepin  II. 

855  Charles,  second  son  of  Charles  le  Chauve. 
867  Louis  II.,  le  Begue. 

. ' .  Aquitaine  united  to  France. 

(iii.)  Dukes  of  Aquitaine, 

845  Rainulf  I.,  Comte  de  Poitou.  932  Raimond    Pons,    Comte     de 
880  Rainulf  1 1.  Toulouse  &  d'Auvergne. 

893  Guillaume,      Comte      d'Au-  951   Guillaume  III. 

vergne.  963  Guillaume  IV. 

918  Guillaume  II.  990  Guillaume  V. 

926  Acfred,  Comte  d'Auvergne  &  1029  Guillaume  VI. 

de  Velay.  1038  Eudes. 

928  Ebles     Manzer,     Comte    de  1039  Guillaume  VII. 

Poitou,         Auvergne,         &  1058  Guillaume  VIII. 

Limousin.  1087  Guillaume  IX. 


The  Coins  of  Eiiropc 

1127  Guillaume  X.,  Count  of  Poi- 
tou,  Limousin,  Saintonges, 
and  Gascogne. 

1137  Eleonore      d'Aquitaine,      ;;/. 

(1)  Louis  VII.    of  France; 

(2)  Henry  II.  of  England. 
1169  Richard  I.  of  England. 
1196  Otto  of  Brunswick. 

1199  John  I.  of  England. 
1216  Henry  III.  of  England. 

1272  Edward  I.  of  England. 
1307  Edward  II.  of  England. 
1327  Edward  III.  of  England. 
1 362  Edward  IV.,  the  Black  Prince. 
1377  Richard  II.  of  England. 
1399  Henry  IV.  of  England. 
1413  Henry  V.  of  England. 
1422  Henry  VI.  of  England. 
1469-74  Charles,  brother  of  Louis 

Comics  &  Dauphins  (PAuvergnc 

819  Warin. 

839  Geraud,  son-in-law  of  Pepin,  King  of  Aquitaine. 

841   Guillaume  I.,  father  of  Geraud. 

846  Bernard  I. 

858  Guillaume  II. 

862  Etienne. 

864  Bernard  Plantevelue. 

886  Guillaume  III.,  first  hereditary  Count,  Duke  of  Aquitaine. 

918  Guillaume  IV.,  son  of  Acfred,  Comte  de  Carcassonne. 

926  Acfred,  brother. 

928  Ebles,  Comte  de  Poitiers. 

932  Raymond  Pons,  Comte  de  Toulouse. 

951  Guillaume  Tcte  d'Ktoupe,  Comte  de  Poitiers. 

963  Guillaume  III.,  Taillefer,  Comte  de  Toulouse  &  Pons,  son. 

979  Gui,  son  of  Robert  II.,  Vicomte  d'Auvergne. 

989  Guillaume  IV.,  brother. 


1145  Guillaume  le  Jeune. 

1169  Robert,  Comte  de  Clermont. 

1234  Guillaume. 

1246  Robert  II. 

1262  Robert  III. 

1282  Robert  IV. 

1324  Jean  Dauphinet. 

1351   Beraud  I. 

1356  Beraud II.,  le  Comte  Camus. 

1400  Beraud  III.,  Comte  de  Cler- 
mont &  de  Sancerre. 

1426  Jeanne,  m.  Louis  de  Bourbon, 
Comte  de  Montpensier. 

1436  Louis  de  Bourbon  alone. 

1486  Gilbert  de  Bourbon. 

1496  Louis  II.  de  Bourbon. 

1501  Charles,  Due  de  Bourbon, 

1527  The  King  of  France. 

1582  Francois  de  Bourbon,  son  of 
Louis  II. 

1602  Henri  de  Bourbon. 

1608  Marie  de  Bourbon  Mont- 
pensier, m.  Jean  Baptiste 
Gaston,  Due  d'Orleans. 

1617  Anne  Marie  Louise  d'Or- 
leans, Mademoiselle  de 


1155  Guillaume  VIII.,  le  Vieux. 
1184  Robert  IV. 

1194  Guillaume  IX. 

1195  Gui  II.,  brother. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         279 

1224  Guillaume  X. 

1247  Robert  V.,  Comte  d'Auvergne 

&  de  Boulogne. 
1277  Guillaume  XI. 
1279  Robert  VI.,  brother. 
1314  Robert  VII. 
1326  Guillaume  XII. 
1332  Jeanne,  in.  Philippe  de  Bour- 


1360  Philippe   le   Hardi,    Due   de 


1361  Jean  L,  great-uncle. 
1386  Jean  II. 

1394  Jeanne    II.,    m.    Jean,    Due 
de  Berri. 

1422  Marie      de      Boulogne,      m. 

Bertrand,    Seigneur    de    la 


1437  Bertrand  I.,  de  la  Tour. 
1461   Bertrand  II. 
1494  Jean  III. 
1501  Anne,  m.  John  Stuart,  Duke 

of  Albany. 
1524  Catherine  de'  Medici,  wife  of 

Henri  II.  of  France. 
1589  Charles  de  Valois. 
1606  Marguerite  de  Valois. 

Louis,    Dauphin,    afterwards 

Louis  XIII. 

951  Frederic  d'Ardennes. 
984  Thierri  I. 
1024  Frederic  II. 

1034  Sophie  de  Bar,  and  Louis, 
Comte  de  Mousson  and 

1093  Thierri  II.,  Comte  de  Mous- 
son, Montbeliard,  Bar,  and 

1104  Thierri  III.,  Comte  de  Mont- 

beliard, Bar,  and  Verdun. 

1105  Renaud  I.,  brother,  Comte  de 

Montbeliard  and  Bar. 
1150  Renaud  II. 
1170  Henri  I. 

1191  Thibaut  I.,  brother. 
1214  Henri  II.     Henricvs  Comes. 
1240  Thibaut  II. 
1296  Henri  III. 
1302  Edouard  I.     Ed.  Comes. 
1337  Henri  IV.     H.  Comes  Barri. 
1344  Edouard  II.  and  his  mother, 
Yolande  of  Flanders,  regent. 
1352  Robert,  first  DUKE  OF  BAR 


1411  Edouard  III. 
1414  Louis,  cardinal.      Lvdovicvs 

1419  Rend  d'Anjou,  first  DUKE  OF 

LORRAINE  AND  BAR  (1431). 

Comtes  dc  Blots 

1218  Marguerite,  eldest  daughter  of  Thibaut  V.  and  her  third  husband, 

Gauthier  d'Avesnes. 

1230  Marie  de  Chatillon,  m.  Hugues  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de  Saint-Pol. 
1241  Jean  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de  Blois  and  Chartres. 
1279  Jeanne  de  Chatillon,  m.  Pierre,  Comte  d'Alenc_on. 
1292  Hugues  de  Chatillon,  cousin-german.     H.  Comes. 
1307  Gui,  Comte   de    Blois   and    Dunois,   Seigneur  d'Avesnes.      Gvido 


1342  Louis  I.,  Comte  de  Blois  and  Dunois. 
1361   Louis  II. 
1372  Jean  II.,  brother. 
1381   Gui    II.,    brother,    sold    Blois   and    Dunois    in    1391    to   the    Due 


1407  Charles  d'Orleans. 
1466  Louis  d'Orleans,  afterwards  Louis  XII. 
1498  Reunion  with  the  Crown. 

280  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Counts  of  Boulogne 

88-  Hennequin,  nephew  of  Baldwin  le  Chauve,  Count  of  Flanders. 
882  Regnier. 

896  Erkenzer. 

89-  Baldwin  le  Chauve. 
918  Adolphe,  second  son. 

933  Arnould,  Count  of  Flanders,  brother. 

965  Ernicule  or  Le  Petit  Arnould,  son  of  Guillaume,  Count  of  Ponthieu. 

973  Gui  a  la  Barbe  Blanche. 

97-  Baldwin  II. 
1046  Eustache  I. 
1049  Eustache  II.,  a  1'CEil. 
1095  Eustache  III.  aux  Grenons.     Evstachivs. 
1125   Mahaut  de  Boulogne,  in.  Etienne  de  Blois. 
1 150  Eustache  IV. 

1153  Guillaume  II.,  brother.      Wilhelmvs. 

1159  Marie,  sister  of  the  two  former,  in.  Matthieu  d' Alsace.     Mathevs. 
1173  Ide  d' Alsace,  ;;/.  four  times. 

1216  Mahaut  de  Dammartin,  HI.  Philippe  Hurepel,  son  of  Philip  Augustus. 
1260  Marie,  widow  of  the  Emperor  Otho  IV.,  etc.     The  fief  eventually 
passed  to  Robert  VI.,  Comte  d'Auvergne. 

Sires,  Barons,  and  Dues  de  Bourbon 

916  Aimar,  Sire  de  Bourbon.  1262  Agnes,     sister     of     Mahaut, 
944  Aimon  I.,  son.  ;;/.  Jean  de  Bourgogne. 

980  Archambaud  I.  1287  Beatrix    de    Bourgogne,    m. 

1034  Archambaud  II.  Robert  de  France,  Comte  de 

1078  Archambaud  III.  Clermont. 

1104  Archambaud  IV.  1310  Louis  I.,  first  Due  de  Bourbon. 

1105  Aimon   II.,  brother  of  Arch-  1342  Pierre  I. 

ambaud  III.  1356  Louis  II. 

1116  Archambaud  V.,  brother.  1410  Jean  I. 

1171   Mahaut    I.,    m.    (i)    Gautier  1434  Charles  I. 

de  Vienne  ;    (2)  Gui  II.  de  1456  Jean  II. 

Dampierre.  1488  Pierre  II. 

1215  Archambaud   VI.    de   Dam-  1505  Susanne      de      France,     in. 

pierre.  Charles  II.  de  Bourbon. 

1242  Archambaud  VII.  1527  Confiscated  to  the  Crown. 

1249  Mahaut    II.    de    Dampierre,  1651   Louis  II.,  Prince  de  Conde", 

m.  Eudes  de  Bourgogne.  byexchange  with  LouisXIV. 

for  Albretand  other  domains. 

Kings,  Counts,  and  Dukes  of  Brittany 

843  Nomenoe",  King  of  Brittany.          874  Pasquiten,  Comte  de  Vannes. 
851  Erispoe",  King  of  Brittany.  877  Gurrand,  Comte  de  Rennes. 

857  Salomon,  King  of  Brittany.  Alan  I.,  Comte  de  Vannes. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         281 

907  Interregnum.     The  Norman 


937  Alan  II.,  Barbetorte,  grand- 
son of  Alan  I. 
952  Drogo,  son  of  Alan  II. 
980  Suerech,    Bishop  of  Nantes, 

son  of  Alan  II. 
985  Hoel  I.,  natural  brother. 
987  Conan    le    Tors,    Comte    de 


992  Geoffroi  I.,  son,  Comte  de 
Rennes  and  Duke  of  the 

1008  Alan   III.,  Duke  of  the  Bre- 
tons.    Alai.  Rix. 

1040  Conan  II.  ;  his  uncle,  Eudes 
de     Penthievre,      guardian. 
Conanvs  Comes. 
1066  Havoise,  sister,  m.  Hoel  II., 

Comte  de  Cornouaille. 
1084-85  Geoffroi     II.,     Comte    de 

Rennes.     Gavfridvs. 
Alan  IV.,   Fergent.     Alanvs 


1 1 12  Conan  III.,  le  Gros. 
1148  Hoel  III.      Berthe,  sister,  m. 
Eudon,  Comte  de   Porhoet. 
Rvdo  Dvx. 
1156  Geoffroi      III.,      Comte      de 


Conan  IV.,  le  Noir. 
1169  Geoffroi  IV.  of  England. 
1181-1201   Constance.       Arthur  I., 

1203  Gui    de    Thouars,    guardian 

and  regent  for  his  daughter 

1206  Brittany     seized    by     Philip 

1213  Alix  de   Bretagne,  m.  Pierre 

Manclerc  de  Dreux. 
1237  Jean  I.,  le  Roux.      Johannes 


1286  Jean  II. 
1305  Arthur  II. 
1312  Jean  III.  le  Bon. 
1341  Jean  de  Bretagne,  Comte  de 

Montfort,  contests  the  duchy 

with    Charles    de    Chatillon 

de  Blois. 

1364  Jean  IV.  de  Montfort. 
1399  Jean  V. 
1442  Francois  I. 
1450  Pierre,  brother.    Feints  Dvx. 

1457  Arthur  III.,  uncle,  Comte  de 


1458  Franjois  II. 

1488  Anne  de  Bretagne,  m.  (i) 
Charles  VIII.  ;  (2)  Louis 

1514  Claude  de  France,  m.  Fran- 
gois,  Comte  d'Angouleme, 
afterwards  Francis  I. 

1536  Francois  de  France,  dauphin. 
Henri,  brother,  afterward 
King  of  France  as  Henri 

(iv.)  Counts  and  Dukes  of  Burgundy 

915  Hugues  le  Noir,  brother  of 
Richard  le  Justicier,  Count 
and  Duke  of  Burgundy. 

923  Gislebert,  brother-in-law. 

956  Letalde  I.,  brother-in-law, 
Comte  de  B. 

969  Alberic  I.,  son,  Comte  de  B. 

975  Letalde  II.,  brother,  Comte 
de  B. 

979  Alberic  II. 

995  Otto    Guillaume,   Comte    de 

B.,  Dijon,  &  Macon. 
1027  Renaud     I.,    Comte    de    B. 

1057  Guillaume      I.,     Comte     de 

1087  Renaud  II.,  Comte  de  Bour- 

gogne  and  Vienne. 
1097  Guillaume  II.  L'Aleman. 
II —  Guillaume  II.  L'Enfant. 
1127  Renaud  III.,  Comte  de  Bour- 

gogne,  Vienne,  and  Macon. 
1 148  Beatrix,  wife  of  Frederic  Bar- 

1190  Otto  I. 
1200  Beatrix     and     Otto     II.     de 

1234  Otto  III.,  le  Jeune. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1248  Alice  de  Meran  and  Hugues 
de  Chalon. 

1279  Otto  IV.,  Count  Palatine  of 
Burgundy,  son  of  Hugues. 

1302  Robert  PEnfant. 

1315  Jeanne  I.,  sister,  and  Philip 
V.,  King  of  France. 

1330  Jeanne  II.  de  France  and 
Eudes  IV.,  Due  de  Bur- 

1347  Philippe  le  Hardi. 

1361  Marguerite  de  France, daugh- 
ter of  Philip  V.  of  France, 
and  Louis  de  Nevers. 

1382  Louis  de  Maele,  Count  of 
Flanders  and  Nevers. 

1384  Marguerite   de  Flandre   and 

Philip    II.,    Due   de    Bour- 


1404  Jean  Sans  Peur. 
1419  Philip  le  Bon. 
1467  Charles  le  Temeraire. 
1477  Marie    de     Bourgogne 

Maximilian  of  Austria. 
1482  Margaret     of    Austria 

Charles  VII. 
1493  Philippe  le  Beau,  brother  of 

1506  Margaret  of  Austria,  again, 

on  his  death. 
1530  Charles  V.,  nephew. 


Comtes  &  Vicomtes  de  Carcassonne 

(819)?  Oliba  I .  of  the  house  of  Tou- 


836  Louis  Eliganius. 
86-  Oliba  II.  and  Acfred  I. 
906  Bencion. 
908  Acfred  II. 
934  Arsinde,  spouse  of  Arnaud  de 

957  Roger  I. 
1 002  Raimond    I.       Rvmando    or 

Rami'in  Co. 

1012  Pierre  and  Guillaume,  grand- 
sons, and  Pierre  Roger  and 
Bernard,  sons,  of  Roger  I. 
1034  Raimond  Guillaume  and  two 
other  sons  of  Guill.  Rai- 


1 060  Roger  III.    Rodger  or  Roiger. 
1067  Ermengarde,       sister,        m. 

Raimond  Bernard,  Vicomte 

1070  Raimond  Berenger  I.,  Count 

of  Barcelona. 

1076  Raimond  Berenger  II. 
1083  Bernard      Atton,      Vicomte 

d'Albi  and  first  Vicomte  de 

1130  Roger    I.     Roger   Comes  or 

The   last  Vicomte  ceded 
Seneschal  of  Carcassonne. 

1150  Raymond       Trencavel       I., 

1167  Roger  II. 
1 1 94  Raymond  Roger. 
1209  Raymond  Trencavel  II. 

domain  to  the  King  of  France  through  the 

Comtes  de  Chartres  and  de  Blois 

922  Thibaut  I.,  le  Tricheur,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  and  Tours. 

978  Eudes  I.,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  Tours,  and  Meaux. 

995  Thibaut   II.,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  Tours,   Meaux,  Beauvais, 

and  Troyes. 

1004  Eudes  II.,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  Tours,  and  Champagne. 
1037  Thibaut  III.     Lost  the  C.  of  Tours  in  1044. 
1089  Etienne  or  Henri. 

1 102  Thibaut  IV.,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  and  Brie. 
1152  Thibaut  V.,  Comte  de  Blois  and  Chartres. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         283 

1191   Louis,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  and  Clermont,  etc. 

1205  Thibaut  VI.,  Comte  de  Blois,  Chartres,  and  Clermont,  etc. 

1218  Isabelle,  daughter,  Comtesse  de  Chartres. 

1249  Mahaut,  daughter,  by  the  Sire  d'Amboise. 

1269  Jean  de  Chatillon,  Comte  de  Blois. 

1279  Jeanne  de  Chatillon.     Sold  the  C.  of  Chartres  in  1286  to  Philippe  le 


1293  Charles  I.,  Comte  de  Valois,  brother  of  the  King. 
1325  Charles  II. 
1346  Reunion  with  the  Crown. 

Seigneurs  of  Dombcs 

13 —  Humbert  VII.,  Sire  de  Thoire  and  Villars. 

1402  Louis  II.,  Due  de  Bourbon. 

1410  Jean  I. 

1434  Charles,  Due  de  Bourbon. 

1459  Jean  II.,  Due  de  Bourbon.    Johs. 

1475  Pierre  II.,  Due  de  Bourbon  and  Comte  de  Clermont.     Petrus. 

1503  Susanne  de  Bourbon,  wife  of  Charles  de  Bourbon,  Comte  de  Mont- 

pensier  and  Dauphin  d'Auvergne. 
1523  Francois  I.,  King  of  France. 
1560  Louise  II.  de  Bourbon,  Due  de  Montpensier. 
1582  Francois  de  Bourbon,  Due  de  Montpensier. 
1592  Henri  de  Bourbon,  Due  de  Montpensier. 
1608  Marie  de  Montpensier  and  Gaston  d'Orleans. 
1627  Gaston  d'Orleans,  beneficiary  Prince  of  Dombes. 
1650  Anne  Marie  Louise  d'Orleans  (Mademoiselle). 

Counts  of  Dren.r 

1137  Robert  I.,  by  gift  of  Louis  le       1309  Robert  V.     Robertvs. 

Gros  his  father.  1329  Jean  III.,  brother. 

1184  Robert  II.  1331   Pierre,  brother. 

1218  Robert  III.  1345  Jeanne  I. 

1234  Jean  I.,  and  his  mother  Eleo-       1346  Jeanne      II.,     aunt,     second 

nore  de  Saint  Valery.  daughter     of  Jean    II.,    ;//. 

1249  Robert  IV.  Louis,  Vicomte  de  Thouars. 

1282  Jean  II.  1355  Simon  de  Thouars. 

1365  Peronelle  and  Marguerite  de  Thouars,  coparceners  in  the  fief,  which 
they  sold  in  1377-78  to  Charles  VI.  The  latter  conferred  it  on 
the  house  of  Albret. 

Comtes  de  Foix 

1012  Bernard  Roger,  second  son  of      1038  Roger  I. 

Roger   I.,  Count  of  Carcas-       1064  Pierre,  brother, 
sonne.  1070  Roger  II. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1125  Roger  III. 

1149  Roger  Bernard  I. 

1 1 88  Raymond  Roger. 

1223  Roger  Bernard  II. 

1241   Roger  IV. 

1265  Roger  Bernard  III. 

1302  Gaston  I. 

1315  Gaston  II. 

1343  Gaston  III.  Phebus. 
1391   Matthieu  de  Castelbon. 
1398'  Isabelle,  sister,  m.  Archam- 

baud  de  Grailli. 
1412  (?)  Jean  de  Grailli. 
1436  Gaston  IV. 
1470  Francois  Phebus,  afterwards 

King  of  Navarre. 

(i.)    Dukes  of  Basse- Lorraine 

959  Godefroi  I.,  created  duke  by 

Otho  I. 

964  Godefroi  II. 
976  Charles,  brother  of  Lothair, 

King  of  France. 
992  Otho. 
1006  Godefroi     III.     of    Eename. 


1023  Gothelon     I.,     his     brother. 

Goaelo  Dvx. 

1043  Godefroi  IV.     Godefridivs. 
1048  Godefroi  V. 
Godefroi  VI. 
1095-1140  Godefroi  VII. 

(ii.)  Dukes  of  Lorraine 


1 176 





Gerard  d' Alsace.     Gcrardvs. 
Thierri.     Deodericvs. 
Simon  I.     Simon  Dvx. 
Matthieu  I.     Ma/ius. 
95   Berthe  de  Souabe,  widow 

and  regent,  with  Simon   11. 

Berta.     S. 
Ferri  I.  de  Bicht. 
Ferri  II.     F.  Dvx  Lotor. 
Thibaut  I. 
Matthieu  II.     M. 
Ferri  III. 

Thibaut  II.     T.  Dvx. 
Ferri    IV.     F.    Dvx  or  Fer- 

Gauchet  de  Chatillon,  Comte 

de  Porcien.     G.  Comes  Par. 
Raoul.     R.  or  Radulphvs. 
Marie   de    Blois,  widow  and 

regent,  and  Jean  I.  Johannes. 

Dvx  Marchio. 
Charles   II.      Karolvs.     An- 

toine  de   Vaudemont,  com- 
petitor.    Anthonivs. 

1431  Rend  I.  of  Anjou,  FIRST 
BAR.  Rcnat^>s. 

1453  Jean  II.  d'Anjou. 

1470  Nicole  d'Anjou. 

1473  Rend  II.  de  Lorraine- Vaude- 
mont. Renatvs. 

1 508  Anthoine.  Ant/ton,  or  An- 

1544  Francois  I.     Franciscvs. 

1545  Nicole   de    Lorraine,  regent. 

Nico.  C.    Vavd.  A  dm.  Loth. 


1555  Charles  III.     Caro. 
1608  Henri. 

1624  Charles  IV.  and  Nicole. 

1625  Francois  II. 

1626  Charles  IV. 
Nicole  Francois. 

1634-43  French  occupation. 
1638  Charles  IV.  again. 
1675  Charles  V. 
1690  Leopold. 
1729  Francois  III. 

Counts  of  Louvain,  afterwards  Dukes  of  Brabant 

1015  Henri  the  Old  or  the  Elder. 

1038  Otho. 

1040  Lambert  II.  Balderic. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Riders         285 

1062  Henri  II. 

1075  Henri  III. 

1095  Godefroi  I. 

1140  Godefroi  II. 

1143  Godefroi  III.     Godefridvs. 

1190  Henri      I.,     le     Guerroyeur. 

Henc.  or  Hainricvs. 
1235  Henri  II. 
1248  Henri  III. 
1272  Jean  I.     /.  or  Johannes. 
1294  Jean  II.     Johannes. 
1312  Jean  III.     lohis. 
1355  Jeanne    of   Brabant,    m.    (i) 

Guillaume     III.,    Count    of 

Hainault,      (2)     Wenceslas, 
Duke  of  Luxemburgh. 

1404  Marguerite,  Duchess  of  Bur- 

gundy, niece  of  Jeanne. 

1405  Antoine  deBourgogne,  second 

son    of   Philippe   le    Hardi. 

1415  Jean  IV.     lohanes. 

1427  Philippe,  Count  of  Saint-Pol, 
Ligny,     Limburg,    Brabant, 
and  Luxemburgh.     Phs. 
,  1430  Philippe  le  Bon,  Duke  of  Bur- 
gundy.    Phs.  Dvx  Burg. 

Bishops  of  Metz,  Marsal,  and  Epinal 

929  Adelberon  I.     Addbero. 
964  Thierri  I.     Deoderic. 
984  Adelberon  II.     Adelbero. 

1006  Thierri  II.     Deodericvs.* 

1047  Adelberon  III.     Adelbero. 

1073  Heriman.     Herimannd. 

1090  Poppo.     Poppo. 

1103  Adalberon  IV.     Adalbero. 

1 1 1 8  Theodgere. 

1120  Etienne  de  Bar.     Stcphanvs. 

1164  Thierri  III.     Teoderic\ 

1171  Frederic   de   Pluvoise.     Fri- 

1173  Thierri  IV.      Teoderic1. 

1 1 80  Bertrand.     Bertranri. 

1213  Conrad    I.    of   Scharpeneck. 

1224  Jean  I.  d'Apremont.     Johan- 

1239  Jacques  de  Lorraine.  Jacobus. 

1261   Philippe  de  Floranges. 

1265  Guillaume  de  Traisnel. 

1270  Laurent. 

1280  Jean  II.  de  Flandre. 

1282  Bouchard   d'Avesnes.      Bov- 

1297  Gerard  de  Relanges.      lerad 
or  Ge. 

1302  Renaud  de  Bar.     R.  or  Rena. 

1318  Henri  Dauphin. 

1325  Louis  de  Poictiers. 

1327  Ademar   de    Monthil.      Ade- 


1361  Jean  III.  de  Vienne.     JoKes. 
1365  Thierri  V.  de  Boppart.     The- 


1383  Pierre  de  Luxembourg. 
1388  Raoul      de     Coucy.        Rad'. 

1416  Conrad    Bayer    de    Boppart. 


1459  Georges  de  Bade. 
1484  Henri  de  Lorraine. 
1505  Jean    IV.   de    Lorraine.      Jo. 


1550  Nicolas  de  Lorraine. 
Charles  de  Lorraine. 

1551  Robert  de   Lenencourt.     Ro- 

bertas Card'. 

1555  Francois  de  Beaucaire. 
1568  Louis  de  Lorraine. 
1578  Charles     II.,     de     Lorraine. 

Carol.  Card. 

1608  Anne  D'Escars  de  Givry. 
1612  Henri  de  Verneuil.     [Vicar.] 


Master- Sheriffs  of  Met 2  who  have  struck  money 

1 562-67  Jean  le  Braconnier. 
1577-88  Wiriat  Copere. 

1588-1605  Jacques  Praillon. 
1600-1  Claude  Noblet. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

1 60 1 -8  Jean  de  Villers. 

1602-9  Jean     Bertrand    de     Saint 


1602-18  Nicolas  Maguin. 
1606-7  Charles  Sartorius. 
1610-38  Absalom  Fabert. 
1620-32  Jean  Baptiste  de  Villers. 

1630-31  Isaac  Bague. 

1633-40  Philippe  Praillon. 

1640-41  Adrien  de  Bonnefoi. 

1641-48  Henri  de  Gournay. 

1648-59  Nicholas  Auburtin  (eche- 


1659-63  Francois  Fabert. 

Vicomtcs  de  Narbonnc 

78-  Milon.     Milo.  1192 

802  Cixilane.  1 194 

851  Alaric  and  Francon  I.  1239 

878  Lindoin.  1270 

Mayeul.  1298 

911   Gaucher  and  Alberic.  1328 

Francon  II.  1336 

924  Odo  and  Wlerad.  1341 

933  Matfred.  1388 

966  Raimond  I.     Raitnvnd.  1397 

1023  Raimond   Berenger.     Beren-  1424 

1067  Raimond    II.,    Bernard,   and 

Pierre.  1447 

1080  Aimery,  son  of  Bernard.    Eij-  1472 

mericus.  \  500 
1 105  Aimery  II. 
U34Alphonse    Jourdain,     Comte 

de  Toulouse.     Anfos.  Di>. 
1143  Ermengarde,      daughter      of 
Aimery  II. 

Pierre  de  Lara,  nephew. 

Aimery  III.     Aimericvs. 

Amaury  I.     Almaricvs. 

Aimery  IV. 

Amaury  II. 

Aimery  V. 

Amaury  III. 

Amaury  IV.,  brother. 

Guillaume  I. 

Guillaume  II. 

Pierre  de  Tinieres,  called 
Guillaume  III.,  uterine 

Gaston  I.,  Comte  de  Foix. 

Jean  de  Foix. 

Gaston.  In  1507  the  vis- 
county  was  exchanged  with 
the  Crown  for  the  duchy  of 

Kings  of  Navarre 

8 —  Inigo-Ymenez  (Arista). 

852  Garcia  Ymenez. 

86-  Garcia  Ymenez. 

880  Fortun  Garces. 

905  Sancho  I.,  Garces. 

926  Jimeno  Garces. 

931  Garcia  I.,  Sanchez. 

970  Sancho  II.,  Garces. 

974  Garces  II. 
looo  Sancho  III.,  the  Great. 
1035  Garcia  III.,  Sanchez.   Garcia. 
1054  Sancho  IV.     Sancivs. 
1076  Sancho  V.,  Ramirez,  King  of 

1094  Pierre  I.,  King  of  Aragon. 

1 104  Alphonse.,  King  of  Aragon. 
1134  Garcie  IV.,  Ramirez,  King  of 

Navarre,    grand-nephew   of 

Sancho  IV. 
1150  Sancho  VI. 
1194  Sancho  VII.     Sand-vs. 
1234  Thibaut  I.,  Count  of  Cham- 
pagne, nephew  of  preceding. 

Tebald.  Rex. 
1253  Thibaut   II.  de  Champagne. 

Tiobald.  Rex. 
1270  Henri  I. 
1274  Jeanne   de   Champagne   and 

Philippe    le    Bel,    King    of 

France.    Johana. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Rulers         287 

1305  Louis  X.,  King  of  France. 
1316  Philippe    le    Long,    King    of 

1322  Charles     le     Bel,     King     of 

1328  Jeanne  de  France  and  Philippe 

1349  Charles  II.,  le  Mauvais,  Count 

of  Evreux.     Karol-vs. 
1387  Charles  III. 
1425  Blanche  and  Juan  II.  of  Ara- 

gon.    J.  &*  B.j  Johanes. 
1475  Eleonore,  Queen  of  Navarre  ; 

Frangois    Phdbus   de   Foix, 

grandson ;  and  Madeleine  of 
France,  mother  and  guard- 

1483  Catherine  de  Foix  and  Jean 
d'Albret.  Johanes.  Kathe- 

1512  Ferdinand  V.,  King  of  Castile. 

1516  Henri  II.  d'Albret. 

1555  Jeanne  d'Albret  and  Antoine 
de  Bourbon. 

1572  Henri  I.  de  Bourbon,  after- 
wards King  of  France. 

Comtes  &*  Dices  de  Nevers 

888  Richard  le  Justicier,  Due  de 

918  Seguin. 
943  Hugues    le    Blanc,     Due    de 

Bourgogne  &  des  Francs. 
956  Otto,  Due  de  Bourgogne. 
965  Henri. 

987  Otto  Guillaume,  Comte  de 
Bourgogne  and  de  Nevers, 

992  Mathilde,  daughter,  Comtesse 

de  Nevers,  m.  the  Seigneur 

de    Maers,    Monceaux,   and 


1028  Renaud  I.,  Comte  d'Auxerre 

and  Nevers. 
1040  Guillaume  I. 
1076  Renaud  II.,  Comte  de  Nevers. 
1089  Guillaume  II.,  son,  Count  of 
Nevers  and  (1095)  Auxerre. 
1147  Guillaume  III. 
1161  Guillaume  IV.,  Comte  d'Aux- 
erre, Nevers,  and  Tonnerre. 
Comes  Guiilm.  or  Gviimo. 
1 1 68  Gui,    brother.      Comes    Gvi- 


1175  Guillaume  V. 
1181  Agnes  de  Nevers,  m.  Pierre  de 
Courtenay.     Comes  Petrus. 
1192  \  Mahaut  de  Courtenay,  m. 
1199)       (i)      Herve     de     Donzy. 

Comes  Ervevs. 

1226  I       (2)  Gui  de  Forez.     Gvido. 
'  Comes. 

1257  Mahaut  II.  de  Bourbon, 
grand-daughter  of  preceding, 
m.  Eudes  de  Bourgogne. 
M.  Comitissa.  Odo  Comes. 

1266  Yolande  de  Bourgogne,  Com- 
tesse de  Nevers  (/.  Comi- 
tissa.} m.  (i)  Jean  Tristan  de 
France,  Comte  de  Valois 
(/.  F.  Regis.  Francie),  (2) 
Robert  deDampierre.  Rober- 
tvs  Comes. 

1296  Louis  I.  of  Flanders. 

1322  Louis  II.  of  Crecy. 

1346  Louis  III.  of  Maele. 

1384  Marguerite,  daughter,  m. 
Philip  le  Hardi,  Duke  of 

1404  Philippe  de  Bourgogne,Comte 
de  Nevers,  Due  de  Brabant, 

1415  Charles  de  Bourgogne. 

1464  Jean  de  Bourgogne,  brother. 

1491  Engilbert  de  CleVes,  grand- 

1506  Charles  I.  de  CleVes. 

1521  Francois  I.  de  Cleves,  first 
Duke  of  Nevers. 

1562  Francois  II. 

1563  Jacques,  brother. 

1564  Henriette,    sister,    ;;/.    Ludo- 

vico  Gonzaga. 
1601   Charles  II.,  Gonzaga. 
1637  Charles  III.,  Gonzaga. 

. '.  The  last  sold  all  his  French  property  in  1659  to  Cardinal  Mazarin. 


The  Coins  of  Europe 

Dukes  of  Normandy 

912  Rollo. 

927  Guillaume  I.,  Longue  Epe"e. 

943  Richard  I. 

996  Richard  II. 

1026  Richard  III. 

1027  Robert  le  Diable. 

1035  Guillaume  le  Conquerant. 
1087  Robert  II.,  Courteheuse. 
1106  Henri  I. 
1135  Etienne. 

1144  Geoffroi  le  Bel. 

1151   Henri  II. 

1189  Richard  I.,  Cceur-de-Lion. 

1 199  Jean  sans  Terre  ;  Arthur,  pre- 

1204  Philippe  Auguste,  King  of 

1361  Normandy  is  definitely  re- 
united to  the  Crown. 

Counts  and  Princes  of  Orange 

1173  Bertrand  II.,  prince  in  1178. 

1 183  Guillaume  II. 

1225  Guillaume  II.   and  Raimond 


1239  Raimond  I.  and  Guillaume  I Y. 
1248  Raimond  I.  and  Raimond  II. 
1279  Raimond  III.  and  Bertrand 

1282  Bertrand  III.   and   Raimond 

III.     Bt.wBtdi's. 
1314  Raimond  III.     A'.  Priccps. 
1340  Raimond  IV.  and  Catherine 

de  Courtrezon.  A',  de  Bavico. 
1393  Jean  I.  of  Chalon  and  Marie 

de  Baux.  Jo/is.  De.  Cabil. 
1418  Louis  de  Chalon.  Lvdvcvs. 
1470  Guillaume  V.  de  Chalon. 

Gvillm.  D.  Cab. 

1475  Jean  II.  de  Chalon.  Johs.  D. 

1502  Philibert  de  Chalon.  Phs. 
de  Cabillon. 

1530  Rene  de  Nassau,  nephew  of 

1544  Guillaume  VI.  de  Nassau- 
Dilenbourg. cousin.  Gvill.^. 

1584  Philippe  Guillaume  de  Nas- 
sau. Philip.  Gvilli. 

1618  Maurice  de  Nassau. 

1625  Frederic  Henri  de  Nassau. 

1647  Guillaume  VII.  de  Nassau. 

1650  Guillaume  VIII. 

1702  Francois  Louis  de  Bourbon- 

1717  Louis  Armand  de  Bourbon. 

1718  Louis  Francois  de  Bourbon. 

Comtcs  de  Poitou 

778  Abbon,  Comte  de  Poitiers. 
832  Ricuin  and  Bernard  I. 

838  Emenon,  brother  of  last. 

839  Rainulf  I.,  Duke  of  Aquitaine 

in  845. 

867  Bernard  II.,  son  of  Bernard  I. 
880  Rainulf  1 1.,  King  of  Aquitaine, 


893  Aimar,  son  of  Emenon. 
902  Ebles  Manzer,  son  of  Rainulf 


932  Guillaume  I.,  Tete  d'Etoupe. 
963  Guillaume    II.,  Due   d'Aqui- 


990  Guillaume  III. 
1029  Guillaume  IV. 

1038  Eudes,  brother,  Due  d'Aqui- 

taine  &  de  Gascogne. 

1039  Guillaume  V.,  brother. 

1058  Gui  Geoffroi,  called  Guillaume 

1087  Guillaume  VII. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Riders         289 

1127  Guillaume  VIII. 
1137  Eleonore      d'Aquitaine,     ;/£., 
1152,  Henry  II.  of  England. 
1169  Richard  I.  of  England. 
1 1 97-98  Otto  of  Brunswick,  nephew. 
1199  John  I.  of  England. 

1204  Reunited      to      the      French 

1241  Alphonse,   brother   of   Louis 

1271   Final  reunion  to  the  Crown. 

Counts  of  Saint- Pol 

1003  Roger. 

1067   Hugues  I.,  Candavene. 

1070  Gui    I.  and   Arnould,    Baron 

d'Ardres,    his    father-in-law 

and  guardian. 

1083  Hugues  II.,  brother  of  Gui  I. 
1130  Hugues  III.  Hvgo. 
1141  Enguerrand. 
1 1 50  Anselme,     brother.       Ansel. 


1174  Hugues  IV.     Hvgo  Comes. 
1205  Elizabeth    and    Gaucher    de 

1219  Gui  II. 

1226  (?)  Hugues  V.,  brother.  Hvgo. 
1248  Gui  III. 
1289  Hvgves  VI. 
1292  Gui  IV.,  brother.     Gvido. 
1317  Marie    de    Bretagne,    widow 

and    regent,    and    Jean    de 

1344  Gui  V.  and  Jean  de  Landas, 

his  father-in-law  and  guard- 
ian.  .  Gvido. 

1360  Mahaut,  sister  of  Gui  V.,  and 

hei     consort     Gui     VI.    de 

Luxembourg,    Seigneur    de 

1371  Waleran     de      Luxemburgh. 

1415  Jeanne  de  Luxembourg,  sister, 

and  Philippe  de  Bourgogne. 


1429  Jeanne  de  Luxembourg  alone. 
1431   Pierre    I.    de     Luxembourg, 

grandson  of  Gui  IV. 
1433  Louis. 
1476  Pierre  II. 
1482  Marie,    m.     (i)    Jacques    de 

Savoie  ;      (2)     Frangois    de 

Bourbon -Vendome. 
1495  Francois  II.  de  Bourbon. 

1545  Frangois  III. 

1546  Marie,    sister,    m.     (i)    Jean 

de   Bourbon ;     (2)   Frangois 
de      Cleves  ;      (3)      Leonor 
1601  Frangois  d'Orleans. 

House  of  Sully 

8 —  Hercenaud  de  Sully. 


99-  Hercenaut  II.  (died  before 

109-  Gilon  II.  de  Sully,  son-in-law 
of  the  Vicomte  de  Bourges. 

n —  Mahaut  de  Sully,  m.  Eudes 
Arpin,  who  became  jure 
uxoris  Vicomte  de  Bourges. 

no-  Agnes  de  Sully,  sister,  m. 
Guillaume  de  Champagne, 
Comte  de  Chartres. 

1 1 50  Eudes  Archambaud  de  Cham- 
pagne, Sire  de  Sully. 

1163  Gilon  de  Champagne. 

1177  Archambaud  II. 

1217  Henri  I. 

1252  Henry  II.,  Seigneur  de  Sully, 
Boisbelle,  and  Orval. 

1269  Jean  I. 

1281  Henri  III.,  brother,  ;//.,  c. 
1286,  the  heiress  of  Chateau- 

1285  Henri  IV.,  and  his  mother 
Marguerite  as  guardian. 

1320  Jean  II. 

1360  Louis. 

1381  Marie  de  Sully,  Dame  d'Orval, 
Chateaumeillant  and  Bois- 
belle, m.  (i)  Gui  VI.,  de 
la  Tremouilie,  (2)  Charles 
d'Albret,  Comte  de  Dreux. 


The  Coins  of  Eiirope 

Seigneurs  de  Sully 

1398  Georges  de  la  Tremouille. 

1446  Louis,  Vicomte  de  Thouars. 

1483  Louis. 

1515  Francois,  Prince  de  Talmond. 

1524  Charles,  Prince  de  Talmond. 

1541  Louis,  Due  de  Thouars. 

1577  Claude  de  la  Tremouille. 

Seigneurs  de  Boisbelle 

1415  Charles  II.,  D'Albret. 

1455  Arnaud    Amanieu     d'Albret, 

Seigneur  d'Orval. 
1463  Jean  d'Albret  d'Orval. 
1528  Marie   d'Albret,   m.    Charles 

de  Cleves,  Comte  de  Nevers. 
1538  Francois  I.  de  CleVes. 
1665  Henriette     de     Cleves,      m. 

Ludovico  Gonzaga. 
1695  Charles    Gonzaga,    Due    de 


1597  Maximilien  de  Bethune,  Seigneur  de  Sully  by  acquisition,  Prince  de 
Henrichemont  and  de  Boisbelle,  Marquis  de  Rosny,  etc.  The  great 
Minister  of  Henri  IV.  His  son  Maximilien  II.  died  vita  patris. 

1641  Maximilien  III.,  Francois,  Due  de  Sully,  Prince  de  Henrichemont 
and  Boisbelle. 

1 66 1   Maximilien  IV.  Pierre  Francois. 

1694  Maximilien  V. 

1712  Maximilien  VI.,  brother. 

Comtes  de  Toulouse 

778  Chorson  or  Torsin. 

790  Guillaume     I.,     kinsman     to 

Pepin  le  Bref. 
8 10  Raimond  Rafinel. 
818  Berenger. 

835  Bernard,  Duke  of  Septimania. 
844  Guillaume  II. 
850  Fredalon. 
852  Raimond  I.,  hereditary  Comte 

de  Toulouse. 
864  Bernard. 
875  Eudes. 
919  Raimond. 
923  Raimond  Pons. 
950  Guillaume  Taillefer.    Wilelino 

or  Gvilelnivs  Co. 
1037  Pons.     Poncio  Comes. 

1060  Guillaume  IV.    IVielmo  Come. 

1088  Raimond  IV.  de  Saint  Gillcs. 
Guillaume,  Due  d'Aquitaine. 

1 105   Bertrand. 

1 1 12  Alphonse  Jourdain. 

1114  Guillaume  le  Jeune. 

1 1 20  Alphonse  again. 

1148  Raimond  V.     Alphonse  1 1. 

1194  Raimond  VI.  Simon  and 
Amauri  de  Montfort,  com- 
petitors in  succession,  1214- 

1222  Raimond  VII. 

1249  Alphonse  de  France.  A. 
Comes,  Fil.  Reg.  Fran,  or 
A  If  vs.  Com. 

1271   Reunion  to  the  Crown. 

Comtes  and  Vicomtes  de  Turenne 

8 —  Raoul,  Comte  de  Turenne. 

897  Robert. 

Bernard,  Vicomte  de  Turenne. 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  R^llers         291 

897  Archambaud,     Vicomte     de 

Comborn,  son-in-law. 
Boson  I. 

1091   Raimond  I. 
1 1 22  Boson  II. 
II43(?)  Raimond  II. 
1191  (?)  Raimond  III. 
I2i4(?)  Raimond  IV. 
1243  Raimond     V.     Seigneur     de 

Serrieres,  brother. 
1245  Raimond  VI. 
1287  Raimond  VII. 
1304  Marguerite,       m.       Bernard, 

Comte  de  Comminges. 
1335  Jean  de  Comminges. 

1339  Cecile     de    Comminges,    m. 

James  of  Arragon. 
1350  Guillaume  Roger,  Comte  de 

Beaufort,  etc.,  by  purchase. 
1395  Raimond  Louis  de  Beaufort. 
1417  Eleonore,  sister. 
1420  Amanieu,  cousin. 

Pierre    de    Beaufort- Limueil, 

1444  Anne  de  Beaufort,    m.   Agne 

de  la  Tour. 

1490  Frangois  I.  de  la  Tour. 
1494  Antoine,  brother. 
1528  Frangois  II. 
1532  Frangois  III. 
1557  Henri  de  la  Tour,  Marechal 

de  France. 

Comtes  and  Dues  de  Vendome 

958  Bouchard  I.,  Comte  de  Ven- 
dome, Paris,  &  de  Corbeil. 

1012  Renaud,  Bishop  of  Paris,  son. 

1016  Eudes,  son  of  Landry,  Comte 
de  Nevers,  nephew. 

10 —  Bouchard  II.  and  his  mother 

10 —  Foulques  1'Oison, brother,  and 
his  mother. 

1031  Geoffroi  Martel,  Comte 
d'Anjou,  uncle,  by  purchase 
from  Adele. 

1050  Foulques  1'Oison,  again,  by 
donation  of  his  uncle 
Geoffroi,  Comte  de  Vendome. 

1066  Bouchard  III.  and  his  uncle 
Gui  de  Nevers,  guardian. 

1085  Euphrosine,  sister,  m. 
Geoffroi  Jourdain,  Sire  de 

1 102  Geoffroi  Grisegonelle. 

1136  Jean  I. 

1192  Bouchard  IV. 

1 202  Jean  II.,  grandson. 

1207  Jean  III.  de  Lavardin,  grand- 
son of  Jean  I.  leha.  or  lohan. 

1218  Jean Montoire, nephew. 
lohan.  Comes. 

1239  Pierre  de  Montoire.     Petrvs. 

1249  Bouchard  V.     Bocard. 

1271  Jean  V.    Jo /is. 

1315  Bouchard  VI.,  Seigneur  de 
Castres.  Bo.  Comes. 

1336  Jean  VI. 

1366  Bouchard  VII.  and  Jeanne 
de  Castille  his  mother, 

1374  Catherine,  sister,  m.  Jean 
de  Bourbon. 

1412  Louis  I.  de  Bourbon. 

1466  Jean  VII.  de  Bourbon. 

1478  Frangois  de  Bourbon,  Comte 
de  Saint  -  Pol  and  de 

1495  Charles  de  Bourbon,  first 
Duke  of  Vendome. 

1537  Antoine  de  Bourbon  and  de 
Vendome,  King  of  Navarre 
in  1555,  having  married 
Jeanne  D'Albret,  daughter 
and  heiress  of  Henri,  King 
of  Navarre. 

1562  Henri,  Due  de  Vendome  and 
King  of  Navarre. 

1598  Ce"sar,  natural  son  of  preced- 
ing, by  Gabrielle  d'Estrees. 

1665  Louis  II. 

1669  Louis  III.  Joseph. 

1712  Reunion  to  the  Crown  of 

The  Coins  of  Europe 


Kings  of  Leon  alone. 

1157  Fernando  II.     Fernandas. 

1 188-1230  Alfonso  IX.     Adefonsvs  or  Anfons. 

(i.)  Kings  of  Castile  alone,     (ii.)  Of  United  Spain. 










Sancho  III.     Sancivs  AV.r. 
Alfonso  VI 1 1.     Anfys. 
Henriquez  I.     Enrici's. 
Fernando  1 1 1.,  King  of  Castile 

and  Leon.     F.  AV.r. 
Alfonso  X. 

Sancho  IV.     Sanc/i.  AV.r. 
Fernando  \\. 
Alfonso  XI.   A  If  on  si's. 
Pedro  the  Cruel.     Petn's. 
Henriquez  II.     Enricvs. 
Juan  I.     John nis. 
Henriquez  III.     Enricvs. 
Juan  II.     lohancs. 
Henriquez       I\-.         Enrici's 

•68  Alfonso,  brother,  pretender 

or  rival. 
-1504  Isabel  or  Elizabeth  I.  of 

Castile,  and  Fernando  V ' .  of 

Alfonso  V.  of  Portugal.     Al- 


1504  Joanna  of  Arragon  and  Philip 

I.  of  Austria. 
1516  Carlos     I.,    King    of   Castile 

and  Arragon. 
1536  FilippoII.,   King    of  Castile 

and  Portugal. 
1598  Filippo  III.,   King  of  Castile 

and  Portugal. 
1621   Filippo  IV.,  King  of  Castile 

and  Portugal. 

1665   Carlos  II.,  King  of  Spain. 
1700  Filippo  V.  of  Anjou,  King  of 


1724  Luis.     Filippo  V.  again. 
1746  Fernando  VI. 
1759  Carlos  III. 
1788  Carlos  IV. 
1808  Fernando  VII. 
1833  Isabel  II. 
1 870  Amadeo  of  Savoy. 
1873  Republic. 
1875  Alfonso  XII. 
1885  Alfonso     XIII.    and     Maria 

Christina  of  Austria,  regent. 


Counts  and  Kings  of  Portugal 

1094  Henri  de  Bourgogne,  Count 

of  Portugal. 
1 1 12  Alfonso    I.,    Henriquez,    first 

King,  and  his  mother  Teresa 
of  Castile.  Afusi  or  Al- 

Some  Dated  Lists  of  European  Riders         293 

1185  Sancho  I.     Sancivs  Rex. 
1 2 1 1  Alfonso  1 1 .     Domini  A  Ifonsi. 
1223  Sancho      II.,     Capel.      Rex. 


1248  Alfonso  III.     Alfonsv. 
1279  Denis.     D.  or  Dio nisii  Regis. 
1325  Alfonso  IV.     A  If. 
1357  Pedro  I.     P. 
1367  Fernando  I.     Fernandas. 
1383  Joam  I.     Ihns. 
1433  Duarte  I.     Edwardvs. 
1438  Alfonso  V.     Alfonsvs  Qvinti. 
1481  Joam      II.         lohannes      or 

Johannes  Secvnd'us. 
1495  Manoel,  cousin.     Emanvel. 
1521  J  oam  III.  loas  or  loancs.  III. 
1557  .Sebastian,  grandson. 
1578  Henriquez,    son    of    Manoel. 


1580  Anthonio,  illeg.  grandson  of 


Filippo  I.  [II.  of  Spain]. 
1598  Filippo  II.  [III.  of  Spain]. 
1621   Filippo  III.  [IV.  of  Spain]. 
1640  Joam  IV.  of  Braganza. 
1656  Alfonso  VI. 
1683  Pedro  II.,  brother. 
1706  Joam  V. 
1750  Josef  I. 
1777  Pedro  III.,  brother. 
1786  Maria    Francisca    Elizabeth, 


1816  Joam  VI. 
1826  Maria  II.  Da  Gloria. 
1827-34  Don  Miguel,  pretender. 
1853  Pedro  V. 
1861   Luis  I. 
1889  Carlos. 


CONFORMABLY  with  the  principle  which  we  laid  down  and 
attempted  to  justify  in  the  Introduction,  we  now  proceed  to 
supply  a  general  synopsis,  commencing  with  Germany,  of 
the  numismatic  productions  of  the  European  continent  down 
to  the  present  time  ;  and  we  shall  endeavour  to  overlook  no 
features  of  interest  or  monuments  of  importance  in  any  of  the 
numerous  series  which  are  comprised  within  our  scheme. 
It  must  be  obvious  that  to  dwell  on  any  but  salient  and 
typical  points  and  examples  in  a  moderate  compass  is  an 
impossibility  ;  nor  can  it  be  requisite  to  bestow  much 
attention  on  coins  or  classes  of  coinage  other  than  such  as 
appeal  to  our  sympathy  under  some  definite  or  special 
aspect.  As  in  the  three  previous  divisions  of  the  under- 
taking we  have  spoken  at  considerable  length  of  the  pre- 
vailing characteristics,  sources,  and  nomenclature  of  the 
several  branches  of  this  study,  it  remains  the  leading  object 
to  group  together  in  their  geographical  sequence  particulars 
most  likely  to  be  of  service  to  the  collector  and  amateur, 
whether  desirous  of  following  the  policy  of  the  writer  or  of 
working  on  different  lines.  Within  the  limits  of  Northern 
Germany  alone,  were  we  to  go  no  farther,  we  find  abundant 
material  for  illustrating  the  progress  of  coinage,  and  an 
inexhaustible  store  of  examples  belonging  to  all  the  successive 
stages  of  the  art  from  its  rudest  infancy  :  its  gradations  of 

296  The  Coins  of  Europe 

archaic  work,  its  attainment  and  long  preservation  of  the 
highest  excellence,  and  its  gradual  decline  to  the  modern 
mechanical  and  unheroic  standard. 

The  former  distribution  of  Germany  into  circles,  long 
after  the  date  when  it  had  been  formed  into  a  separate 
kingdom  by  the  election  of  Conrad  I.  at  the  Diet  of  Worms 
in  8 1 1- 1 2,  while  to  a  large  extent  it  is  a  mere  matter  of 
history,  necessarily  governed  during  centuries,  and  through 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  most  important  period  of  our  inquiry, 
the  operations  and  incidence  of  the  coinage,  as  it  affected  the 
relationship  of  the  varying  component  parts  of  that  great 
political  fabric  to  the  Crown  and  to  each  other.  At  three 
distinct  epochs  the  entire  German  territory  was  apportioned 
into  four,  six,  and  ten  circles.  In  1387,  into  Upper  and 
Lower  Saxony  ;  the  Rhenish  Provinces  ;  Austria,  Bavaria, 
and  Suabia ;  Thuringia  and  Franconia.  In  1438  the 
divisions  were  changed  and  multiplied,  and  embraced  the 
temporal  or  ecclesiastical  sovereignties  of  Brandenburgh, 
Saxony,  Cologne,  Wurtemburg,  Salzburg,  and  Mayence.  But 
in  i  5  i  2  a  readjustment,  which  with  two  or  three  important 
exceptions  lasted  down  to  the  date  of  the  Confederation  of 
the  Rhine  under  Napoleon,  was  effected  by  the  Emperor 
Maximilian  I.,  and  the  country  constituted  thereafter  ten 
circles  :  Austria,  Bavaria,  Suabia,  Franconia,  Upper  and 
Lower  Saxony,  Westphalia,  Upper  and  Lower  Rhine,  and 
Burgundy.  The  loss  of  Burgundy,  the  erection  of  Prussia 
into  a  kingdom  in  1701,  and  the  dismemberment  of  Poland, 
were  three  agencies  which  sensibly  affected  the  balance  of 
Europe  ;  but  so  long  as  the  antique  constitutional  framework 
and  sentiment  survived,  personal  and  even  dynastic  changes 
did  not,  for  the  most  part,  interfere  with  the  internal 
organisation  of  Germany  or  of  the  German  Empire,  and  left 
matters  of  executive  detail  unmolested  ;  and  if  this  was  true 
of  the  portion  of  the  imperial  dominions  under  more  im- 
mediate central  control,  it  was  apt  to  be  more  so  of  those  at 
a  distance — of  the  Netherlands,  Italy,  and  Sicily.  The 
resistance  of  the  monetary  economy,  vocabulary,  and  general 
complexion  to  political  disturbances  and  disruptions,  contri- 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     297 

butes  to  satisfy  us  that  it  was  in  principal  measure  of 
municipal  or  other  local  origin,  even  where  the  coins  pay 
titular  homage  to  the  sovereign  or  suzerain  for  the  time 
being  ;  and  the  circumstance  is  a  fortunate  one,  since  it  has 
been  instrumental  in  preserving  a  countless  variety  of  types 
and  in  the  transmission  of  many  interesting  social  and 
popular  traits. 

The  feudal  coinage  of  Germany  and  the  rest  of  the 
Teutonic  family  may  be  considered  the  not  unnatural  result 
of  the  dismemberment  of  the  unwieldy  and  incongruous 
empire  of  Charlemagne  and  its  partition  among  several 
rulers,  of  whom  none  possessed  sufficient  power  and  weight 
to  establish  another  great  central  authority.  Charlemagne 
himself  had  begun  to  feel  the  growing  influence  of  the  larger 
territorial  proprietors,  both  clerical  and  secular,  and  had  in 
some  cases  associated  his  name  with  theirs  on  the  local 
currency  ;  but,  on  the  whole,  he  found  it  possible  to  replace 
the  lax  Merovingian  system,  by  which  coins  were  struck  at 
an  enormous  number  of  places  without  an  indication  of  any 
supreme  jurisdiction,  by  one  which  reduced  the  aggregate  of 
mints,  and  made  the  imperial  name  the  most  conspicuous 
feature  on  a  piece,  wherever  it  was  produced.  It  is  difficult 
to  determine  to  what  causes  such  a  phenomenon  may  be  due  ; 
but,  although  the  immediate  successors  of  that  great  prince 
promptly  betrayed  their  unfitness  to  fill  his  place,  it  is  not 
till  the  tenth  century  that  we  seem  to  discern  very  clearly 
the  symptoms  of  political  disintegration  so  far  as  the  coinage 
of  the  Franco-German  Empire  is  concerned,  and  find  docu- 
mentary evidence  of  the  investiture  of  a  host  of  vassals  of 
the  Crown  with  a  right  alike  politically  and  commercially 

In  treating  the  German  series  it  may  be  more  convenient 
to  follow  the  modern  classification  which  has  been  our  guide 
in  the  Catalogue  of  Mints  ;  and  we  shall  accordingly  survey 
this  and  the  other  succeeding  fields  of  research  and  material 
in  the  order  adopted  by  M.  Blanchet,  making  it  our  aim  to 
draw  attention  to  every  object  of  more  than  usual  interest 
under  each  head  from  different  points  of  view,  and  seeking 

298  The  Coins  of  Europe 

to  avoid  repetitions  of  particulars  already  furnished  in  our 
Catalogues  and  Introduction. 

It  will  probably  have  struck  the  attentive  observer  of  this 
description  of  record,  that  each  region  has  in  early  times,  and 
down  to  the  close  of  the  old  regime,  carried  and  fondly  pre- 
served on  its  coinage,  tokens  and  memorials  of  popular  be- 
lief, local  worship,  and  national  observances  and  peculiarities. 
This  is  very  true  of  Germany,  with  the  primitive  and  quaint 
symbolism,  the  intricate  heraldic  blazon,  significant  of  the 
union  or  division  of  families,  the  testimony  to  feelings  and 
pursuits,  and  the  innumerable  tributes  to  public  and  private 
occasions  which  might  have  otherwise  passed  into  oblivion, 
inscribed  on  its  multifarious  currency  during  so  many  centuries. 
The  domestic  and  social  annals  of  this  great  country  could 
not  be  written  in  the  absence  of  such  archives,  which  have 
alike  survived  paper,  parchment,  and  oral  tradition.  And  is 
not  such  the  case  with  the  whole  area  involved  in  the  present 
undertaking  ? 

The  imperial  series  of  coins  is  broken  in  its  continuity 
by  the  periodical  changes  of  dynasty.  We  have  a  rich 
assemblage  and  succession  of  money,  at  first  in  silver  or 
billon  only,  but  eventually  in  all  metals  and  denominations, 
and  in  the  lower  values,  belonging  to  the  Carlovingian, 
Saxon,  Franconian,  Suabian,  Hapsburg,  and  Hohenzollern 
lines.  Many  of  the  earlier  productions  of  the  denier  type 
have  not  only  their  points  of  numismatic  and  archaeological 
interest,  but  are  carefully  and  tastefully  engraved.  With  the 
fifteenth  century,  however,  commenced  the  best  period  of 
medallic  art,  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  some  of  the  finest 
and  most  attractive  specimens  forthcoming  from  any  part  of 
the  world. 

It  can  scarcely  be  predicated  of  any  items  in  this 
division  or  category,  when  we  have  crossed  over  into  the 
sixteenth  century,  that  they  are  extravagantly  rare ;  and  with 
a  few  exceptions,  independent  of  date,  condition  is  always  a 
more  insuperable  difficulty  and  barrier  than  the  actual 
occurrence  of  coins.  Among  the  German  imperial  thalers, 
those  of  Maximilian  I.  and  II.,  Matthias  and  Ferdinand  II., 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     299 

are  less  easily  procured,  while  those  of  Ferdinand  III., 
Leopold  I.,  Charles  VI.1  and  all  the  later  reigns  are  abundant. 
The  German  gold — the  ducat  or  florin  with  its  divisions  and 
multiples — has  a  tendency  to  grow  less  plentiful,  as  the  call 
for  it  is  extremely  limited,  and  the  heavier  values,  ascending 
to  10  ducats,  are  too  costly  to  hold  in  the  absence  of  some 
special  recommendation.  Those  of  Leopold  I.  are  among  the 
commonest  and  the  least  inviting.  The  rarest  and  most 
desirable  are,  perhaps,  the  minor  parts  of  the  gold  unit  and 
the  favourite  Hungarian  pattern.  In  the  majority  of  cases, 
where  absolute  rarity  is  an  attribute,  it  occurs  that  the  coin 
was  struck  at  an  obscure  mint  or  under  special  circumstances. 
The  continental  numismatists  and  experts  have  hitherto 
enjoyed  a  monopoly  in  the  acquaintance  with  these  niceties. 

Since  I  876  the  mints  of  the  German  Empire  have  been  : 
Berlin  (A.  or  AA.),  Hanover  (B.  or  BB.),  Frankfort-on- 
Maine  (C.  or  CC),  Munich  (D.  or  DD.),  Dresden  (E.  or  EE.), 
Stuttgart  (F.  or  FF.),  Karlsruhe  (G.  or  GG.),  Darmstadt 
(H.  or  HH.),  and  Hamburgh  (J.  or  JJ.). 

Making   Westphalia    our   starting-point,   it  is   necessary 

to  refer  to  our  Catalogues,  and  to  mention  that  in  1 179  this 

district  became  part  of  the  See  of  Cologne,  after 

Westphalia.    ,        .          .  ,        /.       ,    ,  ,  -   , 

having  formed  a  feudal  duchy,  which  determined 
in  the  person  of  Henry  the  Lion  ;  that  portions  of  it  were 
acquired  at  a  later  date  by  Prussia  ;  that  it  was  one  of  the 
Napoleonic  kingdoms  from  1 806  to  1813;  and  that  it 
then  reverted  to  its  former  rulers.  Westphalia  comprised 
the  territories  between  the  Weser,  the  Rhine,  and  the  Ems  : 
Eastphalia  (Ostphalcii]  those  between  the  Elbe  and  the 
Weser.  The  former  naturally  embraced  within  its  confines 
places  of  coinage  and  numismatic  monuments  which  recalled 
its  successive  rulers  and  numerous  feudal  subdivisions. 
The  most  conspicuous  coins  in  this  district  are  those  of 
the  Archbishops  of  Cologne,  the  Bishops  of  Paderborn  and 
Munster,  the  Abbeys  of  Corvei  and  Hervord,  the  Counts  of 
Salm,  Bronkhorst,  and  Mark,  and  the  town  of  Dortmund.  The 

1  A  \  thaler  of  this  prince,  struck  in  the  last  year  of  his  reign  (1740),  has 
been  attributed  to  the  Prague  mint,  and  is  said  to  be  scarce. 

300  The  Coins  of  Europe 

See  of  Cologne  struck  money  early  in  the  thirteenth  century, 
and  some  of  the  abbatial  pieces  date  from  the  same  period. 
In  certain  instances  there  was  a  convention  between  the 
Church  and  the  town,  and  in  others  the  latter  received  the 
privilege  of  a  mint  from  the  tenant-in-chief. 

Notice  may  be  taken  of  two  very  rare  coins  of  Walmo- 
den-Gimborn,  struck  by  Count  Ludwig,  1736-181 1,  Prince 
of  the  Holy  Roman  Empire,  and  a  natural  son  of  George  II. 
of  Great  Britain  by  the  Countess  of  Yarmouth.  They  are  a 
ducat  and  a  convention-gulden,  both  in  silver  and  of  the 
year  1802.  The  former  sold  at  the  Reinmann  sale  in  1891, 
No.  782,  for  48  marks. 

Jerome  Napoleon,  King  of  Westphalia,  1806-13,  left 
behind  him  fairly  copious  numismatic  memorials  of  his  reign. 
In  gold  we  find  pieces  of  40  franks,  1813,  20  franks,  1809, 
and  i  o  and  5  franks,  1813;  in  silver,  the  gulden  or 
|  thaler,  1808-9-10-11-12-13,  the  5 -frank  piece,  1809, 
the  convention-thaler  of  I  8  10-1  i-i  2-1  3,  and  one  of  1811 
with  Siegcn  des  Mans/cider  Berghaues  on  reverse  ;  in  base 
silver  or  billon,  the  xxiv.  marien-groschen,  the  20  and  10 
centimes  ;  and  finally,  in  copper,  the  5,  3,  2,  and  I  centimes. 
The  least  usual  in  occurrence  are  the  40  franks  in  gold  and 
the  type  of  the  |-  thaler,  with  the  unfilleted  head  to  left. 
But  none  is  common  in  fine  state. 

In  this  portion  of  the   Fatherland  we  have  to  look  for 

several  important  sources  of  coinage,  as  it  comprehends  so 

many   townships    and    governments    which    have 

Provinces    Possessed     independent     rights    and      undergone 

striking    vicissitudes.       Among    these    we     may 

specify  the  cities  of  Cologne  and  Treves,  the  town  of  Aix- 

la-Chapelle,  and  the  dukedoms  of  Berg,  Cleves,  and  Juliers, 

originally  separate  jurisdictions,  and   in  the  course  of  time 

united    under   the    Electors    of    Saxony.      Aix-la-Chapelle 

struck  some  of  the  earliest  dated  money  ;  and  in  the  early 

currency  of  the  three  duchies  will  be  found  many  examples 

remarkable  for  their  variety  and  workmanship.    The  Dukes  of 

Cleves  entered  into  a  monetary  union  in  the  sixteenth  century 

(1511)  with  other  Powers,  including  the   Duke  of  Bavaria, 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     301 

and  quartered  the  arms  of  their  associates  or  allies  on  the 
reverses.  During  the  eighteenth  and  nineteenth  centuries 
Saxony,  Prussia,  and  Bavaria  at  different  points  of  time  exer- 
cised monetary  control  in  this  region,  and  issued  landmilnz 
or  local  currency  in  stubers  or  pfennigen  for  Berg  alone  or 
Cleves  and  Berg  ;  and  the  ephemeral  grand-duchy  of  Berg 
and  kingdom  of  Westphalia,  from  1806  to  1813,  have  left 
their  footprints  or  vestiges  in  a  coinage  of  the  same  class 
under  the  auspices  of  Murat  and  of  Jerome  Napoleon.  The 
coins  of  Cologne,  emanating  from  many  sources,  added 
Sancta  to  the  name  Colonia  in  the  time  of  Charles  le  Gros. 
The  Rhenish  circle  included,  like  that  of  Westphalia,  many 
abbatial  and  other  seigniorial  seats  of  coinage,  some  of  an 
occasional  or  temporary  character,  and  a  few  which  are 
only  known  to  us  from  documentary  evidence.  Of  the 
princely  house  of  Hohenzollern,  the  two  branches  of 
Hechingen  and  Siegmaringen  formerly  exercised  monetary 
rights:  that  of  Hechingen  down  to  1804,  the  Siegmaringen 
line  to  1842.  A  very  fine  convention -thaler  exists  of 
Hermann  Frederic  Otho,  Prince  of  H — H,  with  the  first- 
named  date  and  I-L-  W-  under  the  bust.  The  Prince  sub- 
scribed to  the  monetary  treaty  of  1838. 

There  is  comparatively  little  to  remark  on   the  numis- 
matic productions  of  these  three  principalities,  of  which  all 
have  early  work,  in  the  form  of  the  sterling'  and 

IS  assau.  . 

Lippe.      denier,  to  shew.      Ihey   adopted   the    thaler   and 
Waideck.    VQ\<\   florin   or  ducat  in  due  course  ;    the  Counts 


of  Nassau- Weilburg  had  leave  to  strike  gold  in 
i  398.  The  Counts  of  Schauenburg-Lippe  possessed  a  coinage 
down  to  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century;  the  Princes 
of  Waideck  and  Dukes  of  Nassau  to  the  present  century. 
There  is  a  well -executed  and  carefully -struck  Waideck 
thaler  of  1813,  and  a  regular  series  in  all  metals  of  Nassau. 
At  several  places  in  Nassau  the  Archbishops  of  Mayence 
struck  money  ;  Hachenbuch  was  a  mint  of  the  Counts  of 
Sayn,  fifteenth  century,  and  Westerburg  of  the  Counts  of 
Leiningen-Westerburg  in  1681.  Of  the  Dukes  themselves 
the  best-known  and  principal  one  is  Wiesbaden.  The  in- 

302  The  Coins  of  Europe 

dependent  money  of  Lichtenstein    appears  to  have  ceased 
in  1778. 

There  are  bracteates  belonging  to  this  electoral  domain 

in    its  undivided  state,  and   money  of   Sophia,   Duchess  of 

Hesse-      Hesse,  daughter  of  the  Landgraf  Louis  IV.,  and  of 

Cassel.      her  son    Henry.      The  most  ancient  mint  seems 

to"  have   been    Marpurg   or    Marburg,  which    occurs  on  the 

mute  bracteates  with  the   Hessian   lion.      There  must  have 

been   a  very  extensive  coinage  from   first  to  last ;  but  the 

existing  remains  are  not  abundant  beyond  the  small  values 

in  silver  and  copper  of  the  last  and  present  century. 

The  Hessian  series  of  thalers,  at  first  of  the  Cassel 
branch  only,  seems  to  go  back  to  1502,  when  we  meet 
with  the  thaler  of  Wilhelm,  Landgraf  of  Hesse,  and  its 
divisions.  The  thaler  reads  Wilhemvs ;  D  :  G :  Lantgravivs : 
Hassie  +,  and  on  reverse  Gloria  Rei-Pvblice.  1502.  There 
is  from  this  point  of  time  to  the  present  a  continuous  series 
in  all  metals,  of  which  the  earlier  are  very  seldom  found  out 
of  Germany.  We  may  be  permitted  to  refer  to  the  Reinmann 
Catalogue,  1891-92,  for  an  extraordinarily  complete  sequence 
of  the  landgraves  and  their  money,  which  it  must  have 
occupied  a  lifetime  to  accumulate.  Hesse-Cassel  and  Hesse- 
Homburg  have  formed  part  of  Prussia  since  I  866. 

We  may  take  the  opportunity  to  note  a  thaler  of  Hedwig 
Sophia  of  Brandenburgh,  1669,  as  regent  or  guardian;  a 
piece  of  i  5  pfennigen  of  Frederic,  Landgraf  of  Hesse-Darm- 
stadt and  Cardinal-Bishop  of  Breslau,  1680,  with  the  shield 
of  arms  on  the  reverse  surmounted  by  a  cardinal's  hat  ;  a  ^ 
thaler  of  Mary,  daughter  of  George  II.  of  Great  Britain,  and 
consort  of  Frederic,  Landgraf  of  Hesse-Cassel,  1763,  as 
administratrix  of  the  county  of  Hanau,  with  her  portrait 
and  a  shield  quartered  with  the  arms  of  England  ;  and 
thalers  of  Wilhelm  IX.,  Landgraf  of  Hesse  and  Count  of 
Hanau,  1771  and  1794,  with  a  large  portrait  to  right.  The 
thaler  of  1771  reads  (obv.)  Wilhelni  D.  G.  Landg.  &  Pr. 
Her  Hass.  Com.  Han.,  and  (rev.)  Ex  Visceribvs  Fading 
Bieber.,  1771 — alluding  to. the  mines  at  Biber  in  the  district 
of  Neuvied.  Several  seigniorial  mints,  both  secular  and 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     303 

ecclesiastical,  are  found  within  the  duchy,  and  some,  of  which 
there  are  no  known  or  identified  specimens ;  the  Sees  of 
Cologne,  Mayence,  and  Paderborn  also  struck  money  at 
Amoeneberg  and  elsewhere. 

The     grand-duchy  of  Hesse-Darmstadt,  since   1866  the 

sole  remaining  sovereign    branch,    was    detached    from    the 

main    stem    in     1567,    and    the    landgraviat    of 


Darmstadt.  Hesse-Homburg   from    the    latter   in    1596.      Of 
Hesse-      both,  but  especially  of  Hesse-Homburg,  the  cur- 

Homburg.  .  .  ..  -,     r~. 

rency  transmitted  to  us  is  unusually  scanty.  1  he 
grand-duchy,  however,  embraces  many  places,  notably  May- 
ence and  Worms,  which  were  busy  and  continuous  seats 
of  coinage,  besides  a  number  of  minor  localities,  such  as 
Burg-Friedberg,  Hatzfeld,  Isenburg,  and  Oppenheim,  of 
which  we  have  interesting  numismatic  relics.  Taking 
Isenburg  as  an  illustration  of  the  intermittent  survival  of 
a  currency  which  probably  proceeded  without  interruption 
from  the  seventeenth  to  the  nineteenth  century,  it  seems 
singular  that  we  have  met  with  no  more  than  four  pieces 
connected  with  this  fief:  a  ^  thaler  of  Wolfgang  Ernst 
a  Birstein,  1618,  a  gulden  of  1676,  and  a  reichsthaler  and 
i  2-kreutzer  piece  of  I  8 1 1. 

In  the  Catalogue  of  Mints  there  is   a   perhaps   sufficient 
account  of  the  monetary  history  of  this  free  city,  now  part  of 
the  German  Empire,  but  once  the  Frankish  capital, 
anvMairi"    anc^  during  centuries  a  republic.      During  two  or 
three  years  (1810-13)  it  became  under  Carl  Von 
Dalberg  the  seat  of  a  grand-duchy,  of  which  there  are  slight 
numismatic  recollections  in  the  form  of  kreutzers  and  hallers. 
The    Margraviat,    subsequently    and    at    present    grand- 
duchy,    originally    severed    from    Hochberg    in     1190,    was 
divided    in    1517    into   the   two  branches   of 
Baden.   ^  Baden-Baden   and    Baden-Durlach,  of  which 

Baden-Baden.       the  former  became  extinct    in    1771.      The 

Durlach.  . 

coinage  is  not  very  remarkable  or  varied,  and 

1  The  late  Grand-Duke,  Louis  IV.,  who  die4  in  1892,  left  to  the  public  his 
hereditary  collection,  of  which  a  catalogue  would  certainly  be  interesting,  and 
would  greatly  add,  no  doubt,  to  our  knowledge  of  the  series. 

304  The  Coins  of  Europe 

Baden  was  till  1572  the  sole  mint.  The  territory  was 
perhaps  more  distinguished  by  the  independent  seats  of 
coinage,  such  as  Breisach,  Constanz,  Freiburg- in -Brisgau, 
Leiningen,  Mannheim  and  Ulm,  some  of  which  enjoyed  con- 
cessions long  anterior  to  that  to  the  Margraviat  in  1362. 
The  earliest  money  of  Baden  was  of  the  mute  bracteate 
type,  and  legends  do  not  occur  before  the  time  of  the 
Margraf  Christoph  (1475-1527). 

This,  one  of  the  duchies  erected  into  kingdoms  by 
Napoleon  in  1806,  was  formed  in  1496  out  of  the  count- 
ships  of  Urach  and  Neuffen.  As  a  duchy  it 
*'  dated  from  1492  ;  the  countship  of  Montbeliard 
was  incorporated  with  it  in  1631,  and  annexed  to  France 
in  1792.  The  coinage  does  not  seem  to  go  back  beyond 
the  fourteenth  century,  and  had  not  attained  much  import- 
ance till  the  fifteenth,  from  which  time  down  to  the  pre- 
sent there  is  an  unbroken  numismatic  series  in  all  metals, 
but  more  especially  silver  and  billon.  Stuttgart  was  long 
the  chief,  before  it  became  the  only  mint.  The  coins  in 
gold,  silver,  and  billon,  exhibit  the  titles  of  the  reigning 
prince  as  Count  or  Duke  of  WUrtemburg  and  Teck,  Count 
of  Montbeliard,  and  Lord  of  Heidenheim.  We  may  specify 
the  double  thaler  of  1621  of  the  Duke  Johann  Friedrich, 
with  a  four-quartered  shield,  and  notice  should  be  taken  of 
the  very  striking  stcrbdenkthaler  issued  to  commemorate 
the  death  of  the  Duchess  Elizabeth  Maria,  1686,  with  a  very 
elaborate  veiled  bust.1  There  was  no  copper  money  of 
ducal  or  regal  origin,  except  for  Montbeliard,  till  1 840. 
For  that  fief  we  have  a  4-kreutzer  piece  of  1698  and  a  Hard 
of  1715.  But  within  this  frontier,  as  elsewhere,  a  variety 
of  personages  had  mints  from  a  remote  period,  particularly 
at  Hall,  Ravensperg,  and  Rottweil  ;  by  reason,  no  doubt,  of 
the  more  limited  output,  these  feudal  issues  are  of  far  greater 
rarity  in  all  the  series  than  the  ordinary  money  of  the 
Crown.  Several  of  the  townships  struck  copper  for  local 
use  during  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries.  The 
coins  of  Frederic,  the  first  King  of  WUrtemburg,  down  to 
1  Dillon  Catalogue,  1892,  No.  473. 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     305 

1810  or  1812,  especially  the  gold,  are  scarce.  It  may  be 
of  service  to  the  collector  to  mention  the  rich  assemblage  of 
thalers  of  Wurtemburg  in  the  three  portions  of  the  Rein- 
mann  Catalogue,  1891-92.  The  numerous  mints  of  the 
Counts  of  Hohenlohe,  of  whom  there  were  different  branches 
(Neuenstein,  Langenburg,  etc.),  have  bequeathed  to  us  some 
excellent  specimens,  particularly  of  the  thaler,  not  in  the 
Reinmann  Catalogue,  during  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
small  uniface  pieces  belong  to  the  era  of  the  Thirty  Years' War. 
This  ancient  and  historical  domain,  which  existed  as  a 
duchy  from  the  sixth  century,  and  underwent  various 
modifications  and  redistributions  at  successive 

Bavaria.  .  .  .  .,  .  . 

epochs,  is  associated,  numismatically  speaking, 
with  a  long  series  of  imperial  and  ducal  coins  of  the  denier 
class,  commencing  with  the  tenth  century  and  with  an 
unusually  important  body  of  what  may  be  termed  external 
coinage,  arising,  in  the  first  place,  from  the  Palatinate  of  the 
Rhine,  and  secondly  from  numerous  seigniorial,  municipal 
or  urban  centres,  of  which  we  must  content  ourselves  with 
naming  Augsburgh,  Baireuth,  Bamberg,  Dillingen,  Fugger, 
Heidelberg,  Ingolstadt,  Kempten,  Landshut,  Leuchtenberg, 
Lindau,  Memmingen,  Miinchen  (or  Munich),  Niirnberg, 
Regensburg  (or  Ratisbon),  Spire,  and  Wiirzburg.  The  early 
rise  of  these  and  other  townships  within  the  duchy  into 
prominence  and  power  tended  to  reduce  the  electors  of 
Bavaria  to  the  rank  of  grand  feudatories  under  the  empire  ; 
and  to  the  numismatic  student  the  productions  of  the 
subordinate  mints  are  apt  to  be  of  at  least  equal  interest 
with  those  of  the  ducal  moneyers.  From  the  sixteenth 
century,  however,  the  coinage  of  the  electorate  began  to 
assume  considerable  importance  and  to  develop  great 
artistic  merit  ;  and  the  thalers  especially,  from  the  reign  of 
Albert  III.  (1550-79),  are  to  be  particularly  commended  to 
notice.  There  are  very  beautiful  examples  of  Maximilian 
Emmanuel  (1679-1726),  Carl  Theodor  (1777-99),  and 
Maximilian  Joseph  (1799-1825),  and  a  curious  series  of 
Ludwig  I.  (1825-48).  Probably  the  chefs  d'ceuvre  of  the 
Bavarian  mint  are  the  heavy  gold  piece  of  Maximilian  1. 


306  The  Coins  of  Europe 

(1596-1651),  dated  1598,  with  the  effigy  of  the  canonised 

Emperor  Henry  II.,  and  the  constitutional  thaler  of  1818, 
with  the  reverse  exhibiting  on  a  block  of  granite  the  words 
Charta  ]\Iagna  Bavaria.  The  Virgin  and  Child  type  on  the 
reverse  of  several  of  the  earlier  thalers  may  have  been  bor- 
rowed from  Hungary.1  Some  of  the  gold  money  of  Maxi- 
milian (1848-64)  was  from  the  Hartz  ore  (Ex  Auro  Rheni.\ 
and  presents  a  view  of  Munich  on  the  reverse. 

Of  the  copper  money  little  is  to  be  said  :  that  of  the 
duchy  and  kingdom  belongs  to  the  eighteenth  and  nineteenth 
centuries  only  ;  but  Wiirzburg,  Augsburgh,  Baireuth,  and  the 
Fugger  family  struck  hellers  and  kreutzers  in  the  seven- 
teenth, some  in  connection  with  the  Thirty  Years'  War. 
There  was  a  sparing  and  shy  resort  to  this  metal  char- 
acteristic of  a  majority  of  the  German  Powers  in  early  times. 
The  uniface  pieces,  which  we  encounter  between  1621  and 
1623,  are  to  be  regarded  as  money  of  necessity. 

The  several  independent  coinages  within  the  Bavarian 
territory  emulated  that  of  the  electorate  in  importance  of 
character  and  beauty  of  workmanship.  We  have  before 
us  two  rare  pieces  connected  with  Ratisbon  :  (i)  a  ^  thaler 
of  Joseph  II.  struck  here  in  1774,  vitd  matris,  with  his 
portrait  on  obverse,  and  the  cross-keys  on  the  reverse  with 
the  readings  Non  Dormit  Custos,  and  Mon.  Reip.  Ratisp. 
xx.  Eine  F.  Mark,  1774;  (2)  a  thaler  of  the  see  with  the 
shields  of  the  bishops  encircling  the  papal  type  of  St.  Peter 

1  In  the  Dillon  Catalogue,  1892,   No.  834,   the  piece  of  John  of  Leyden, 
King  of  Munich,  is  almost  certainly  a  medal. 

Descriptive  Outline  of  the  Coinages  of  Europe     307 

in  a  boat  with  the  keys  and  no  legend,  and  on  reverse  in 
eight  lines,  Regnans  Capitvlvm  Ecclesiae  Cathedralis  Ratis- 
bomnsis  Sede  Vacante,  MDCCLXXXVII.  10,  Eine  F.  Mark. 
The  shield  of  the  late  prelate  is  left  blank,  and  is  surmounted 
by  his  mitred  effigy.  There  is  also  the  episcopal  coinage  of 
Eichstadt  (Catalogue  of  Mints  in  v.}  down  to  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  It  was  struck,  however,  at  Niirnberg 
(where  there  does  not  appear  to  have  been  any  output  of 
local  municipal  money)  from  the  fifteenth  century.  The  later 
bishops  issued  some  very  handsome  pieces ;  but  the  chefd'ceuvre 
of  the  series  is  the  sede  vacante  double  thaler  of  1790. 

This  classic  and  unhappy  region,  the  theatre  of  much  of 
the  tragical   and   grim   drama  known   as  the  Thirty  Years' 

War,  after  certain   political  vicissitudes,  was  ulti- 
p  ,    .          mately  incorporated  with  Bavaria  by  the  Treaty  of 

Westphalia  (1648),  carrying  with  it  the  electoral 
title  and  dignity.  It  is  invested  with  no  slight  historical 
interest  in  the  eyes  of  Englishmen  on  account  of  the  in- 
auspicious marriage  of  Elizabeth  Stuart  with  the  Elector 
Frederic  V.  in  1613,  and  the  fortunes  of  their  children  in 
the  persons  of  Prince  Rupert  and  the  Electress  Sophia. 
The  numismatic  annals  of  the  Phalz  or  Palatinate  seem  to 
extend  from  the  fourteenth  century  to  the  union  with 
Bavaria,  and  include,  amid  a  copious  assortment  and  succes- 
sion of  lower  denominations  and  unimportant  coins,  the 
currencies  of  the  counts  in  their  several  branches,  those 
coins  struck  at  Heidelberg,  Amberg,  Neuburg,  and  elsewhere 

in  alliance  with  the  Duke  of  Bavaria  or  the  See  of  Mayence, 
and  some  interesting  examples  in  the  more  precious  metals, 
for  instance,  the  dated  gold  florin  of  1437  struck  at  Bach- 
arach.  Several  independent  coinages  were  constantly  running 

308  The  Coins  of  Europe 

parallel  with  those  of  the  electors  and  dukes  by  virtue  of 
privileges  or  concessions  accorded  to  bishops,  abbots,  towns, 
and  territorial  dignitaries  of  all  kinds  ;  and  po